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Tolkaappiyam: Marabiyal( Historicity)-1 ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢Âõ: ÁÃÀ¢Âø-1

transliteration translation and notes by Dr K.Loganthan


 

1. ¦ÀÂ÷¸û: On Names

1500.

Á¡üÈÕï º¢ÈôÀ¢ý ÁÃÀ¢Âø ¸¢ÇôÀ¢ý
À¡÷ôÒõ ÀÈØõ ÌðÊÔõ ÌÕ¨ÇÔõ
¸ýÚõ À¢û¨ÇÔõ Á¸×õ ÁÈ¢Ôõ ±ýÚ
´ýÀÐõ ÌÆÅ¢§Â¡Î ­Ç¨Áô ¦À§Ã

maaRRarunj siRappin marabiyal kiLappin
paarppum paRazum kuddiyum kuruLaiyum
kanRum piLLaiyum makavum maRiyum enRu
onbatum kuzaviyoodu iLamaip peyraree

 In explicating the historical genesis and continuity  (of words) that are
 so difficult to change, (we begin by noting that) along with kuzavi,
the following nine names: paarppu paRaz kuddi kuruLai kanRu
piLLai makavu and maRi are the names of the young

1501

²Úõ ²ü¨ÈÔõ ´Õò¾Öõ ¸Ç¢Úõ
§º×õ §ºÅÖõ ­Ã¨ÄÔõ ¸¨ÄÔõ
§Á¡ò¨¾Ôõ ¾¸Õõ ¯¾Ùõ «ôÀÕõ
§À¡òÐõ ¸ñÊÔõ ¸ÎÅÛõ À¢È×õ
¡ò¾ ¬ñÀ¡ü ¦À¦ÃÉ ¦Á¡Æ¢À

eeRum eeRRaiyum oruttalum kaLiRum
ceevum ceevalum iralaiyum kalaiyum
moottaiyum takarum utaLum  apparum
poottum kaNdiyum kaduvanum piRavum
yaatta aaNpaaR peyrena mozipa

They (the linguists) will aver that the names :
eeRu eeRRai oruttal kaLiRu cee ceeval iralai kalai
mOttai takar utaL appar pOttu kaNdi kaduvan
and so forth are the namesin use  for the Male of the species

yaatta: those that have arisen or composed ; yaa= aa: to become; aaN paal: Male Category, the division of living things into the category of males

1502

§À¨¼Ôõ ¦À¨¼Ôõ ¦Àð¨¼Ôõ ¦ÀñÏõ
ãÎõ ¿¡Ìõ ¸¼¨ÁÔõ «ÇÌõ
Áó¾¢Ôõ À¡ðÊÔõ À¢¨½Ôõ À¢½×õ
«ó¾ï º¡ýÈ À¢Ê¦Â¡Î ¦Àñ§½

peedaiyum pedaiyum peddaiyum peNNum
muudum naakum kadamaiyum aLakum
mantiyum paaddiyum piNaiyum piNavum
anthanj caanRa pidiyodu peNNee

The names peedai pedai peddai peN
muudu naaku kadamai aLaku
manti paaddi piNai piNavu
along with the final pidi
are the names of the Females

anthanj caaNra: that which is final; antam: the end, the limit, the final etc
 

2. ­Ç¨Áô ¦ÀÂ÷¸û Ilamaip PeyarkaL

( Geneology of Names: the Names of the Young)

1503

«ÅüÚû
À¡÷ôÒõ À¢û¨ÇÔõ ÀÈôÀÅüÚ ­Ç¨Á

avaRRuL
paarppum piLLaiyum paRappavaRu iLamai

Among these (names of the young)
paarppu and piLLai are names of the young
of the flying (creatures)

1504.

¾ÅúÀ¨Å ¾¡Óõ «Åü§È¡÷ «ýÉ

tavazbavai taamum avaRRoor anna

The names of  those (creatures) that crawl
are also the same

1505.

ãí¸¡ ¦ÅÕÌ ±Ä¢  ãÅâ «½¢§Ä¡Î
¬íÌ «¨Å ¿¡ýÌõ ÌðÊìÌ ¯Ã¢Â

muungkaa veruku eli muvari aNiloodu
aangku avai naankum kuddikku uriya

The name kuddi pertains to  the youngs of muungkaa(mongoose) veruku (wild cat)
eli (mouse or  rat) and the three striped aNil (squirrel)

1506.

