Tolkaappiyam PoruLatikaaram

 

akattiNaiyiyal

 

 

 

Dear Friends

 

For a long time I wanted to translate into English the whole of Tolkaappiyam that has played a fundamental role in my understanding of the beginnings and further developments of Dravidian philosophy linguistics and religion. It is simply amazing that a body of scholars more than two thousand years ago should have accomplished something like this and which the modern world is only now beginning to see. Actually this should not be surprising for the tradition of Tolkaappiyam is NOT the beginning but rather the continuation of the Sumerian, the classical culture of the world and which was the culture of Archaic Tamil during the third Millennium B.C. The most remarkable accomplishment of these people is the WRITING system and establishment of various kinds of academies for the cultivation of the skills of reading and writing that has become so basic for all the cultures throughout the world now. Tolkaappiyam ( hence forth Tol.) appears to have had its beginnings in the school system developed for young children as the final sutra of Marabiyal on utti would so.

 

Tol. has had a profound influence subsequent to its accomplishment around 300 B.C. and remains a marvel of human intelligence to this day.

 

I want to begin this study first mainly with the sutras of Porulatikaaram, the Third Book and for this purpose I shall use the arrangement of Ilampuranar, the first commentator (10th cent. A.D. ? ) who is also the only one who wrote a commentary for the whole Book, the Ezuttu atikaaram Col aTikaaram and PoruL atikaaram.

 

I shall be brief and to the point at first and will come up with in depth comments whenever it is deemed necessary

 

Dr K.Loganathan

 

==================================================================================================================

 

PoruLatikaaram Ǿ

 

ý: ž 򾧾 ɢ, Ǿ . , ɨ¡ . Ө¡ ɡ; ɢ ξĢ, ž .

 

¡ ɢ, Ģ . Ӿ â Ũ

 

IlLampuuraNar: If asked how this book is named , it is named as PoruL Atikaaram. This name has come to be because this Book deals with the MEANINGS as a whole. Having described in proper sequence Ezuttu first and then Col ( Phonology and Syntax), now , as is necessary, the MEANINGS are dealt with.

 

Now if it is asked what is the meaning of MEANINGS, then whatever is apprehended through language is taken here as the MEANING. It can be classified into Mutal , Karu and Uri

 

( This will be explained later at the appropriate places)

 

The First Chapter : AkattiNaiyiyal : Sexual Behaviour

 

 

  1. 츢 Ӿġ 󾢨 š

ؾ

 

 

Ȣ: ѾĢȡ ɢ, Ш Ũ о ѾĢ.

 

 

 

: 츢 Ӿġ 󾢨 ȡ, .

 

  1. kaikkiLai mutaalaap peruntiNai iRuvaay

muRpadak kiLanta ezutiNai enpa

 

Meaning: The scholars will say that in the study of meanings ( as communicated by speech acts) the sexual or domestic behavior comes first and categorized into SEVEN different types with kaikkiLai as the initial and PeruntiNai as the final.

 

 

Comments: Tolkaappiyar, the author of this massive book was probably a complier also of various studies by other eminent scholars but whose writings have become obsolete. The enpa means they will say meaning here the scholars who have investigated such matters earlier than him or about the same time indicating that it was a matter very widely studied in those days.

 

The akam ( Sumerian ka, aka) means the inside and here it can mean both the mind in its metaphorical use the home as well, these meanings being available from the Sumerian times itself. However looking at the contents, it clearly deals with LOVE LIFE and hence the sexual behavior in general. It is interesting that this domain of behavior is taken as the fundamental in the study of MEANINGS in general. By MEANINGS what is meant here are not simply the lexical, that is which is dealt with in Collatikaaram , but rather that which serve as the MEANIGFUL for the people in their life and which become accessed through language. The MEANINGS are that which shape the intentionalities of people and hence elements of the mind that gets accessed through the linguistic and paralinguistic aspects of behavior.

 

The phrase muRpada kiLnta ezu tiNai also indicates that there is an organizational structure in the book where this AkattiNai is followed by other TiNais such as PuRattiNai and so forth and in this organization of Behaviur , the akam or the Sexual has a preeminence over the others. This makes sense for once we take MEANINGS as the different shapes of intentionalties, what people in general seek out in existence, sexual happiness is certainly the most primordial as it is even today and as it is in all living creatures.

 

( to continue) 1

 

2

 

Tolkaappiayam

 

AkattiNaiyiyal : Sexual Behaviour

 

 

򾢨¢

 

 

2.

,

󾢨 Ž Ƣ

ξ

 

 

 

Ȣ: ؾ, Ũ о ѾĢ

 

(-)

 

ؾ, Ƣ, (츢 󾢨) Ž 󾢨, Ģ츢 ĸ .

 

  1. avaRRuL

naduvaN aintiNai naduvaNa toziya

padutirai baiyam paattiya paNbee

 

Notes: This sutra is concerned with giving the ecological characterization of the above seven departments of the sexual dynamics.

