šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

Tiruvaymozi -2 šƢ -2

1.

ţ ţ ¢

ţ ¡ɢ ţ

 

:

 

ɦ ɦ 񼡦 ﺡ Ţξ¡. ĸ Ũ, Ӿ ţʨ ¡ , ȡ Ţ , Ӿ ţ ¡ɢ Ƣ¡ ¢, Ţ ʸ ҸĢ ţ !

1.

viidumin muRRavum viidu ceytu um uyirai

viidu udaiyaanidai viidu ceymminee

 

Meaning:

 

Become FREE by liberating yourself from being attached to the objects of both the physical and linguistic realms and which are appropriated as ‘mine’ and so forth. As long as you remain attached to these objects you cannot make your soul rest in the Final Home and which is the Home of BEING. Make this HOME of BEING your own by becoming free of all others and thereby attaining a purity.

 

Comments:

 

The whole of Bakti movement that swept across India and in that uprooted the false metaphysics of the Buddhists Jains and the Vedanties also ushered in the notion of Mukti as attaining the final HOME, the HOME of BEING Himself. It is the product of ecological thinking that has been with the Tamils from very ancient days and which was given a scientific framework by the magnificent achievement of Tolkaappiyar. Over and above the geographical and cosmological ecologies that determine the forms of economic and political life, there is this INNER ECOLOGY, the psychological, that is more immediately the determinants of behavior.

 

But this inner ecology is hierarchical and one has to CLIMB UP like climbing up a mountain to reach the higher and more inclusive grounds. The personality DEVELOPS as one manages to anchor oneself at higher grounds and which includes the lower that has been passed over. The LIMIT to all these is the HOME, the viidu called variously as Tillai Ambalam, VaikuNtam, TiruCiRRambalam and so forth. While the lower abodes -- the KaRRaLies or Ataara cakras -- have as the ordaining deities, the various archetypal presentation of BEING, the deities Vinayaka Brahma VishNu Rudra and so forth, this final and most inclusive HOME has BEING Himself as He who owns it -- the Viidu Udaiyaan.

 

The climb in the metaphysical pilgrimage, the climbing up the hill, requires that we discard all the objects of thetic consciousness, the concrete and the notional and FREE ourselves from being tied down by them. As long as we remain attached to such things we remain IMPURE and hence UNFIT to access entry into the Final Home.

Reaching this Final Home and thereby being with BEING in an oneness is also piRappu aRuttal, freeing oneself from the endless existential repetition, being born again and again and suffer embodied existence. Thus Mukti is MORE THAN the NirvaNa of the Buddhists, it is more than attaining and understanding the divinity in the depths of oneself, the akam brammam asmi of Vedanta. It is moving beyond all these and being-one-with,with NO SEPARATION at all from BEING. And hence unlikein Vedanta, the soul, uyir, is there as an individual substance for it is that which is taken to the Final HOME and made to reside there forever and thereby also succeedin liberating itself from Samsara, historicity, phenomenality and so forth.

 

šƢ -2 Tiruvaymozi-2

2.

ɢ ¢ 쨸

 

 

ĸ š ¢Ǣ ¸ǡ Ҹ , š ɢ ġ ¢š. š Ţ ɨ Ȣ즸ǡ Ȣ ¡ Ƣ¡ 츢 Ũ ţ!

 

2.

minnin nilai ila man uyir aakkaikaL

ennum idattu iRai unnumin niiree

 

Meaning:

 

All the creatures that have an embodied existence have bodies both physical and non-physical that are transient like the lightening flashes in the sky. And hence freeing oneself from these impermanent objects one should ponder of BEING who stands as the Causal Ground for all these and in that also the Indestructible

 

Comments:

 

The human psyche has duality of various sorts of which the psychological is that of the sattu-asattu nature, an essence that was discovered during the Bakti period and which served the foundation of the metaphysics underlying the Bakti way of life. While this has been well recognized and accommodated in Saivism, there seems to have some confusion in VaishNava metaphysical thinking perhaps because VaishNava Acaryas were still trying read the Vedantic into these texts overlooking the important metaphysical revolution under way.

 

Here Namazvar articulates this same notion though perhaps not as explicitly as Tirumular.