ÀÈú ±ÉôÀÊÛõ ¯Èú ¬ñÊø¨Ä

paRaz enappadinum uRaz aaNdillai

Even if called paRaz (and not kuddi) there will be
no inconsistency there

1507

¿¡§Â ÀýÈ¢ ÒÄ¢ ÓÂø ¿¡ýÌõ
¬Ôí ¸¡¨Äì ÌÕ¨Ç ±ýÀ

naayee panRi puli muyal naankum
aayung kaalaik kuraLai enpa

The scholars will say after proper investigations (into the linguistic practices that)
the young of naay(dogs) panRi (pigs) puli (tiger) muyal (rabbit)
are  called kuruLai

1508

¿Ã¢Ôõ «ü§È ¿¡ÊÉ÷ ¦¸¡Ç¢§É

nariyum aRRee naadinar koLinee

The same holds for nari(foxes) if you respect the
analysis of actual use.

1509

ÌðÊÔõ ÀÃØõ ÜüÚ «Åñ Ũá÷

kuddiyum parazum kuuRRu avaN varaiyaar

The speech acts where those that are called kuddi
are also called paraz will not be censored (as wrong)

1510

À¢û¨Çô ¦ÀÂÕõ À¢¨ÆôÒ ¬ñÊø¨Ä
¦¸¡ûÙí ¸¡¨Ä ¿¡ö «ø «íÌ «¨¼§Â

piLLaip peyarum pizaippu aaNdillai
koLLung kaalai naay al angku adaiyee

The use of the name piLLai will not be  wrong
as long as the naay (the dogs) remain excluded.
 

1511

¡Îí ̾¢¨ÃÔõ ¿ùÅ¢Ôõ ¯¨ÆÔõ
µÎõ ÒøÅ¡ö ¯ÇôÀ¼ ÁÈ¢§Â

yaadung kutiraiyum ýavviyum uzaiyum
oodum pulvaay uLappada maRiyee

The young of  yaadu(goats) kutirai( horses )and the deers
of the type navvi uzai and including the fast running pulvaay
are known as maRi

1512

§¸¡ÎÅ¡ú ÌÃíÌõ ÌðÊ ÜÚÀ

koodu vaaz kurangkum kuddi kuuRuba

The young of  kurangku(monkeys) that live on trees are
also named kuddi

koodu: the tree branches

1513

Á¸×õ À¢û¨ÇÔõ ÀÈØõ À¡÷ôÒõ
«¨ÅÔõ «ýÉ «ôÀ¡ø ¬É

makavum piLLLaiyum paRazum paarppum
avaiyum anna appaal aana

For the above case (i.e the young of monkeys)
the terms makavu piLLai paRaz and paarppu
are also applied

1514.

¡¨ÉÔõ ̾¢¨ÃÔõ ¸Ø¨¾Ôõ ¸¼¨ÁÔõ
¬§É¡Î ³óÐõ ¸ýÚ ±ÉüÌ ¯Ã¢Â

yaanaiyum kutiraiyum kazutaiyum kadamaiyum
aanoodu aintum kanRu enaRku uriya

The young of the following five : yaanai (elephant),
kutirai( horses) kazutai(donkey) kadamai(elk) and
aan (cattle) are named kanRu as such

1515

±Õ¨ÁÔõ Á¨ÃÔõ Ũá÷ ¬ñ§¼

erumaiyum maraiyum varaiyaar aaNdee

The application of kanRu for the young of
erumai (buffalo) and marai( the elk or a kind of deer)
will not be disallowed.

