Having made an in depth study of the Psychoanalysis of Appar as contained in the enormously beautiful and profound TiruvaiyaaRu Patikam, now I begin the study of Tirvatikai Viiraddaanam Patikam (4: 2) where we have another refrain: anjcuvathu yaatonRumillai anjca varuvatu millai i.e., there is nothing that I fear and there will be nothing to fear in the future as well. Thus this patikam in wiping out fear phobia and so forth from the soul totally deserves to be called, I think, psychotherapeutic in essence. We must recall here that Saivism (VaishNavism and such other Tantric cults) is essentially Depth Psychological and hence essentially scientific but in the hermeneutic sense.
There was and is freedom for any individual to explore his own depths and in that also PURIFY himself and become fit for being blessed with Moksa. This Patikam records such an inner exploration which allowed Appar to emerge fearless and we must note that this was not in a vacuum, but in the thick of the battle with Pallava Emperor who was a Jain and who was initially very displeased with Appar was deserted Jainism in favor of Saivism into which he was born initially anyway. The threats to his life were real and it is in such a context that he composed this Patikam probably the second Patikam he wrote.
I shall proceed in the same way as I did with TiruvaiyaaRu Patikam and will seek out how exactly Appar managed to get rid of Fear and Phobia from his heart and how he understood such emotions.
BEING provides the Resources for Overcoming Fear.
In this first verse, Appar outlines that if one leads a life of emotional closeness with BEING, then BEING will bless the anma with all the things that are required to battle with all those things that would breed fear and phobia and emerge victorious and free of these emotions. The sources of fear are: a disturbed mind because of guilt, a personality where people are disgusted, the diseases that bring about physical and mental weakness, excessive anger and a violent temper where killings are not avoided and always greedy and seek to possess everything as one’s own and so forth.
But how does BEING help out?
He has the Sacred Ash that installs the desire for Inner Purity, the Sandal Wood paste that would make one think good for the people and the Crescent Moon that would supply the Amutu that would replenish and refresh the body and mind.
Similarly he has the Bull, the Snake and the Pure Waters and so forth the meanings of which are given below in the comments.
We should also note that BEING discloses Himself as wearing the tiger skin to show that He has conquered the uncontrollable and beastly ANGER, the animalism and which can in fact can rebound and strike mortal FEAR in one.
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cuNNaveN cantanac caantunj cudartiGkal cuuLaamaNiyum
vaNNa urivai udaiyum vaLarum palvaLa niRamum
aNNal aran muraN eeRum akalam vaLaaya aravaum
tiNNan kedilap punalum udaiyaar iruvar tamar naam
anjcuvatu yaaonRu millai anjca varuvatu millai
There is nothing that I fear now and there is nothing to fear in the future too. For I am a close associate of Siva who appears wearing the while ashes of the limit of Purity; smears his whole body with the fragrant Sandal wood paste that is symbolic of the good and pleasant; wears the skin of the ferocious tiger showing that he is beyond intense anger; allows His whole body shine bright with the coral-red hue; has as His vehicle the immensely powerful While Bull of unbelievable virility; sport the snake of KuNdalini on His brought chest and has the clean waters flowing in the River of Kedilam that can cleanse the soul.
Appar is actually outlining here indirectly those things that would eliminate all kinds of FEARS in a symbolic way and hence we have to practice Hermeneutic Semiotics and wrest out the MEANINGS buried in these symbolic allusions.
First of all he claims that he is emotionally very close of BEING-as-Siva, the ‘tamar’ and because of which there is NO Fear now and there will be none in the future as well. Thus the psychotherapeutic technique that is Appar is suggesting is a kind life which is essentially RELIGIOUS though not necessarily the dogmatic and merely ritualistic and so forth. The word ‘tamar” means the blood relatives and hence the religion he recommends if one where one is in an intimate relationship with BEING, a one of very close emotional ties with BEING.
But why should this enable the eradication of FEAR totally from the person?
It is here that the symbolically intimated meanings become relevant.
The White Ash, by its color and essence indicates the LIMITS in inner purity and hence one with an intimacy with such BEING would also seek to be PURE in heart and mind and hence one who would not think of doing any evil to anybody. The sandal paste of good fragrance symbolizes thinking and feeling that is pleasant to all and hence something good and beautiful and appreciated and loved by all.
The Crescent Moon, as is well known is that which will provide the Amutu, that nectar that would keep the body and mind in good health. Each time the body weakens through disease old age and so forth, this Crescent Moon will ooze out the Amutu and throw away the bodily weakness and the deposits of old age and senility.
