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ÁÃÀ¢Âø -2  Marapiyal -2
transliteration translation and notes by  Dr K.Loganathan

3. ¦ÀñÀ¡ü ¦ÀÂ÷ : The Names of Females

1551

À¢Ê ±ý ¦Àñ¦ÀÂ÷ ¡¨É §Áü§È

pidi en peNpeyar yaanai meeRRee

The female name 'pidi' applies to the females of elephants

1552.

´ð¼¸õ ̾¢¨Ã ¸Ø¨¾ Á¨Ã­¨Å
¦À𨼠±ýÛõ ¦ÀÂ÷즸¡¨¼ì ÌâÂ

oddakam kuthirai kazuthai marai ivai
peddai ennum peyarkkodaikku uriya

The females of camel horse donkey and marai ( a kind of deer)
are given the name 'peddai'

1553.

ÒûÙõ ¯Ã¢Â «ô¦ÀÂ÷ì ¦¸ýÀ

puLLum uriya appeyarkku enpa

The females of birds are given  the same name, the scholars will say

1554.

§À¨¼Ôõ ¦À¨¼Ôõ ¿¡Êý ´ýÚõ

peedaiayum pedaiyum waadin onRum

The names 'peedai' and 'pedai' are not different in meaning

1555.

§¸¡Æ¢ ܨ¸ ¬Â¢ÃñÎ «øĨÅ
ÝØí ¸¡¨Ä «ÇÌ ±Éø «¨Á¡

koozi kuukai aayiraNdu allavai
cuuzung kaalai aLaku enal amaiyaa

Except for fowls and owls the females of others
if thought carefully, they being called 'aLaku' will not apply
 

1556.

«ô¦ÀÂ÷ì ¸¢Æ¨Á Á¢üÌõ ¯Ã¢ò§¾

appeyark kizamai mayiliRkum urittee

However the females of peacocks do have the same name.

1557.

ÒøÅ¡ö ¿ùÅ¢ ¯¨Æ§Â ¸Åâ
¦º¡øÅ¡ö ¿¡Êý À¢¨½¦ÂÉô ÀΧÁ

pulvaay navvi uzaiyee kavari
colavaay naadin piNaiyenap padumee

The deers pulvaay navvi uzai and kavari will be called piNai
if we examine the way the names are used

1558.

ÀýÈ¢ ÒøÅ¡ö ¿¡ö ±É ãýÚõ
´ýȢ ±ýÀ À¢½Å¢ý ¦ÀÂ÷¦¸¡¨¼

panRi pulvaay naay ena muunRum
onRiya enpa piNavin peyarkkodai

The females of pigs dogs and deer (pulvaay)  have the same name
in having the word 'piNai' for it.

1559.

À¢½Åø ±É¢Ûõ «ÅüÈ¢ý §Áü§È

piNaval eninum avaRRin meeRRee

Even if called 'piNaval' it means the same.
 

1560

¦ÀüÈÓõ ±Õ¨ÁÔõ Á¨ÃÔõ ¬§Å

peRRamum erumaiyum maraiyum aavee

The female of cattle buffalo and deer is called 'aa"

1561.

¦ÀñÏõ À¢½×õ Áì¸ðÌ ¯Ã¢Â

peNNum piNavum makkadku uriya

To the females of human beings the names "peN" and "piNavu" apply

1562.

±Õ¨ÁÔõ Á¨ÃÔõ ¿¡§¸

erumaiyum maraiyum naakee

The females of erumai and deer are also called 'naaku'

1563.

¿£÷Å¡ú º¡¾¢Ôû ¿óÐõ ¿¡§¸

niirvaaz caathiyuL nantum naakee

Among water-living creatures the females of snails are also called 'naaku'
 
 

1564.

ãÎõ ¸¼¨ÁÔõ ¡Π«Ä ¦ÀÈ¡

muudum kadamaiyum yaadu ala peRaa

The females of the mountain goats 'muudu' and 'kadamai' do not have a name other than 'yaadu'

1565.

À¡ðÊ ±ýÀÐ ÀýÈ¢Ôõ ¿¡Ôõ

paaddi enpathu panRiyum naayum

The name 'paaddi' applies to the females of pigs and dogs

1566.

¿Ã¢Ôõ «ü§È ¿¡ÊÉ÷ ¦¸¡Ç¢§É

nariyum aRRee naadinar koLinee

It's the same for the foxes, if you examine the practice

1567.

ÌÃíÌõ ÓÍ×õ °¸Óõ Áó¾¢

kurangkum mucuvum uukamum manti

The females of monkeys of the type kurangku, musu and uukam have the name  'manti'

1568.