1516

¸ÅâÔõ ¸Ã¡Óõ ¿¢¸÷ «ÅüÚû§Ç

kavarium karaamum nikar avaRuLLee

It is the same with the young of kavari( a kind of deer)
and karaam (the alligator)

1517

´ð¼¸õ «Åü§È¡Î ´ÕÅÆ¢ ¿¢¨ÄÔõ

oddakam avaRRoodu oruvazi nilaiyum

The young of oddakam( camels) stands
tha same way

1518

ÌïºÃõ ¦ÀÚ§Á ÌÆÅ¢ô ¦ÀÂ÷¦¸¡¨¼

kunjsaram peRumee kuzavi peyarkkodai

The young of kunjsaram (elephants) have the name
kuzavi as given to them

1519

¬×õ ±Õ¨ÁÔõ «¨Å ¦º¡ÄôÀΧÁ

aavum erumaiyum avai colap padumee

The young of aa(cows) and erumai( buffalo) have
also being called thus

1520

¸¼¨ÁÔõ Á¨ÃÔõ Ó¾ø¿¢¨Ä ´ýÚõ

kadamaiyum maraiyum mutalnilai onRum

The names of the young of kadamai( elk) and
marai (a kind of deer) coalesces with the above(i.e kuzavi)
 

1521.

ÌÃíÌõ ÓÍ×õ °¸Óõ ãýÚõ
¿¢ÃõÀ ¿¡Êý «ô¦ÀÂ÷ìÌ ¯Ã¢Â

kurangkum mucuvum uukamum muunRum
niramba naadin  appeyarkku uriya

If you examine exhaustively the young of
the three varieties on monkeys - kurangku, musu and uukam-
they are also named thus ( i.e. kuzavi)

1522.

ÌÆÅ¢Ôõ Á¸×õ ¬Â¢ÃñÎ «øĨÅ
¸¢ÆÅ «øÄ Áì¸ð ¸ñ§½

kuzaviyum makavum aayiraNdu all avai
kizava ala makkad kaNNee

Except the use of kuzavi and makavu for
the young of human beings, all other names are not in use.

1523

À¢û¨Ç ÌÆÅ¢ ¸ý§È §À¡òÐ ±Éì
¦¸¡ûÇ×õ «¨ÁÔõ µÃÈ¢× ¯Â¢÷째

piLLai kuzavi kanRee pooththu enak
koLLavum amaiyum ooraRivu uyirkkee

For the young of living things with a single sense,
the use of the names piLLai kuzavi and poottu
are available in use

1524.

¦¿øÖõ ÒøÖõ §¿Ã¡÷ ¬ñ§¼

nellum pullum neeraar aaNdee

However the young of the  plants rice and grass
are excluded (from thus being called)

1525.

¦º¡øĢ ÁÃÀ¢ý ­Ç¨Á ¾¡§É
¦º¡øÖí ¸¡¨Ä  «¨ÅÂÄÐ ­Ä§Å

colliya marabin iLamai thaanee
collung kaalai  avaiyalathu ilavee

The explication of the geneology of the names of the young
that we have articulated  so far is rather conclusive,
there is nothing beyond these usages.
 
 

¯Â¢÷¸Ç¢ý ÁÃÒ:  On the Geneology of Living things
 

1526

´ýÈÈ¢ ÅЧŠ¯üÚ «È¢ÅЧÅ
­Ãñ¼È¢ ÅЧŠ«¾¦É¡Î ¿¡§Å
ãýÈÈ¢ ÅЧŠ«Åü¦È¡Î ã째
¿¡ý¸È¢ ÅЧŠ«Åü¦È¡Î ¸ñ§½
³ó¾È¢ ÅЧŠ«Åü¦È¡Î ¦ºÅ¢§Â
¬ÈÈ¢ ÅЧŠ«Åü¦È¡Î ÁɧÉ
§¿Ã¢¾¢ý ¯½÷󧾡÷ ¦¿È¢ôÀÎò ¾¢É§Ã

onRaRi vatuvee uRRu aRivatuvee
iraNda Rivatuvee atanodu naavee
muunRaRi vatuvee avaRRodu muukkee
naankaRi vatuvee avRRodu kaNNee
aintaRi vatuvee avaRodu ceviyee
aaRaRi vatuvee avaRRodu mananee
neeritin uNarntoor neRippadut tinaree

The living things with a SINGLE sense only are those which understand only with the sense of touch
Those with TWO senses are those that along with it also have the sense of tasting with the tongue
Those with THREE are those that  along with the above also have capacity to smell with the nose
Those with FOUR are those that can see with eyes
Those with FIVE are those that along with the above also have  the sense of hearing with the ears
Those with SIX are those that  along with the above(five)  have also the mind (for thinking)
Thus have  been categorised all  the living things by those who have understood them faultlessly

neeritin uNarntoor: Those who have understood the things as they are in themselves .i.e. nondeviantly

1527.