The fact is there is component in the psychic constitution that seeks the ABSOLUTE, the PERMANENT, the UNCHANGING, the Sattu along with the opposite, the Asattu and because of which it is said that the anma is sat-asat. Furthermore there is also a polar functioning of the mind in which it seeks to gravitate towards the Sat liberating itself from the Asat. The genuine metaphysical life is concerned with moving towards the Sat and away from the Asat.

 

However at the initial stages there is tremendous CONFUSION where the distinctions are not well noted and within the state ofmetaphysical ignorance the Asat is taken mistakenly as the Sat and so forth. Under such conditions emerge the doctrines of the Lokayata, the naturalist and materialist philosophies where the physical pleasures and economic prosperity that affords it, is said to be true while the spiritual superstitious, false, the product of mental aberrations and so forth.

It is here that Namazvar seeks to point out all such stuffs are impermanent, momentary like the lightening flashes in the sky and hence objects that would not satisfy the craving that is already there to rest the mind in the Absolute, the Unchanging and Eternal.

 

There is strategy to recover our authentic and the other non-immediate self. As we contemplate on the fact that everything that constitutes our body both physical and mental, it will emerge that they are subject to the muuvinai --coming into being-there, sustaining itself there for a while and then disappearing only o be reissued again. .Nothing in these realms can be held onto as the absolute, the unchanging etc. And as this realization grows healthily in the understanding, the self, becoming disenchanted with them will slowly liberate itself from them and at which point the Presence of BEING will also dawn like the sunrise of the early morning and thus initiating the self into the metaphysical realms that are Unchanging and Permanent.

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

3.

 

Ӿ

; ¢

 

:

 

Ӿ šǢ ‘ ’ ɨ , ը Ȣ ‘ ’ â Ȣ 츢, ﻡ ը Ӿ Цا Ũ . š šȡ ¢, š Ũ 츢 á Ŧȡ Ȣ.

 

3.

 

niir numatu enRu ivai veermutal maayttu iRai

ceermin; uyirkku atan neer niRai illai

 

Meaning:

 

Dislodge yourself from functioning with the finite mind where in social existence there is the differentiation of ‘I and You” and acquisitiveness whereby everything that is understood is also said to be “mine or yours” by uprooting the Metaphysical Ignorance that’s the root cause of it all completely and thereby attaining BEING who would disclose Himself in His most authentic form at that point.For the soul there is nothing more fulfilling or saturating than this.

 

Comments:

 

All human beings are normally INCOMPLETE or UNSATURATED (apuurNam) in their ordinary existence and because of which theycrave for this and that by way of attaining a COMPLETION or Saturation. But because of the metaphysical Ignorance or INNER DARKNESS, the human vision is always limited and because of which the understanding remains finite and consciousness essentially the-tic. This is the primordial source of human anxiety and existential angst.

 

The tendency to differentiate selves into others and I and thereby into a social dynamics of suppression and oppression creates miseries of all kinds. The acquisitiveness that comes along with this social dynamics is also a false way of enjoying the fulfillment one seeks.

 

Only when the self succeeds in destroying these ego gymnastics that it becomes sufficiently tuned to witness BEING in His most authentic form. The finite mind that is full of prejudices of all kinds can never witness BEING thus and enjoy the fulfillment that it affords. So the real sadhana for attaining and enjoying Bliss is to root out from the soul the metaphysical ignorance that’s the source of these stress-breeding tendencies.

 

This understanding of Namazvar is also met with among the so many njnanies who developed the Tamil sacred lore be they Saivites Saktas or VaishNavas.The self cannot attain its real essence unless the ego-self is defeated and attain an inner purity and at which point the soul is graced with the presence of BEING in His most authentic form. In the witnessing of BEING thus, the soul attains a completion or saturation and hence a state totally stress free.

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

4.

 

 

:

 

¡Ψ¢, š , Ч츢 š ɡ Ȣ Ũ¢ Ǿ ŢŨ š š. ¡ Ģ Ȣ ŧɡ . ¢ , ν , ġ 츢, ﻡ ŧɡ Ȣ . (ﻡ ʸ Ż)

 

4.