Now the golden or red body of Siva stands as a contrast with the Blue or Black body of VishNu. While the BLACK stands for MYSTERY and hence the perpetuation of the UNCONSCIOUS, the Red or Golden stands for its opposite - the destruction of the Mystical and transmuting it into clarity, of clear consciousness so that there is UNDRSTANDING with apodictic certainty and which will provide an inner strength that is absolutely unshakable.
The tiger is one of the most ferocious killer animals and here the wearing of its skin stands the conquering of the animalism, the killer instinct and keeping under it control and in fact transmuting it into LOVE, the humanization of the human beings. The presence of BEING-as-Siva would kill the killer instinct and transmute the human essence into that of non-aggression and love. But all these require prolonged psychic struggles and which in turn require immense Psychic Energy. This is also provided by BEING for He holds it as a snake that wrestles on His broad chest. Another form of this is the BULL and which stands for VIRILTY and which allows the prolongation of youth and thus postponing the onset of senility and with that the decline of the mental bodily alertness as well.
And finally we come to the Pure Waters, which symbolizes the cleansing processes that make a person PURE, free of the Mummalam that darkens the soul and makes it evil.
It is quite interesting that in this verse most of the icons that figure prominently are also the icons with the metaphysical meanings that sustain a VaishNava way of life. What is also equally interesting is that while most of these remain POSITIVE in VaishNavism, they are presented negatively here and if at all positive then only in a transmuted form.
Siva is made to appear as the wearer of the tusks of the Boar Avatar just as he is made to wear the skin of the Tiger as symbolic of conquering the animalism in man and the brutalism that comes along with it. While the Turtle Avatar is mentioned very positively but not the ordinary turtle but only the GOLDEN one.
We have also the Wings of Garuda figuring in the flag but along the AXE that chops off the wings.
And in all these we still have the Sacred Thread as symbolic of the inner Moon-Rays that illuminate the mind and which is peculiar to Saivism though now appropriated as something exclusive to the Brahmin caste.
The meanings of all these and as exercises in Hermeneutic semiotics are given in the comments below.
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puuNdatoor keezal eyiRum ponRikaz aamai puraLa
niiNda tiN tool valanj cuuzntu nilaak katir poola veNNuulum
kaandaku puLLin ciRakuG kalanta kaddaGkak kodiyum
iiNdu kedilap punalaum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
njcuvati yaatonRu millai anjca varuvatu millai
There is nothing that I fear now and there is nothing to fear in the future too. For I am a close associate of Siva who appears wearing the tusks of the boar that seeks to dig into muddy soil; with broad and huge shoulders of great bravery all because in the psychic depths there is the golden turtle turning over and with the sacred threads rustling like the rays of the pure moon; with a flag that combines the wings of the Garuda with the axe and the pure waters of Kedilam (as if that of Ganges)
Again Appar maintains that he conquers FEAR because he is in an intimate relationship with BEING who appears as Siva with certain capacities that remain the possibilities of any person. Again we have to practice Hermeneutic Semiotics to wrest out what he means by these very symbolic descriptions.
The boar stands, as one of the Avatars of VishNu, as one of the powers that takes the mind into the Underground World, the Muddy Earth and which here is understood as the realms of the Unconscious, the hidden depths of a person where is lodged the traces of karma that have been elicited in the past. Digging into it means exploring the depths of one’s own psyche. But why should such a boar be defeated and it’s potent weapon, the tusks, be worn as a sign of victory over it?
The tusk of the boar is different from that of the elephant whose tusk is also broken but only one and used as the tool for writing metaphysical treatises of outstanding merits. While the elephant explores the unconscious depths and makes the contents INTELLIGIBLE and hence the whole exploration is hermeneutical in essence, this is not so with the explorations of the same by the boar. The boar delves into depths not to understand and conquer but to enter into those realms and remain captivated and hence arrested by it.
Next is the symbol of the turtle which is also another avatar of VishNu but here is taken as the Golden Turtle and hence with a difference in meaning. The color gold symbolizes TRUTH and Energy that is Pure. It appears that when this golden turtle rustles in the depths, a person is endowed with great strength and bravery and hence a mood not to fall towards the oppositions but the battle valiantly against it. This meaning also goes with the meaning of the Muppuri Nuul, the sacred threat that rustles on the broad chest. It symbolizes the streaking into the psychic interior the illuminating LIGHT in soft glows so that in being metaphysically illuminated a person is also led to enjoy a mood of calmness, gentleness and humanness. There is energization of a kind where metaphysical anxiety and hence the birth on intense anger is slowly overcome but all only because of brave battle with the DARK within oneself.