 

Meaning:

 

The FIVE departments in the middle of the seven ( i.e. between the extremes KaikkiLai and PeurNtiNai ) and excluding the middle of these FIVE ( and hence the remaining FOUR) are named in terms of the ecology of the world encircled by the wavy seas.

 

Comments:

 

The ecological thinking is already emerging very clearly in the NAMING of these different departments of human sexual behavior. The MIND or the Psychological Interior of a person is a LANDSCAPE of a kind, different but at the same interrelated to each other. The external ecological conditions of subsistence level existence become INTERIORIZED and the behavior, both the personal and social are in a way causally determined by the interiorized ecology. The same mind (or anma) locates itself or pushed to locate itself in these different inner ecologies and execute actions consistent with them. Thus these inner ecologies in GENERATING and BOUNDING a range of actions, the most obvious analogy they have is the geographical ecology, which does the same. The seaside facilitates fishing and related activities but not the farming or hunting and so forth. Each mental ecology does the same; it promotes one class of behavior while inhibiting another.

 

Of those the Paalai, the desert landscape concerned with DISRUPTION of love life is excluded from being given a definite inner ecology. The extreme forms of KaikkiLai and PeruntiNai are NOT given such inner ecologies at all. Thus inner ecologies that are named are the following FIVE: Mullai (the pasture lands), Kurunjci (the hillside), Paalai (the desert landscape) Marutam (the farming lands), and Neytal (the seaside) .

 

 

There are DEEP and DIFFERENT reasons why KaikkiLai and PeruntiNai are excluded from the ecological thinking and while Paalai, though admitted but not in the same sense as the remaining four. To anticipate a little, the KaikkiLai and PeruntiNai as ABNORMAL kinds of behavior do not have an inner ecology for to have and inner ecology is also to have the divine ordinance. The Paalai is put in special category for unlike other ecological divisions it does not stand different and excluding in that. The Paalai, the DESERT is within all these ecologies as their DEEP Structure, ready to emerge each time the HEAT becomes excessive and unbearable disrupting the normal ways of the ecological grounds within which it erupts.

 

(to continue) 2

 

3.

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyiyal . 򾢨¢

 

 

3. Ӿ â

ӨȺ ɧ

¢Ȩ

 

Ȣ: 󾢨 Ũ¡ ĸ ġ Ũ¡ о ѾĢ

 

 

( ý)

 

ȡ Ǹ ¢ ը á, Ӿ â ԧ (). Ө¡

 

 

: (ĸ)

 

ĸ 츢 Ƣ θ ¢ Ǣ 즸 , Ȣ Ӿ â Ũ , ӾĢ Ƣ Ţ Ƣ â ӨȨ Ȣ

 

 

3.

 

mutal karu uripporul enra muunRee

nuvaluG kaalai muRai ciRantanavee

paadalud payinRavai naaduG kaalai

 

Notes: This sutra seeks explicate the middle FIVE tiNais mentioned above and how also all the objects in the world can be comprehended within these THREE categories

 

Meaning ( IlampuuraNar)

 

When we analyze the meanings in the poetry of the great ones, all the meanings can be understood as belonging only to the categories Mutal Karu and Uri exhaustively. When they are said the order of Mutal , Karu and then Uri also hlds between them

 

Meaning ( Loga)

 

When we seek to understand through investigations, the meanings communicated through the utterances of people in genral, we can discover that they belong to the categories Mutal Karu and Uri exhaustively and that the karu emerges from the Mutal and Uri from the Karu and in that order

 

Comments:

 

Here in understanding the MEANING of the sutra I differ from ILampuraNar. Where I differ I shall indicate as above, give that of ILam. followed with my own , and where I do NOT differ such distinctions are not shown.

 

The meaning of paadal is taken by ILam. in the sense of ceyyuL, or literary compositions of great poets ( caanRoor ceyyuL) and throughout the book hr remains faithful to this , the CaGkam poetry, being very close to the natural, allowing for this. However paadal has an archaic sense (available in SumeroTamil) where it seems to mean simply utterance and perhaps related to the word padu, paadu meaning to experience a meaning available in Tol. itself in such terms as meypaadu etc. Thus paadal can be taken as the verbalizations of paadu or experiences and which can be realized both as poetry and natural discourse. We must recall what Panampaaranaar says of Tol. in the introduction : that Tol. examined BOTH Vazakku, natural discourse and CeyuuL, the literary discourse and has written the grammar incorporating both. Thus Ilam. seems to be restrictive in understanding the scope of Tol. analyses by excluding the natural discourse.

 

The paadal seems to be used also as kiLavi related to the verb kiLattal, telling for others to know, communicating, and hence DISCOURSE in general as the following sutra belonging to the same chapter would show.

 

39

 

tannum avanum avaLunj cuddi

mannum nimittam moziporul teyvam

nanmai tiimai accanjc saartalenRu

anna piRavum avaRRodu tokai-i

munniya tee-ettu kaNdoor paaGkinum

pookiya tiRattu naRRay pulambalum

aakiya kiLaviyum avvazi uriya

 

 

 

Meaning:

 

The Mother lamenting when her daughter elopes ( with a young man ) and TELLING those who have witnessed in the country-side they were proceeding to and in which there is referring to self , the daughter and the young man , mentioning the reasons the divine signs and symptoms, the good and bad of it all and the fears she has for them and so forth belongs also to the tiNai above.