 

illatum uLLatum allatu avan uru

ellai ila an nalam pulku paRRu aRRee

 

Meaning:

 

BEING is the non manifest cuukkamai forms that remains concealed and inexistent (illatu); He is also the various archetypal manifestational forms where it is intuited that He is a reality in the world (uLLatu); and above these two forms of presence He is also there as totally transcendent to both (allatu). Thus BEING is boundless in terms f forms and in order to understand this and exist one-with-Him, we have to free ourselves from all attachments (paRRu) that throw the mind into finitude.

 

Comments:

 

BEING is immeasurable no matter how we choose to measure. He remains always a SURPLUS, the ever BEYOND and thereby defeating every attempt of the human mind to give a definite form and structure and thereby make Him a determinate reality. BEING is supremely ELUSIVE and UNCANNY in being present as the concealed, as the non-concealed and manifest and also the One beyond all these.

 

This kind of understanding of BEING and also remain united with this bewildering aspect of BEING is the limit of human metaphysical reaches and which is also the most fulfilling of the human needs. However the attainment of such a state of being is possible only if various desires and attachments to the world are singed to ashes and the soul is led to enjoy an INNER purity that lifts it from all kinds of the-tic consciousness, forms of consciousness that come along with Temporality and hence still circumscribed.

 

The anma should free itself from all such attachments as a precondition to the understanding of the true essence and presence of BEING and fully immerse oneself in it.

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

5.

ɢ ţ ¢

Ȣ

 

:

 

Ǣ Ǣ âɡ Ţ , Ȣ ڼ 쾢¢ , ЦЫ ġ 츢 ¡ ž, ţ . Ԧɢ, š Ȣ ¢â Ȣ , Ƣ¡ ¢ Ũ , ġЧ.

 

5.

 

aRRatu paRRenil uRRatu viidu uyir

ceRRu atu man uRil aRRu iRai paRRee

 

Meaning:

 

Only when the attachments to a particular archetypal forms of BEING are severed that the Final Redemption, the Home Coming will become possible. And the way to attain this is to contemplate on the Unchanging that remains concealed within the various presentational forms. As one gets access to this, the various attachments to archetypal forms will fall off naturally on their own

 

Comments:

 

This brief verse indicates that Namazvar has enjoyed the highest in the metaphysical reaches and hence someone genuinely universal. By PaRRu or IRai paRRu means here iRai vadiva paRRu, attachments to the various archetypal forms that make one cultic. Such is the genesis of religious denominations such VaishNava Saiva Sakta and so forth and also religionists such as Muslim Christian and so forth. The Absolute is BEYOND all these determinate forms either as archetypes or as revealed through a messiah and contained within scriptural utterances. Such determinate forms allow themselves to the formation of cults and religions and hence also conflicts of all kinds.

 

Namazvar, though a VaishNava Bakta is also one who understands pretty well that there is a state of being that is transcendent to that and which he identifies as enjoying Mukti or Viidu PeeRu, the final Home Coming. He is quite clear that this is possible only when the cultic and religious forms of existence are transcended and BEING is understood as Forever the Surplus, the Beyond.

 

But how to rise to such a position?

 

Not by condemning the archetypes and ridiculing the worship as well as the worshippers. The WAY is to worship such archetypes and within that seek the Deep Structure of all such muurtties. As the mind moves happily with the all the archetypes and with reverence to all seek to understand the BEING who remains the Deep Structure of all, then the emotional attachment or Bakti naturally gives way to the experiencing of Mukti.

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

6

 

¡ Ȣ

 

:

 

νŢ Ȣ Ш Ţ ġ ¡ ɡ ɡ ɡ âýɡ âý ھ̯ĸ Ǣ ɡ ȡ. ɢ Ţ ¡ â ţΧ š¡!