ÌÃí¸¢ý ²üÈ¢¨Éì ¸ÎÅý ±ýÈÖõ
ÁÃõÀ¢ø ܨ¸¨Âì §¸¡ð¼¡ý ±ýÈÖõ
¦ºùÅ¡öì ¸¢Ç¢¨Âì ¾ò¨¾ ±ýÈÖõ
¦ÅùÅ¡ö ÅÕ¸¢¨Éô ⨺ ±ýÈÖõ
̾¢¨ÃÔû  ¬½¢¨Éî §ºÅø ±ýÈÖõ
­Õû¿¢Èô ÀýÈ¢¨Â ²Éõ ±ýÈÖõ
±Õ¨ÁÔû ¬½¢¨Éì ¸ñÊ ±ýÈÖõ
ÓÊ  Åó¾ «ùÅÆìÌ ¯ñ¨Á¢ý
¸Ê ġ¸¡ ¸¼ý «È¢ó§¾¡÷째

kurangkin eeRRaik kaduvan enRalum
marampayil kuukaiyaik kooddan  enRalum
cevvaayk kiLiyaik tattai enRalum
vevveaayk varukinaik puucai enRalum
kutiraiyuL aaNinaic ceeval enRalum
iruLniRap panRiyai eenam enRalum
erumaiyuL aaNinaik kaNdi enRalum
mudiya vanta avvazakku uNmaiyin
kadiya laakaa kadan aRintoorkkee

Since it is available as established practice , it is not to be objected by scholars who are responsible the following practices : calling the male of monkeys as 'kaduvan';  the tree-dwelling owls as 'kooddaan';  the red-beaked parrots as 'tattai';  the biting mouthed wild cat as 'puucai; the males of horses as 'ceeval';  the dark pigs as 'eenam' ; and the males of buffalo as 'kandi'
 

1569.

¦ÀñÏõ ¬Ïõ À¢û¨ÇÔõ «¨Å§Â

peNNum aaNum piLLaiyum avaiyee

Other than these the names of Females, Males and the Youngs are as above.
 

4. *ÌÓ¸¡Â ÁÃÒ The Geneology of Social Names

(* ¾¨ÄôÒ ¿¡ý ­ð¼Ð, title given by me)

1570.

á§Ä ¸Ã¸õ Ó째¡ø Á¨½§Â
¬Ôí¸¡¨Ä «ó¾½÷ìÌ ¯Ã¢Â

nuulee karakam mukkool manaiyee
aayungkaalai awthaNarkku uriya

For the antaNar type of individuals in society belongs (as things appropriate to them)
 scriptures,  a pot (for holding water) trident and a low stool.

Note: am-taN-aaL: those who have vanquished all their mundane desires and hence charming because of this endearing quality.  Hence also interest only in metaphysical learning and intsructing the ordinary people about such matters.

1571.

À¨¼Ôí ¦¸¡ÊÔí ̨¼Ôõ ÓÃÍõ
¿¨¼¿Å¢ø ÒÃÅ¢Ôí ¸Ç¢Úó §¾Õõ
¾¡Õõ ÓÊÔõ §¿÷ÅÉ À¢È×ó
¦¾Ã¢×¦¸¡û ¦ºí§¸¡ø «Ãº÷ìÌ ¯Ã¢Â

padaiyung kodiyung kudaiyum muracum
nadainavil puraviyung kaLiRun teerum
taarum mudiyum neervana piRavun
terivukoL cengkool arasarkku uriya

For the political leaders with wisdom to reign with a fine sense of Justice, the following embelishments obtain: army, a flag, an umbrella, a drum, horses with excelent gait , war elephants , chariots , garlands,  crown and all other things that come along with these

terivukoL cengkool: the sceptre that signifies the capacity to rule the country with justice
 

1572.

«ó¾½¡Ç÷ìÌ ¯Ã¢Â×õ «Ãº÷ìÌ
´ýȢ Åå¯õ ¦À¡ÕÙÁ¡÷ ¯Ç§Å

antanaaLarku uriyavum aracarkku
onRiya varuuum poruLumaar uLavee

There are many things that belong to antaNaaLar that also
accrues to the royalties.

Notes : these are  said to be those related to metaphysical learning and intructing on  that to others

1573.

À⺢ø À¡¼¡ñ ¾¢¨½ò ШÈ츢ƨÁô ¦ÀÂ÷
¦¿Î󾨸 ¦ºõÁø ±ýÈ¢¨Å À¢È×õ
¦À¡Õó¾î ¦º¡øÖ¾ø «Å÷ìÌ ¯Ã¢ò¾ý§È

paricil paadaan tiNaik tuRaik kizamaip peyar
neduntakai cemmal enRivari piRavum
poruntac collutal avarkku urittu anRee

The right to give prizes to the deserving (paricil), to be praised by way extolling the achievemnets and so forth, being called Neduntakai Cemmal and so forth are applicable to both
 

1574

«ó¾½¡Ç÷ìÌ «ÃÍ Å¨Ã Å¢ý§È

antaNaaLarkku arasu varai vinRee

kingship is not denied to antaNaaLar

1575.