 

Thus the lamentations of a Good Mother as above belongs to Natural Discourse and which is related to the STREAM of LIFE, to existence as such. Tol. was mindful of both -- the natural discourse and the literary poetry and thus differing in this in a fundamental manner from the Sanskrit literary theories where Sanskrit does not have samples of Natural Discourse but only the literary. ILam. seems to have been partly misled by the dominance of the Sk. literary conventions that became vogue at about his time as was also the case with ViracOzilyam , a grammatical treatise composed at about the same time, more in tune with Sk models of grammar rather than that of Tol. and others that followed it.

 

(to continue) 3

 

4

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyiyal . 򾢨¢

 

4.

 

Ӿ

Ƣ ҽ

 

 

Ȣ: Ũ Ǣ Ӿ ѾĢ

 

( )

 

Ӿ Ţ ĸ 󧾡

 

 

( ĸ)

 

ĸ  ĸ ھ ý Ӿ , 측 ȡ 측 Ȣ Ҹ Ţ츢 ĸ, Ҹ ¡ â š

 

4.

 

mutal enap paduvatu nilam pozu tiraNdin

iyalbena moziba iyalpuNarn tooree

 

 

Notes: This sutra intends to explicate the mutaR PoruL , the fist among the three categories of objects mentioned above

 

 

Meaning ( iLam)

 

What is said to be the primordial basis, the MutaR PoruL is said to be by those who understand well the matter as the essences of the ecological contexts and the times of the day.

 

Meaning (Loga)

 

The basis or the Causal Ground for the emergence of the events in the world and the mind are said to by those scholars who understand the matter correctly , both the mental and physical ecological contexts of situations and the temporality and time consciousness that also comes to prevail.

 

Comments:

 

We must recall here that by MEANING or PoruL Tol. here does not understand the lexical and syntactic meanings or semantics as such that is dealt with quite extensively in Collatikaram, the second book. The meanings are what are MEANT by people in their existence both in natural speech as well in literary productions . Such meanings , the intentionalities are what underlies personal and social PRAXIS, verbal and nonverbal, oral and written. So we have tointerpret the meanings of Mutal Kari and Uri without losing sight of this primordial concern of Tol. in this book.

 

It is quite clear that UriP PoruL are the FEELINGS and Emotions, pains of separation, longings, joys of reunion and so forth. These objects become the most immediately obvious in the communicative acts in social life. But these are NOT simply autonomic responses like knee-jerks, violent and disruptive eruptions having their origins in some physiognomic changes inside the body. They have as their basis THOUGHTS, the Karup PoruL, the Karuttup PoruL, the objects that are thought of, contemplated and sought after . Such thoughts configure the intentionalities and it is only because there are such intentionalties in the mind that there are FEELINGS and EMOTIONS of various kinds.

 

But the THOUGHTS do not simply take hold of the mind as if from nowhere and in some mysterious manner, for they are sustaining and constraining boundaries about them. The thoughts that are entertained by one person may be beyond the reach of another. And the thoughts one is capable of now might have been beyond the reach earlier. Thus there are Causal Grounds that we can call MOODS that underlie the burst of various kinds of thoughts and why there boundaries to it.

 

These moods are the inner ecological contexts of the mind related to the inner and outer CONTEXTS of Situation both in terms of Territoriality and Temporality, the Nilan and Pozutu. They give rise to THOUGHTS and which in turn condition the immediate contents of consciousness - the feelings and emotions which are also apprehended as the most immediate meanings of the utterances. This is the muRaiyiR ciRattal mentioned above, how they are ORDERED in relation to each other and in terms dependent origination.

 

 

 

5

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyiyal . 򾢨¢

 

5

 

¡ Ψ ĸ

¡ Ũ ĸ

ĸ

ս ĸ

Ȣﺢ վ

Ģ Ө¡ Χ

 

Ȣ: Ө¡ ¡ о ѾĢ

 

( )

 

Ţ ĸ, ո Ţ Ũ ĸ Ţ ĸ, ս Ţ ĸ, Ȣﺢ վ Ģ Ө¡

 

Ψ ɡ ĸ Ⱦɡ Ũ н š

 

(ĸ)

 

 Ӿ ý 츢Ȩ š θ ĸ, š â ڸ ĸ, Ǣ ɡ š ĸ, ȡ ս š ĸ š Ţ Ũ¢ Ȣﺢ վ 񧼡á Ģ Ө¡ Ũ¢ .

 

5.

 

maayoon meeya kaaduRai ulakamum

ceeyoon meeya maivarai ulakamum

veentan meeya tiimpunal ulakamum

varuNan meeya perumaNal ulakamum

mullai kuRinjci marutham weytal enac

colliya muRaiyaaR collavum padumee

 

Notes;

 

It is intended to clarify how the different tiNais emerge from their basis and the order in which they emerge.