 

6

 

paRRu ialan iisanum muRavum ninRanan

paRRu ilaiyaay avan muRRil odungkee

 

Meaning:

 

BEING stands as the Isan, the absolutely pure and without any attachments that would introduce prejudice in thinking. He stands in the world as such in order to encourage the anmas, full of attachments of all kinds, to FREE themselves of all, become PURE and thereby attain the FULLNUSS that He is. Therefore one should liberate oneself from all such attachments and thus becoming PURE, immerse oneself fully in the WHOLENESS of BEING and enjoy Mukti

 

Comments:

 

BEING as Isan or Siva is totally detached from everything phenomenal and because of which He is a WHOLENESS for whom there is nothing as ALIEN, the paripuuraNan, the ‘muRRan or Muktan”, the absolutely fulfilled and hence a reality not looking beyond Itself. Any kind of attachment introduces a prejudice that also binds the anma or even a deity to a particular realm in the boundless metaphysical world. To be fully in all, one must be FREE of such prejudice generating attachments. BEING as Isan is NATURALLY so and HE presents Himself as such and stands there as in the world so that the anmas will be encouraged to be like Him. Through His presence as Isan, he PULLS up the anmas towards an inner Purity where there is a total absence of prejudices of whatever kind.

 

This state of Being of the anmas is also the state of being a WHOLE for it is there one-with everything not excluding anything as Alien. BEING in His wholesomeness stands non alien to any and hence when the anma also becomes such, it also begins to enjoy this WHOLNESS, paripuuraNam, a total saturation or Mukti.

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

7.

 

Ƣ

Ƣ ̸

 

:

 

ġ , 쾢 ġ ƢǢ Ţ Ǣš . ġ 𨸸 Ƣ Ǣ ƢǢ Ȣ .

 

7.

 

adaGku ezil sambattu adaGkak kaNdu iisan

adaGku ezil aqtu enRu adaGkuka uLLee

 

Meaning:

 

BEING who stands as the Isan, hence ABOVE all deities, is not only That which wields all the Powers but also the source of everything that is aesthetically appealing. One must contemplate quietly on these aspects of BEING and noting that it is only these divine beauties that are really uplifting and saturating, one must meditate upon these and get fully immersed in them.

 

Comments:

 

Right from the Sumerian times we can see that in Agamic Hinduism, the fine arts have played an important role in temple culture as it is so even now. Barata Natyam Karnatic music as well as the many folklorist dance dramas are products of attempts to CULTURE the FEELINGS that are otherwise so difficult. Namazvar notes here that genuine AESTHETICS is ultimately DIVINE with BEING as Isan, the deity of deities also the ultimate source of everything beautiful and pleasing. The aesthetically appealing is NOT contained, as maintained by the ancient Greeks, in some measurements but rather in the DIVINE QUALITIES.

Tirumular, also see the worship of beautifulworld as SaktiNipaatam,a way of gaining the KuNdalini into the anma and thus energizing it further .Every expression of BEAUTYin dance music appearance and so forth is an expression of Isan hence also divine. As one appreciates the things of beauty and gets immersed in their essence, the soul is uplifted in its existential horizon and the feelings become cultured, something that cannot be done if only the analytical mind is cultivated by sharpening the intellect. The feelings must be cultivated along with thinking and this is possible only if the anma meditates upon the beautiful and immerses itself in it. This is not Yoga though meditations are involved. What it means is that one must sing dance paint built and so forth and allow the BEAUTY deep within manifest itself as out there and thus made an object of appreciation and deep contemplation.

 

The cadence of the hymns, the rhythms of the dance, the beats of the drum, the drone of the Veena, the hues of the paintings, the curvatures and balance in the sculptures, the immense variety of beauties in nature and so forth are there as expressions of Isan and all to capture the wild mind of the anmas and culture them through aestheticalization. The anma that appreciates the beautiful becomes thereby also psychological beautiful and hence FREE of anything ugly and despicable.

 

Among the VaishNavas this is also noted as the KalyaNa GuNam, the qualities that would make one rejoice endlessly

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

8

 

Ǣ Ǣ

 

:

 

, Ƣ վ Ȣ Ǣ Ƣ ġ 츢 Ȣ ŧ ¢ š

 

8.

 

uLLam urai ceyal uLLa im muunRaiyum

uLLik keduttu iRai uLLil oduGkee

 

Meaning:

 

There are three realities: the ego-self and speech and actions that increase the egoity. Without banishing them as irreal or just simply illusions, you should seek to UNDERSTAND the root causes of it all and thereby liberate yourself from their hold. Having becomepure in this way what remains to be done is deep contemplation of BEING and immersing oneself in Him.