Next comes the flag with wings of Garuda and the chopping axe (kaddu aGkam: that which chops off the limbs?) and which may be again with reference to the basic symbols of VishNu and where the Garuda remains the vehicle of Laksmi, the Goddess of earthly riches and a blissful family life. Here we have the Saivite attitude that rebels against the ordinary family of sexual happiness and seeks to chop off the wings of Garuda that implants such desires in the depths of human psyche.
We have already explained in the first verse the significance of the Pure Waters
The Psychotherapy of Appar-3
Appar was a philosophical warrior who single handed not only challenged the Emperor Mahendra Pallava but also changed the whole course of the History of the Tamils directly and the whole of India indirectly. Certainly his actions were not only FEARLESS but also very POWERFUL in terms of reshaping the course of History itself. The Tamil Language and Culture was down in the drain assailed by Sanskrit culture of useless dry and meaningless logical disputes of the Jains and Buddhists who propounded godless philosophies and which was supported by the kings. A great cultural battle was the only way to recover and Appar provided the lead followed by Sambantar and many others.
He must have reflected back upon his own immense courage and composed this Patikam in the context of understanding his own warrior-like disposition. His battle was for the RIGHT and hence his anger and battles were essentially ETHICALLY sound and which aspect of battle action is a blessing of Siva, the one wearing the young snake and the Uruttira Paddam.
The ENERGY directed towards battling the evil, within and without is supplied also by Siva for He sports the Tiricuul, the Sakti precisely for such purposes. But quite interesting is the Muttu Vadam, a garland of pearls and which indicates the capacity to cool down and be kind. Even when during the battle intense anger is shown, there is cooling down when its all over- there is NO taking vengeance because of hatred, power play and so forth.
With such a spirit to battle not alone will not let there be FEAR in the mind but also will not serve to elicit evil karmas that would bounce back later as mental depressions that would cause to FEAR for one’s future. The war that is ethically sound will not bring about any depression but only immense joys.
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otta vadattu iLanaakam uruttira paddam iraNdum
muttuvadak kaNdikaiyum muLaittezu muuviali veelum
citta vadamum atikai ceeNuyar viiddanj cuuzntu
tattuG kedilai punalum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvathu yaatonRu millai anjca varuvathu millai
There is nothing that I fear now and there is nothing to fear in the future too. For I am a close associate of Siva who appears wearing a young snake as if a suitable necklace and on His broad shoulders both the Uruttira Paddam that shows all that He is capable of intense anger and destruction of the evil and ignoble. And though He has as His weapon the three pronged Spear of boundless Energy He also sports a necklace of pearls disclosing that He can calm down the angry hearts. Siva as such shows Himself as always there to help the devotees in the temple of Viiraddam with immense and huge towers in the precincts of Citta Vadam in the city of Atikai where also flows the river Kedilam that is also owned by Him.
Most of the iconic features that are singled out by Appar here have something to do with bravery and courage and which are seen as gifts of BEING-as-Siva here. First of all the temple is called Viirattaanam or Viiraddam, one of the temples notable for the heroic exploits of BEING-as-Siva who appears in such places with all the adornments of a warrior and other symbols that would enable anyone to rise up as warrior.
First of all we have snake as a girdle around the neck and in a manner that is quite becoming and which shows that He is capable of supplying ENERGY for the deserving in the form of Libido, the KuNdalini. The snake is said to be YOUNG to indicate that it is capable of youthful virility and which comes along with ability to FIGHT fiercely against the foes, the inner and outer and which is symbolized by the Uruttira Paddam worn on the arms.
Now Siva has as one of His weapons the Tricuul, the Muuvilai Veel and which is perhaps the most ancient of Siva’s weapons and which symbolizes the Sakti that allows one to battle with foes fearlessly. But along with this He is also said wear the Muttu Vadam, a necklace of Pearls the soft glow of which indicates the CALMING down the animated spirit.
The point of being in an intimate relationship with Siva as such is that Siva will provide all the resources to combat fearlessly the foes within and without and which would NOT allow FEAR to be there in mind.
The Psychotherapy of Appar-4
This verse is quite remarkable in bringing together a number of contrasting icons, mythical themes and iconic features but all having the meanings of various dispositional traits enjoyable by human beings. One has to be brave and willing to fight when evil and arrogant individuals are met with but at the same one has to speak sweet music to others. One has to be unbending in the face of evil and ignoble adversaries but amidst the good and meek, really humble and very flexible.