ÒøÖõ ÁÃÛõ µ÷ «È¢Å¢É§Å
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

pullum maranum oor aRivinavee
piRavum uLavee akkiLaip piRappee

The grass and trees are things with only one sense
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

kiLai: the Species that emerges from a Genus

1528

¿óÐõ ÓÃÙõ ®÷ «È¢Å¢É§Å
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

nantum muraLum iir aRivinavee
piRavum uLavee akkiLaip piRappee

The snail  and oyster are (creatures ) with TWO senses
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

1529

º¢¾Öõ ±ÚõÒõ ãÅÈ¢ ŢɧÅ
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

sitalum eRumpum muuvaRi vinavee
piRavum uLavee akkiLaip piRappee

The termites and ants are the creatures with THREE senses
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

1530

¿ñÎõ ÐõÀ¢Ôõ ¿¡ýÌ «È¢Å¢É§Å
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

naNdum tumbiyum naanku aRivinavee
piRavum uLavee akkiLaip piRappee

The crabs and dragonfly are creatures with FOUR senses
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

tumbi: the dragonfly and such other insects

1531

Á¡×õ *Á¡ì¸Ùõ ³ «È¢Å¢É§Å
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

* ÒûÙõ

maavum *maakkaLum ai aRivinavee
piravum uLavee akkiLaip pirappee

* variant: puLLum

The mammals or mammal- like savage humans (or puL: the flying creatures) have FIVE senses
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

1532.

Áì¸û ¾¡§Á ¬ÈÈ¢ ×¢§Ã
À¢È×õ ¯Ç§Å «ì¸¢¨Çô À¢Èô§À

makkaL thaamee aaRaRi vuyiree
piRavum uLavee akkiLaip piRappee

The (real) humans are the creatures with (all the) SIX senses
There are many others belonging to this branch of living things

*1532(additional in Ilampuuranar)

´Õº¡÷ Å¢ÄíÌõ ¯Ç¦ÅÉ ¦Á¡Æ¢À

orusaar vilangkum uLavana mozipa

There are some who would include in this category even some animals
 
 
 

4: ¬ñÀ¡ü ¦ÀÂ÷¸û The Names of the Male (of the different Species)

1533.

§ÅÆì Ìâò§¾ Å¢¾óÐ ¸Ç¢Ú ±ýÈø

veezak kurittee vitantu kaLiRu enRal

The male of the elephants are specially
called kaLiRu

1534.

§¸Æü ¸ñÏõ ¸ÊŨà ¢ý§È

keezaR kaNNum kadivarai yinRee

The use of that name  for  boar  is
not disallowed.

1535.

ÒøÅ¡ö ÒÄ¢ ¯¨Æ Á¨Ã§Â ¸Åâ
¦º¡øĢ ¸Ã¡§Á¡Î ´Õò¾ø ´ýÚõ

pulvaay puli uzai maraiyee kavari
colliya karaamoodu oruttal onRum

oruttal coincides with the name of the males of
pulvaay (deer) puli (tiger) marai (a kind of deer) and kavari(another kind of deer)
and the earlier mentioned karaam (alligator)

1536.

Å¡÷§¸¡ðΠ¡¨ÉÔõ ÀýÈ¢Ôõ «ýÉ

vaarkooddu yaanaiyum panRiyum anna

The  male elephant with long tusks and that of hog are also the same

1537.

²üÒ¨¼òÐ ±ýÀ ±Õ¨Áì ¸ñÏõ

eeRpudaiththu enpa erumaik kaNNum

It is said that it is appropriate even with the male buffalo

1538.

ÀýÈ¢ ÒøÅ¡ö ¯¨Æ§Â ¸Åâ
±ýÈ¢¨Å ¿¡ýÌõ ²Ú ±ÉüÌ ¯Ã¢Â

panRi pulvaay uzaiyee kavari
enRivai waankum eeRu enaRku uriya

The male of the four: pigs the deers pulvaay uzai and kavari
can be called eeRu
 

1539.