 

Comments:

 

Nammazvaar is well noted for his universalism which has become, unfortunately, lost in the philosophies of the VaishNava Acaryas in later times,Ramanuja being no exception to this. In this verse Nammaazvaar calls for the practice of a UNIVERSAL Sadhana, something applicable to every individual, no matter what his cultic or religious affinities are. There is mamakaram, the “I’ness and ‘mine’ness, the self acting and speaking as the Ego-Self and which in turn pulls the self further into that vicious circle.

 

These three must be uprooted from the self for the self to become PURE i.e. egoless. What is the way?

One must seek to UNDERSTAND the origin of these dispositions WITHOUT banishing them asirreal or illusory, as the advaitins are prone to dowith their Mayaavaadam and its attendant notions of aroopitam adhyasam and so forth. The self acting and speaking as ego-self is a TRUTH and hence one must seek out the configuring forces and thereby FREE one self from their fiendish hold.

 

We see here the presence of Hermeneutics that is such a strong theme among the Tamil philosophers and right from the days of Tolkaappiyam if not earlier. What is understood and assimilated as truth, does not bind one anymore just as a book read and well understood cease to be interesting or binding anymore. This is the meaning of the crucial phrase “uLLik keduttal”, destroying through seeking to understand.

Having freed oneself from such binding factors, the self becomes truly egoless having only BEING as the final Ground of repose or attachment. Thus after this,life becomes one where only BEING is contemplated with self immersing deeper and deeper into BEING, the form of life that was exemplified by Namazvar as was also by numerous mystics throughout India (and perhaps also all over the world)

 

šƢ -2Tiruvaymozi-2

 

9.

 

, ġ

Ţ; 쨸 Ţ

 

:

 

ĸ š쨸¢ Ţ ġ ž , ¢ ̾ ¡. ɢ š , ĸ š¢ ţ Ţ. ý ,ɦ 쨸 Ţ š .

 

9

 

oduGka avankaN, oduGkalum ellaam

vidum; pinnum aakkai vidumpozutu eNNee

 

Meaning:

 

In order to free oneself from the miseries of existence what ought to be done is to immerse oneself totally into BEING. And this because when one does that one if freed of all chains of bondage that ties one to the embodied existence. This thought must also be there at the point of death where the body is left for good (in order to overcome the anxiety of death)

 

Comments:

 

For most people death is most frightening and at the thought of death one becomes most anxious. This is not only because in living as an ordinary creature one assumes a physical frame but also because there are all kinds of attachments that comes along with the attachment to the body. The body not only provides the sense of identity and hence social existence, but by being the tool of all kinds of pleasures, it is loved dearly. Thus existence becomes identified with bodily existence along with all the ties it creates.

 

Death, being an event where one is deprived not partially but totally the whole of existence becomes immensely frightening only because of the LOSS it implies. However if one is FREED of the various attachments and ties then letting go the body will not be so frightening. The letting go that to which one is not attached will not produce any anxiety at all.

 

But how to attain this condition of no attachment to anything at all so that death is not an event to be feared?

 

Namazvar suggest a technique here: contemplate on BEING and dissolve self by total immersion into BEING Itself. This is NOT asceticism where the ego mind tries willfully to denounce everything that is binding.What is suggested is a smooth and effective of Bakti where as one dissolves into BEING itself one is freed as if spontaneously and without any pains of all the binding fetters. For BEING is totally AUTONOMOUS and naturally free of any bondage.As one transmutes one’s personality into the personality of BEING by a total immersion into the essence of BEING, the self is also freed of all binding attachments.

Namazvar also suggests that this must be remembered at the point of death so that it can be faced without any fear and anxiety.

 

šƢ -2 Tiruvaymozi-2

 

10.

 

Ҹ ý

 

:

 

Ǣ Ȣ Ǣɢ , Ӿ , ġ ¡ 츢 ǡ. Ǣ Ƣ¡ Ҹ ý Ȣ Ģ, Ũ дǢ Ģ ھ¡ ʸ Ũ ǡ ţ!

 

10.