°Õõ ¦ÀÂÕõ ¯¨¼¦¾¡Æ¢ü ¸ÕÅ¢Ôõ
¡Õõ º¡÷ò¾¢ «¨Å¨Š¦ÀÚ§Á

uurum peyarum udaittoziR karuviyum
yaarum caartti  avaiyavai peRumee

No matter who, people can be identified in terms of their resident cities,
special titles , special attire, vocation and the tools used there

1576.

¾¨Ä¨Áì Ì½î ¦º¡øÖõ ¾ò¾ÁìÌ ¯Ã¢Â
¿¢¨Ä¨Áì §¸üÀ ¿¢¸úòÐÀ ±ýÀ

talaimaik kuNac collum tatamakku uriya
wilaimaikku eeRpa nikazttuba enpa

The leadership qualities are disclosed in words that differ
according to the different contextual situations.

1577.

­¨¼ ­Õ Ũ¸§Â¡÷ «øÄÐ ¿¡Êý
À¨¼Å¨¸ ¦ÀÈ¡«÷ ±ýÁÉ¡÷ ÒÄÅ÷

idaivaru iru vakaiyoor allathu naadin
padaivakai peRAar enpamaar pulavar

Except for kings and business community, the other
social groups do not organise armies.

1578.

¨Åº¢¸ý ¦ÀÚ§Á Å¡½¢¸ Å¡ú쨸

vaicikan peRumee vaaNiba vaazkkai

The Vaisikan type of individuals  get established in business-type of life.

1579.

¦Áö¦¾Ã¢ Ũ¸Â¢ý ±ñŨ¸ ¯½Å¢ý
¦ºö¾¢Ôõ Ũá÷ «ôÀ¡Ä¡É

meyteri vakaiyin eNvakai uNavin
cetiyum varaiyaar appaalaana

The social truth is that trading in the eight types of grains and
the farming activities related to their production are not disallowed.
 

1580

¸ñ½¢Ôõ ¾¡Õõ ±ñ½¢É÷ ¬ñ§¼

kaNniyum taarum eNNinar aaNdee

They also are entitled to special neck garlands and flower headgears.

1581

§ÅÇ¡ý Á¡ó¾÷ìÌ ¯Øàñ «øÄÐ
­ø¦ÄÉ ¦Á¡Æ¢À À¢ÈŨ¸ ¿¢¸ú

veeLaan maantarukku uzuthuuN allatu
illena moziba piRavakai nikazcci

For the farming community, except for the cultivation of food grains
nothing else is said to be their interest.

1582.

§ÅóÐŢΠ¦¾¡Æ¢Ä¢ý À¨¼Ôõ ¸ñ½¢Ôõ
Å¡öó¾É÷ ±ýÀ «Å÷¦ÀÚõ ¦À¡Õ§Ç

veentuvidu tozilin padaiym kaNNiyum
vaayttana enba avarpeRum poruLee

But when decreed  by the king they are
allowed to organise armies and wear the appropriate
flower headgear at those times.
 
 

1583.

Å¢øÖõ §ÅÖõ ¸ÆÖõ ¸ñ½¢Ôõ
¾¡Õõ ¬ÃÓõ §¾Õõ Å¡Ùõ
Áý¦ÀÚ ÁÃÀ¢ý ²§É¡÷ìÌõ ¯Ã¢Â

villum veelum kazalung kaNNiyum
taarum aaramum teerum vaaLum
manpeRum marabin eenoorkkum uriya

For the other members of society in the circle of the King or entitled to kingship the following  are allowed: bows, spears, anklets of bravery ,  flower headgears, chariots  and  swords

1584.

«ýÉá¢Ûõ ­Æ¢ó§¾¡÷ìÌ ­ø¨Ä

annaraayinum izintoorkku illai

However those among them who are lowly  are denied these privileges.
 

5.  *¾¡Åà ÁÃÒ  The Geneology of Plants

(*  ¿¡ý ­ð¼ ¾¨ÄôÒ, Title given by me))

1585.

ÒÈì ¸¡ÆɧŠÒø¦ÄÉô ÀΧÁ

puRak kaazalanavee pullenap padumee

Those plants with strong outer sheath are called the Grass-type.

E.g: bamboo , the palm trees such as coconut, palmyra etc.

1586.