 

Meaning ( iLam)

 

The ecologies -- that full of the forests and pervaded by Maayoon, that full of dark hills and pervaded by MurukaveeL, that filled with sweet waters and pervaded by Indra, that full of extensive sand dunes and pervaded by VaruNa are termed, following the ancient custom , as Mullai KuRinnci Marutam and Neytal

 

Meaning ( ulagan)

 

The ecological conditions that serve as the basis for both the psychological and physical events -- that full of forests and given the reality essence by Maayoon, that full of the dark hills and given the reality essence by Ceeyoon, that of of sweet waters and given the reality essence by Veentan or Indra, that full of sand dunes and given the reality essence by VaruNa are termed Mullai Kurinjci Marutam and Neytal following the conventions of the ancients here

 

Comments;

 

Consistent with the general theme of the book and this chapter, the primary concern is the MOODS that serve as causal basis for emergence of thoughts and which serve the basis for the emergence of FEELINGS and Emotions. Thus there is DOUBLE talk here , in talking about physical ecologies there is also a talk about the mental ecologies pointing out that at an earlier time only the PHYSICAL was considered the determinants of behavior though at the time of Tol. there was an innovation where over and above the external geographical ( and cosmological ) ecologies the inner ecologies of the mind as the most immediate determinants of behavior was recognized. But despite this shift in understanding , Tol. mentions that the SAME naming convention is followed. Thus each one of these ecologies must be understood both as psychological and geographical, with inner landscapes of MOODS being the immediate concern.

 

Two things must be noted here. The ascription of archetypes as the spiritual POWERS that confer their essence and the EXCLUSION of Paalai, the desert ecology from this though later KoRRavai , the Terrible Mother and Sun God were given this function by others but contrary to Tol.

 

But why is this so? Why did Tol. and other scholars of the same frame of mind bring the archetypes as the reality conferring Powers, the meeya, that which confers mey, reality or essence?

 

The ecologies both mental and physical and all the constituents element are INSENTIENT and hence as such incapable of being the INTELLIGENCE behind such events . Whatever transpires in these worlds are NOT simply events of blind physical elements and with brutish causation as the generating factor -- they are regulated by PLAY by a Power that UNDERSTANDS what transpires in both the worlds, the inner and outer and the various events are GAMES it plays.

 

The grass lands of Mullai is that which is ordained by the archetype of Maayoon and such and just as in such geographical landscapes cattle raising becomes the subsistence level of existence and which demands BRAVERY for controlling the bulls and cows, so does it in the psychological world. It stands for the MOOD where CONTROL of passions become the dominant impulse and which is related to the culturing of the instinctual the beastly , the bulls and cows. Maayoon, or KaNNan, the most popular archetype of VishNu or Tirumaal is taken as this Power that provides this MOOD and which implants and facilitates thoughts and actions consistent with that.

 

Similarly for others that will be explained in due course.

 

However we have to note here the very important fact that a MOOD and a Deity is NOT ascribed to Paalai, physically the desert landscape of intense heat and mentally the MOOD of disruption destruction decay and so forth. For there is a hierarchical relationship noted between these FOUR mood ecologies and that of Paalai. The FOUR are transmutations or the Paalai and Paalai remains in the DEEP STRUCTURE of all the FOUR simultaneously and along with them but at the depths. So since it does not stand one along with the FOUR it is NOT given a deity along with other deities as its ordaining and reality conferring Power.

 

Elsewhere as in KaLaviyal this Deep Structure Form within the above deities is termed simply Paal, the Bright , the Brilliance which may be the way Tol . accommodated the ancient notions of Sivam Brahman and so forth and which we shall call BEING. Thus the underlying metaphysics can be wrested out as follows: the MOODs as much as the essence of the ecological conditions are given the reality essence by some deities that are actually the moving powers and these Powers themselves are various presentational forms of BEING who remains the Deep Structure of these deities and also the Power of the Desert Landscape , the primordial ecology by the transmutation of which the different habitats ( moods) are derived.

 

 

 

6

 

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyiyal . 򾢨¢

 

 

6.

 

 

Ȣ: ɢ ¡ š . Ũ о ѾĢ.

 

: .

 

6.

 

kaarum maalaiyum mullai

 

Notes: Now the configuration of (inner) ecology in terms of times and season is taken up. In this the temporal conditions of Mullait TiNai is outlined here

 

Meaning:

 

The rainy season of dark clouds and the dusky evenings are ascribed to the Mullait TiNai

 

7.

 

Ȣﺢ ܾ ¡ ɡ

 

Ȣ: Ȣﺢ о ѾĢ

 

:

 

Ȣﺢ ܾ ¡ .

 

kuRinjci kuthi yaamam enpa

 

Notes: Here the temporal stretches for KuRinjci is outlined.

 

Meaning:

 

The id winter and the middle of the night are ascribed to TiNai Kurinjci.

 

8.