 

eN perukku an nalattu oN poruL iiRu ila

vaN pukaz naaraNan tiN kazal ceeree

 

Meaning:

 

BEING who captures the imagination through His archetypal presentations and compels metaphysical thinking and thereby purifies the soul is not only the form of LIGHT but also a reality that does not have a point of termination after which it is no more. Among the various archetypal forms, there is that of NaaraNan of special significance and because of which one must worship and attain a vision of His dancing feet with brilliant anklets.

 

Comments:

 

Having talked of BEING in general so far, now Namazvar comes to the various archetypal forms in which BEING presents Himself for the sake of the anmas and all for compelling metaphysical thinking that would destroy the darkness of ignorance, the defiling impurities in the mind. Each archetypal form takes over the cognitive functioning of the mind, channeling is definite directions and all consistent with the configuration of the understanding of the soul that is possessed. The archetypes are MAGICAL in their hold and each one of them has a specificity about them - the Uma as Kali and Durga, Muruka as the six-faced Kantan, Siva as the Siva Nadarajah and so forth- are presentational forms of the same BEING but with specific purposes for destroying a specific area of Darkness.

 

Thus in this Namazvar’s choice falls on NaaraNan, the form of BEING who discloses Himself as the One who can be reached though the music. The word ‘naar” is an ancient Tamil word that also occurs in Sumerian times and means not only stringed instruments but also the music that arise from them. NaaraNan is the BEING to be attained through Dance and Music i.e. through the fine arts that cultivate FEELINGS and EMOTIONS and not just the analytical and logical thinking.

 

The aesthetical, through providing the experience of beauties, beatifies the mind and thereby removes the dirt, those which are ugly. The form NaaraNan compels not the logical but the aesthetical and the recognition of BEING as the ‘uyarvaRa uyar nalam udaiyavan’, the ONE who has all the goodness without any exceptions.

 

š Ƣ- 2 Tiruvaymozi-2

 

2-11

 

¢

 

:

 

Ƣ¡ ھ¡ տâ Ȣ š ɡ ʧ ǡ 񦽡 šƢ¡ ¢ Ȣš ġ

 

2-11

 

ceert tadat tenkurukuurc cadakoopan col

ciirt todai aayirattu oortta ippattee

 

Meaning:

 

The above ten verses that outline the axiomatic truths of spiritual existence and as announced by me, Cadakoopan living in the Ten Kurukuur, the city of undying fame, are also to be seen as the basic understanding in the thousand hymns (of Tiruvaymozi) composed with pleasing melodies.

 

Comments:

 

Like the first ten, this second ten is also said to stand out as axiomatic truths that would ILLUMINATE, the spiritual outpourings of the later parts that are also composed with pleasing melodies. Thus these are like sutras, verbal expressions that articulate DEEP INSIGHTS that are simultaneously axiomatic truths, truths that are universal and undying.

 

Thus Namazvar is aware of TWO levels of his writings. At the initial level, it is spiritual experiences that constitute the dynamics of metaphysical life. There is pain in being separated from BEING or BEING-as-NaaraNan and joys on being reunited and so forth. In all these DIRECT experiencing of BEING in His archetypal manifestations, there is pedagogy, the instructing and illuminating the mind and thereby purifying it also. In giving vent to the pains and joys in such direct encounters, there is also reflecting as to the causes of such existential events and which in fact bring about the illuminations that are metaphysically meaningful.

 

The genius of Namazvar consists in collecting all such insights, refine them through further reflections and articulate them in a sutra-like style- crisp economic and terse and hence very difficult to fathom the depths. The first three patikams of Tiruvaymozi are of this type.

 

We should note here that the same kind of relationshipholds between Civanjanabotam of Meykandar and the whole of EXISTENCE. Metaphysics should make us UNDERSTAND existence and hence must unfold axiomatic TRUTHS, the PiramaNaas. The seeking of such axiomatic truths and providing a rational explanation that disclose why and how they are axiomatic truths is the notion of Philosophy in the Dravidian culture. And this is so only because it is hermeneutically oriented.

Existence must be explained and NOT driven away as an illusion, a falsity. Only the mind that UNDERSTANDS existence through and through can free itself from it and hence move towards Mukti or final liberation.


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