«¸ì ¸¡ÆɧŠÁæÁÉô ÀΧÁ

akak kaazalanavee maramenap padumee

Those plants with stems the inside which are strong are tree-type

(e.g mango, tamarind etc)
 

1586.

§¾¡§¼ Á¼§Ä µ¨Ä ±ýÈ¡
²§¼ ­¾§Æ À¡¨Ç ±ýÈ¡
®÷째 ̨ĦÂÉ §¿÷ó¾É À¢È×õ
Òø¦Ä¡Îõ ÅÕõ ±Éî ¦º¡øÄ¢É÷ ÒÄÅ÷

toodee madalee oolai enRaa
eedee ithazee paaLai enRaa
iirkkee kulaiyena neerntana piRavum
pullodum varum enac collinar pulavar

The species of the plants called "pul" have as their constituent parts :
toodu (palm leaf, flower petal), madal ( long leaves of palm trees),
oolai (the elongated  type of leaves), eedu (leaves organised like petals),
ithaz  (petals) , paaLai (flower sheath) , iirkku (the spine of long leaves)
kulai  (a bunch of fruits) and many others

1587.

­¨Ä§Â ÓÈ¢§Â ¾Ç¢§Ã §¸¡§¼
º¢¨É§Â ̨Ƨ â§Å «Õõ§À
¿¨É ¯ûÙÚòÐ «¨É¨Š±øÄ¡õ
ÁæɡΠÅåí ¸¢ÇÅ¢ ±ýÀ

ilaiyee muRiyee thaLiree koodee
cinaiyee kuzaiyee puuvee arumbee
nanai uLLuruttu anaiyavai ellaam
maranodu varUung kiLavi enpa

The plants named maran (tree) have as their parts the following named things along with some others: ilai (leaves) muRi (leaf buds) thaLir( shoots) koodu( large branch)
cinai( the branch of a branch) puu (floer) arumbu( shoots) and nanai( the branch tip)

1588.

¸¡§Â ÀƧÁ §¾¡§Ä ¦º¾¢§Ç
Å£¦Æ¡Î ±ýÈ¡íÌ «¨ÅÔõ «ýÉ

kaayee pazamee toolee setiLee
viizodu enRangku avaiyum anna

The related names are: kaay (unripe fruits), pazam (ripe fruit), tool (skin)
setiL (bark) and viiz(the air roots)

 ¦ÀÂ÷ ÁÃÀ¢ý ÓÊ×: The Overall Statement about the Geneology of Names

(* ¿¡ý ­ð¼ ¾¨ÄôÒ; Title given by me)

1589.

¿¢Äó¾£ ¿£÷ÅÇ¢ Å¢Íõ§À¡Î ³óÐí
¸Äó¾ ÁÂì¸õ ¯Ä¸õ ¬¾Ä¢ý
­Õ¾¢¨É ³õÀ¡ø ­Âø¦¿È¢ ÅÆ¡¨Áò
¾¢Ã¢Å¢ø ¦º¡ø¦Ä¡Î ¾Æ¡«ø §ÅñÎõ.

nilan tii niir vaLi vicumboodu aintung
kalanta mayakkam ulakam aatalin
irutiNai ampaal iyalneRi vazaamait
tirivil collodu tazAal veeNdum

The world and all the objects there (that have been named as above)
are all complexes generated out of the five fold Basic Elements of Earth,
Fire, Water, Wind and Space. Hence for avoiding misperception
they must be named generating words that do not deviate from the catogories of
 irutiNai (the categories of Person and NonPerson) and Five (grammatical)divisions of
Gender and Number( Male and Female  and singuklar and plural for uyatiNai, just singular and plural for AqRiNai)and how they actually disclose their essence in being in the world (iyal neRi)

Notes:

This sutra is philosophically the most important and which underlies the Philosophy for the study of the Genesis of Names of objects that have been given so far. Most significant is the Naturalism and Phenomenology that gets mentioned here. Natualism because the Divine Powers that agitate the Five Basic elements are NOT mentioned as the underlying Powers that generate the objects.  The objects are assumed to be generated as if spontaneuosly by  these Basic Elements mixing in various proportions among themselves creating a variety of mixtures or compounds.  It is also implied that NAMING is that process that ensures the CORRECT UNDERTSTADING provided it is done appropriately  without deviating from the Grammatical Categories of IrutiNai Aimpaal  as well as the ESSENCE of the objects named and which is to be obtained from the objects themselves , from the way they  show themselves  from within themeselves, the Iyal NeRi. This Iyal NeRi or Phenomenology became the most important notion in the long History of Dravidian Philosophy the tendency to be in TOUCH with the world and arresting the mental  inclination to enter the world of fantasy , fiction and arid imagination.

(to continue)


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