 

ɢ â Ƣ

 

Ȣ: Ţ ѾĢ

 

 

Ȣﺢ ɢ â

 

8.

 

pani etir paruvamaum urittena mozipa

 

 

Notes: It is intended here to provide additional information

 

Meaning:

 

The scholars do say that the autumn is also ascribed to the TiNai kuRinjci

 

9.

 

Ÿ Ţ վ

 

Ȣ: վ о ѾĢ

 

:

 

Ÿ Ţ վ .

 

Ÿ¡ á ؾ . Ţġ, ؾ . Ũ󧾡¢ , Ũ .

 

9.

 

vaikaRai vidiyal marutam

 

Notes: It is intended to enunciate the temporal stretches for the TiNai Marutam

 

Meaning:

 

The end of the night and the daybreak belong to the TiNai Marutam

 

VaikaRai is the last phase of the night. Vidiyal is the daybreak. Because here a definite season is not ascribed, it should be taken that all seasons apply. This also goes for Neytal TiNai (that is described next)

 

10

 

 

Ȣ: о ѾĢ

 

:

 

Φ,

 

ؾ ( < ., .)

 

10.

 

eRpaadu

neytal aatal meyperat toonRum

 

Notes: It is intended to ascribe the temporal stretch for the TiNai Neytal

 

Meaning: the late afternoon, the time when the light begins to disppear will announce truly the onset of the TiaNai Neytal

 

11.

 

׿ ɢġ

׿ ɢ Ȣ

 

Ȣ: о ѾĢ

 

:

 

׿ ¡ ¡, Ž 򦾡 ҽ Ƣ վ Ȣ

 

11

 

naduvunilait tiNaiyee naNpakal veenilodu

mudivunilai maruGkin munniya neRitee

 

Notes: It is intended to ascribe time and place for the TiNai Paalai here.

 

Meaning:

 

The Middle of the five TiNais, Paalai is seen to emerge when the intense heat is generated to the limit as when in the middle of summer there occurs the the middle of the day.

 

12.

 

ɢ â Ƣ

 

Ȣ: Ţ ѾĢ

 

:

 

() ɢ â .

 

12.

 

pinpani taanum urittena moziba

 

Notes: It is intended to announce something additional

 

Meaning:

 

The post cold seasons are said by the scholars to belong to this TiNai

 

Comments:

 

We must keep in sight that this chapter of the Book is on AkattiNai, the inner ecologies of the mind. While what are described are geographical features of the different periods of the day and the different seasons of the year, but they are meant obviously as METAPHORS of the mind and which are available in ordinary speech as well in literary compositions.

 

Heat Light Brightness and Darkness and so forth apply also to inner ecologies as much as tothe external and physical. These phases of the inner ecologies constituted by Brightness Darkness Warmth of intense Heat and Coldness are also different phases of the MOODS that serve the inner ecologies and hence the various kinds of thoughts. For example the Kurinjci is ascribed the darkest time of the day as well as the year indicating that it is the MOOD created by a total lack of any kind illumination and hence in total ignorance. This is the STATE of the Mind where it is ruled by IRRATIONAL forces to the extreme thus inviting the BURST of Murukan, the Illuminating Principle of the Divine World.

 

At the other extreme lies Paalai, the state of the Mood created by the most intense heat as available in the midday sun of the midsummer season. This Paalai is the psychological state of severance of all ties, of burning of all feelings and emotions so that a person is ready to DEPART and go away in many ways, to be detailed later.

 

(to continue) 6

 

7.

 

13

 

Ũ â Ħ

â ɡ

 

Ȣ: â ǡ о ѾĢ

 

:

 

Ũ âš â Ũ â, â ǡ š .

 

Ţ: ¡ġ, ȡ â Ȣ Ƣ â ǡ . ո ¡ġ, Ũ â â ǡ¢.

 

 

13.

 

iruvakaip pirivum nilaipeRat toonRum

uriya taakum enmanaar pulavar

 

Notes: It is intended to explain the behaviour to be included under the TiNai Paalai

 

Meaning:

 

The scholars will say that the two kinds of departures , one from the loved one and another along with the loved but from the kith and kin belong to the TiNai Paalai.

 

Comments: Since the conjunctive particle um here has the implicative sense, even intentions to depart over and above actual departures are included within the TiNai of Paalai. And since it is Paalai that is the theme, the two kinds of departures are included under this Paalai

 

 

Comments( Loga)

 

The Paalai is the desert landscape that has seasons and times of intense heat. Taken as metaphors of the mind, the MOODS and the various states of it, it characterises a situation in which there is dryness, an evaporation of everything that BINDS one to the ongoing situation. The desiccation of all bonds or associative linkages cause or makes it possible to DEPART from the existent situation and seek something new. Under this TiNai is included TWO kinds of departures with respect to LOVE feelings. One is departure from the sexually loved one itself and which means the desiccation of the SEXULALITY itself. The other is the man and his loved one becoming a couple of strong sexual bondage and in which the departure is from the social network of relationships, those that have nurtured them as social individuals till now. Thus it is implied that SEXUAL LOVE between a man and woman can give the courage to severe the ties from the kith and kin. However it is also said that this SEXUAL LOVE itself can dry up, get burnt off in the heat of inner ecology thus FREEING the man to move ahead , to depart from sexuality itself.