±Õ¨ÁÔõ Á¨ÃÔõ ¦ÀüÈÓõ «ýÉ

erumaiyum maraiyum peRRamum anna

The name (for the males of) erumai (buffalo) marai(elk) and
peRRam (cattle) is also the same

1540

¸¼øÅ¡ú ÍÈ×õ ²Ú ±ÉôÀΧÁ

kadalvaaz suRvum eeRu enappadumee

The male of the sea living sharks is also called "eeRu"
 

1541

¦ÀüÈÓõ ±Õ¨ÁÔõ ÒÄ¢ Á¨Ã ÒøÅ¡ö
ÁüÈ¢¨Å ¦ÂøÄ¡õ §À¡òÐ ±ÉôÀΧÁ

peRRamum erumaiyum puli marai pulvaay
maRRivai yellaam poottu enappadumee

The male of cattle buffalo tiger the kinds of deer marai
and pulvaay and all such creatures are termed poottu

1542.

¿£÷Å¡ú º¡¾¢Ôû «ÚÀ¢ÈôÒ ¯Ã¢Â

niirvaaz saatiyuL aRupiRappu uriya

Variant:

¿£÷Å¡ú º¡¾¢Ôõ «Ð¦ÀÈüÌ ¯Ã¢Â

niirvaaz caatiyum atu peRaRku uriya

The male of those creatures living in the waters are also named thus

aRu piRappu: the six different types of creatures living in the waters are listed as  sharks, crocodiles, alligators, idangkar(another type of crocodile) varaal (prawns or lobsters) and vaaLai( a kind of fish)

1543.

Á¢Öõ ±Æ¡«Öõ À¢Äò §¾¡ýÚõ

mayilum ezaaalum payilat toonRum

The males of mayil(peacock) and ezaal( a kind of eagle) are also seen to be called thus.
 

1544.

­Ã¨ÄÔõ ¸¨ÄÔõ ÒøÅ¡öìÌ ¯Ã¢Â

iralaiyum kalaiyum pulvaaykku uriya

The names iralai and kalai pertain to the males of pulvaay( a kind of deer)

1545.

¸¨Ä ±ý ¸¡ðº¢ ¯¨ÆìÌõ ¯Ã¢ò§¾

kalai en kaadci uzaikkum urittee

The seeing of the males of uzai (a kind of deer) as kalai  also belongs to the usage
 

1546.

¿¢¨Ä¢üÚ «ô¦ÀÂ÷ ÓÍÅ¢ý ¸ñÏõ

nilaiyiRRu appeyar mucuvin kaNNum

The same goes for the males of the monkeys of the type musu

1547.

§Á¡ò¨¾Ôõ ¾¸Õõ ¯¾Ùõ «ôÀÕõ
¡ò¾ ±ýÀ ¡ðÊý ¸ñ§½

moottaiyum takarum utaLum apparum
yaatta enpa yaaddin kaNNee

For the males of goats the names mottai takar utaL and appar apply

1548.

§ºÅü ¦ÀÂ÷즸¡¨¼ º¢È¦¸¡Î º¢ÅÏõ
Á¡Â¢Õó àÅ¢ Á¢ø «ø «íÌ «¨¼§Â

ceevaR peyarkkodai  cirakodu civaNum
maayirun tuuvi al angku adaiyee

The males of all the creatures with feathers except the mayil that has great and wonderous feathersare  given the name  cEval

1549.

¬üȦġΠ Ò½÷ó¾ ¬ñÀ¡üÌ ±øÄ¡õ
²ü¨Èì ¸¢ÇÅ¢ ¯Ã¢ò¦¾É ¦Á¡Æ¢À

aaRRalodu puNarnta aaNpaaRku ellaam
eeRRaik kiLavi urittena moziba

The scholars will say that to the males  with Power of all animals  the names  ERu can be applied.

1550.

¬ñÀ¡ø ±øÄ¡õ ¬ñ ±ÉüÌ ¯Ã¢Â;
¦ÀñÀ¡ø ±øÄ¡õ ¦Àñ ±ÉüÌ ¯Ã¢Â
¸¡ñÀ «¨Å «¨Å «ôÀ¡ø ¬É

aaNpaal ellaam aaN enaRku uriya
peNpaal ellaam peN enaRku uriya
kaaNba avai avai appaal aan

All those that  are biologically males deserve to be called a male;
All those that  are biologically females  deserve to be called a female
because it can be seen that these gender divisions  obtain in theirr biological endowments

(¦¾¡¼Õõ)


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