 

Existence is being in bondage , sustaining oneself in a network of associations of sexual love and social love and as long as they are alive and active , departures or even intentions towards this as such are impossible.

 

(to continue) 7

 

8

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyiyal . 򾢨¢

 

 

 

14.

 

ھ ʿ ħ

Ħɡ ̾ Ƣ

̽ Ĩ ¡

 

 

Ȣ: â ɡ ɡ о ѾĢ.

 

: â Ӿ ȡ â Ӿէǡ . ÿ Ĩ¡.

 

ɧ, šȡ¢

 

14.

 

tiNaimayak kuRutal kadinilai ilavee

nilanoruGku mayaGkutal illena moziba

pulan nan kuNarnta pulamai yore

 

Notes: It in intended to mention that among the land and time that are determinants of TiNai, there can be confusions.

 

Meaning:

 

The scholars who have an excellent understanding of TiNai will say that while the TiNai may be confused (or mixed up) in speech and hence not criticised , the inner landscapes (or the MOODS) do not

 

This means only the temporal determinants can be confused ( or mixed up)

 

15.

 

â ڧ

 

Ȣ: , Ţ ѾĢ

 

 

â ġ Ӿ ȡ ¡ .

 

 

15.

 

uripporuL allana mayaGkavum peRumee

 

Notes: It is intended to mention something that was left out.

 

Meaning:

 

The objects that are not the UripporuL variety i.e. the KarupporuL and the MutaRporuL may get mentioned with the TiNais other than their own

 

16.

 

ҽ â

Ȣ Ȣ

â է

 

Ȣ: â о ѾĢ

 

:

 

ҽ , â, , , Ȣ , á 󾢨 âǡ.

 

16.

 

puNartal pirital iruttal iraGkal

uudal avaRRin nimittam enRivai

teeruG kaalait tiNaikkurip poruLee

 

 

Notes: It is intended to explicate what are in fact meant by Urip PoruL

 

Meaning:

 

When we investigate objectively the essence of human behaviour , TiNai determining UripPoruL, it will be found to be the basic thematic cluster of human praxis : conjugating, departing, continuing, lamenting quarrelling and their immediate reasons (nimittam)

 

 

Comments:

 

Though the ecological settings hence the basic moods and so forth are theoretically noted as determinants of behaviour, the actual discourses may not allow one to infer the behaviour or activities to definitively to one mood and so forth. There may a mixing of various factors and among these the Temporal Stretches are mentioned as those that may come mixed up though within a single mood. It is also mentioned that while the concrete objects , the Karup PoruL and the inner ecologies both in terms physical and temporal may interpenetrate into these thematic departments, the Urip PoruL do not, which are the most potent factors in determining the TiNai, the department of Human Behaviour.

 

But what are these Urip PoruL?

 

These are said to be the cluster of activities related conjugation (puNartal) departure (pirital), staying on as usual (iruttal), lamenting (iraGkal), quarrelling and the reasons or intentionalities (nimittam) that accompany them. Such personal and social praxis are mutually exclusive making simultaneity or mixing up quite impossible. For e.g. the intention to conjugate and the various activities that result in translating that intention into actions cannot co-exist with the intentions such as that related departing and so forth. Thus over and above the inner ecologies and the different states of it, the most important factor the determines the nature of the activities are the INTENTIONS and which come unmixed. People in intending one do not intend, at the same time, another.

 

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyaiyal ; . 򾢨¢

 

9

 

17.

 

ξ Ƣ â

Ƣ â

 

Ȣ: , о ѾĢ

 

: ξ Ƣ , , á

 

Ţ: Β ʼ θ. Ȣ ȡ츢 Ţ ¡츢 . â Ȩ¡, Ũ â ġ š վĢȢ, Ƣ , â , 󾢨 .

 

Ƣġ . , Ģ ҽĢ ¡, Ģ âĢ ¡, .

 

â ġ, Ũ â . Ƣ ̾ ¡ Ƣ Ƣ ھĢȢ ̾¡ ̾ġ . () ȢȢ ھ Ƣ ̾ Ӿġ¢ . 󾢨 â.

 

17

 

koNdutalaik kazitalum pirintavaN iraGkalum

uNdena moziba ooridat taana

 

Notes: this sutra is meant to explicate further some component processes of the above.

 

Meaning: Sometimes it may happen that there is departing together and lamentations even within this context

 

Comments( iLam)

 

The word uNdu must be added at the end of both phrases. Or it can be taken as the contrary to negation and taken as something in general, something applicable to all tiNais. However since it is mentioned oor idattaana i.e. at some places, it may not be applicable to all the FIVE tiNais but rather the first to Paalai and second to PeruntiNai.

 

Here koNdutalaikazital means the male departing from the initial locality but together with his love. It is seen as a separate category because it cannot be that of remaining united (puNartal) as they depart from the initial place; neither can it be separation as both are together even after departure.

 

Now pirintavaN iraGkal lamenting because of the pain of separation. And because when travelling a long distance but together this lamentation does not take place but only when on account of excessive desires it occurs, it is put under the category of PeruntiNai ( and not Neytal)

 

Comments (Loga)

 

IlampuraaNar seems to be missing a subtlety that Tolkaappiyar notes in the sexual relationships. The separation can take place even when the lovers are PHYSICALLY together for over and above the physical separation there is the PSYCHICAL SEPARATION as such and which is quite frequent in love life. Remaining united in love life is remaining in Psychical Union and which has nothing to do with physical togetherness. The psychical fissure is a kind of separation but NOT the same as moving away from the initial locality together or all alone . It involves no physical translations but only psychical. Such a psychical fissure can also be pain producing and hence also something the lovers lament upon.

 

This meaning becomes clear when we view the sutra along with the following that comes next

 

18.

 

 

Ȣ:

 

(): Ƣ ɿ Ǿ () ȢȢ Ш  , Ţ ξ, â â

 

( ĸ)

 

Ȣ ¢á ¢ , Ц âšá Ȣ Ǣš âġ Ũ Ǣ ȡ

 

18

 

kalanta pozutum kaadciyum anna

 

Notes: this is also related to the above.

 

Meaning (iLam):

 

The Psychological Elements (uripporuL) that are realized at times (ooridattu) are the joy that results when the hero meets the heroine, when he sees her real intentions and when he actually encounters her in person

 

Meaning ( Loga)

 

Among the psychological elements that are actualised at times are the joys on being reunited psychically and on seeing non separable bond that seems to exist.

 

Comments( Loga)

 

Over and above the puNartal, the conjugational relationship in love, there is also the Psychical, the kalatal, that is also the source of JOY and Happiness in love life. The lovers can be physically together but psychically severed and hence isolated. This personal isolation because of psychical fissure is a source of melancholy as much as actual physical separation. However the melancholy because of psychical separation, has the function of indicating that the lovers are NO MORE isolated and hence independent. In falling in love, the lovers lose their freedom and which fact is disclosed by the psychical fissure that takes place and the pains of separation that is suffered on such occasions.

 

We should not miss the immense relevance of these observations of Tol. in the History of Indian thought. For here we have the recognition that the psychical entity exists as DISTINCT from Brahman or even the deities and hence a departure both from the Upanishadic ethos where the self was not differentiated from Brahman and the Buddhistic where the self as such was not recognised at all.

 

(to continue) 9

 

10

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyaiyal ; . 򾢨¢

 

 

19

 

Ӿ ¢ Ũ

 

Ȣ: ѾĢ

 

 

򧾡Ȣ Ӿ , ŢŨ

 

19. mutal enap paduvatu aayiru vakaittee

 

Notes: it is intended here to clarify the doubts

 

Meaning:

 

Among the different categories of objects ( enumerated as constituting the inner ecology) the fundamental objects are the landscape and time (in terms of the different periods of the day and the seasons of the year)

 

 

20.

 

¡Ƣ ̾¡ .

Ũ զ Ƣ

 

Ȣ: о ѾĢ

 

;

 

Ӿġ , .

 

Ţ: ¡ Ӿ

 

20

 

teyvam uNaavee maamaram pudpaRai

ceyti yaazin pakuttiyodu tokai.i

avvakai piRavum karuvena moziba

 

Notes: This sutra seeks to outline what are in fact the Karup PoruL

 

Meaning:

 

The category of Karup PoruL are the objects such as the deities(teyvam), the edibles (uNaa), the trees ( maamaram) birds (puL) the drums (paRai) the activities (ceyti) the harp (yaaz) and such other objects that come along with them

 

Comments: The Karup PoruL are those that emerge within the Mutal PoruL.

 

21.

 

ئ šá š¢

š.

 

Ȣ: ľ ɨ о ѾĢ

 

:

 

¡ â , 򦾡 ئ š¢,

 

21.

 

ennila maruGkiR puuvum puLLum

annilam pozutodu vaaraa vaayinum

vanta nilattin payatta vaakum.

 

Notes: It is intended as a corollary to the above sutras.

 

Meaning:

 

If the flowers and birds of a particular ecology do not come along (in speech and verses) with that but with something different, then it will be taken as belonging to this with which they occur.

 

Comments (Loga)

 

We must recall that this chapter of the Book is on Psychology, i.e. the AkattiNai and because of which there is double talk -- in talking about the physical ecology, there is at same time talk about the inner ecology of the mind. The Mutal PoruL, metaphorically here the different ecologies as determined both by the landmass and temporal stretch of the day and the seasons of the year, are actually describing the MOODS into which the mind gets and which determines the intentions and actions including the verbal. But the MOODS have various STATES and it is these states that are being described as Karup PoruL, the objects that are genetically related to the moods and which are identified as such objects as the flora and fauna, edibles the various kinds of musical instruments, the various kinds activities and so forth.

 

Just as any landscape is given an identity by an archetype the flora and fauna and so forth and in relation to the times of the day and seasons of the year, so are the states of the mind in relation to the moods. The moods exist only as various states of the mind and the Karup PoruL are the objects that configure them as such.

 

The different states of the mind are that of joy melancholy depression anxiety fear and so forth. The Karup PoruL, the concrete objects that configure the geographical ecology, exist as the mantra-complexes in the inner ecology. Just to give an example: while the bird peacock indicates a state of happiness and joy, the crow on the other hand indicates a state of sadness anxiety and melancholy.

 

The KaruP PoruL are the mantra bodies within and which are the mental reflexes of the concrete objects in the external physical ecology and which actually concretise a psychological state and which is simultaneously an expression of a mood. Thus we see here the beginnings of icon-thinking that has become so characteristic of the Tamilian approach to psychology and metaphysics and with which is filled the whole of Tamil philosophical hermeneutic and sacred lore.

 

 

 

11

 

Tol. AkattiNaiyaiyal ; . 򾢨¢

 

22

 

Ţ ¢ Ũ

ã §

 

Ȣ: Ǣ о ѾĢ.

 

(-)

 

Ƣ ŢŨ, Ţ .

 

Ţ: Ⱦɡ ը¡, . ɡ ġ âá 츨 Ƣ Ȣ š 츨ǧ Ȣ ɡ . Ⱦɡ Ȧ? ¡? ɢ, ǡš . áĢ Ũ á ը¢, ȡ.

 

22

 

peyarum vinaiyum enRu aayiru vakaiya

tiNaitoRum marIiya tiNai niLaip peyaree

 

Notes: This sutra also intends to explain the differences among human beings who are classified as Karup PoruL.

 

Meaning: The people who lead a subsistence level existence, closely tied to the ecology, are divided in accordance with theb social group they belong to and the occupations they pursue.

 

Comments: The term TiNai nilaippeyar is used to exclude people from other ecological grounds and name only people very specific to a particular region. Thereby it is also excluded the higher groups of people who not being tied very specifically to any regions range over all. Now if it is asked why not simple call them people (makkaL) instead of names of people (peyar), it should be noted that people are being classified here just like birds and animals. Now since people are the same everywhere, when it becomes necessary to differentiate them, it is rather difficult to do so except through the ecological grounds where they lead a subsistence level existence.

 

23.

 

ޯ

¢ ǧ

 

Ȣ: Ө¡ â о ѾĢ

 

(-) 츨 Ȣ . Ţ .

 

Ţ: ç. Ƣ š. ¢ ը¡ Ƣá . šá ( 112) ɡ,  . Ţ Ȣ šĢ ǡ¢. ¢ Ũ: ȡ, ǡ . ȿ Ч Ȣ , Ȣ .

 

23.

 

aayar veedduvar aadUut tiNaippeyar

aavayin varUum kizavarum uLaree.

 

Notes: In the order already noted, now the names of people belonging to Mullait TiNai are mentioned.

 

Meaning: The ecologically determined names for the males are aayar( cowherds) and veedduvar ( hunters)

 

Comments: The Ayar are cowherds who raise cattle; the Vedduvar are those who hunt animals as their profession. Thus has become the occupational name of a group of people called eyiner. Now in accordance with the rule, inferring also the unsaid from the said (Marabu 112) we can also note that there is the term aayyciyar applied to the female cowherds. Because they lived wholly dependent on the forest area, they become the people of such an ecological region. The kizavar (the owners) are TWO types : those who have gained the power to rule and those who are resident there. Such terms as KuRumpoRai Naadan comes in use because of political leadership while potuvan aayan, the ordinary cowherd because of the kulam, or group to which he belongs to.

 

24.

 

ɡ

Ũ §.

 

Ȣ: Ȣﺢ Ӿġ о ѾĢ

 

(-) á , Ţ Ũ .

 

24.

 

eenoor maruGkinum ennuG kaalai

aan aa vakaiay tNainilaip peyaree

 

Notes: This sutra seeks to explain how such names come to prevail in the remaining ecological regions such KuRinjci and so forth.

 

Meaning: when we examine how such names of people stand in the remaining tiNai, even there similar kinds names but specific to those regions are noted.

 

Comments(Loga)

 

ILampuuranar seems to miss out an important meaning available in the phrase aan aa vakaiya in the above Sutra by taking aan as meaning simply there. But it can also be taken as deity as in aan-inam that occurs in Sumerian as aanunna and hence as referring to the deities Ceyoon Maayoon etc., the ordaining deities of these ecological regions. In the above sutras concerned with social organisation and occupational interests, it can also be taken that these emerge as the phenomenal expression of the ordaining deities ( aan (deity) aa( become or manifest) vakaiya (the ways) : the ways the deities become manifest). The collectivity as such and occupational interests of a particular ecological region , both physical and psychological, are in fact ways in which the deities show themselves up.

 

 

 

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