Over and above these and as the central point we have the mention of what can be called Transgressive Sexuality, the sexuality of the Golden Body. The female deer and its young symbolize the severance of the bondage to Samsara, the historical and where one enjoys a kind of satisfaction of the desire for immortality indirectly through having self-replications as one’s own young ones. This ordinary sexuality is overcome and replaced with the Transgressive Sexuality (Vintu Jayam) which leads to enjoying a Golden Body, a body of eternal youthful vitality and which is symbolically communicated by the Golden Antelope that Siva as Somaskanda holds in His hands.
Another point related to this is the need to cultivate a wholesome UNDERSTANDING, an understanding that leaves behind NOTHING as beyond it. The Sky belongs to Siva and the Earth to Tirumaal and the reality is a single figure where one half is Siva and the other half is Tirumaal. The point is we have to understand BOTH and should not be like the Vedanti and other idealists who banish the earthly and sexuality to the realms of the irreal just to avoid its contemplation and hence choosing to remain IGNORANT. Such Vedanties cannot conquer FEAR for there are realms that they are not familiar and the EROS lurks in the depths of such realms ready bounce at any time and unsettle the mind.
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¿¡ý « The Psychotherapy of Appar-5
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madamaan maRi poRkalaiyum mazuppaam porukaiyil viiNaiyum
kudamaal varaiya tiN tooLun kunicilaik kuuttin payilvum
idamaal tazuviya paakam irunilaneeRRa cuvadum
nadamaar kedilap punalum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvati yaatonRu millai anjca varuvatu millai
There is nothing that I fear now and there is nothing to fear in the future too. For I am a close associate of Siva who appears with the symbols of female deer with its young and which implies that Siva has conquered the sexual libido that binds one to the historical and at the same that of the Golden Male Deer indicating the enjoyment of sexual bliss as Amutu that becomes possible with victory over the ordinary sexual libido. Siva also appears as the immense bravely with shoulders immense like the dark peaks of the Himalayas but also as the dancer who bents down like the bows and dances the dance Kunicilaik kuuttu. Siva the Lord of Sky, by having as His Left half VishNu, also shows Himself as the Lord of ALL, both the earth and heavens. On top of all these He is also the Lord of the River Kedilam with water that flows dancing away.
This verse is remarkable in bringing together a number of contrary qualities and aspects of BEING that are also possibilities for human beings to enjoy.
The first contrast emerges with the ordinary female deer with its young mentioned along with the male antelope and which is said to be GOLDEN. This golden antelope symbolizes the golden body but still sexually virile and where by law of nature so widely present even among the mammals, the male of immense strength also enjoys the right to have sexual union with many females. But this right and privilege is NOT for all among the human beings but only for those who like the Siddhas enjoy the GOLDEN body, a body that has ceased to produce the seminal fluid with Vittu, the seeds that are capable species reproduction, or progeny. Such individuals are deemed the Mahaviira, the great warriors.
The next contrast is between the Mazu, the axe and ViiNai, the harp. Here while the Axe symbolizes inner courage and determination to battle and destroy the evil forces, the Harp the soft and gentle music and hence humane feelings towards all. To be free of fear one has to BATTLE the evil and be kind to the good, discriminating between them correctly.
The next contrast is between the huge mighty and ERECT shoulders and that of bending them like the bows and dancing a dance that requires that. Here while immense bravery and courage to combat and battle the evil is recommended but also the need to humble and kind and perhaps to the good and meek.
The next contrasts is between the Siva, the Lord of the Sky and VishNu the Lord of the Earth and which contrast is neutralized by combining both into a single figure, that of Siva having as His left half VishNu himself. He point is to eradicate FEAR totally from the mind, both the heaven and earth, the physical and metaphysical must be integrated and understood collectively. We cannot afford to be ignorant of any realms in the cosmos.
The Psychotherapy of Appar-5
GaNesha and Muruka
Both GaNesha and Muruka are said to be the sons of Siva in a metaphorical vein and in which GaNesha is older or the earlier presentation of Siva Himself as such. As KantapuraaNam makes it clear Muruka, the polycephalic is Kanta VeeL, is Cataaciva Himself and which means Cataaciva is the DS of Muruka Himself. This is also a mythological way of appropriating the astrophysical Cosmology of Fire, the burst of Eri in the primordial times that violated the Mai-Iri, the DARKNESS that was already there. If Muruka is this Agni that violates the prevailing DARKNESS and let there be LIGHT and consciousness and which acts continuously to CLARIFY understanding so that human beings enjoy truths with apodictic certainty, what is communicated by the figure of GaNesha, the Muutta Pillaiyaar?
Siva is BEING-with-Natam and hence the Male and Uma is BEING-with-Vintu and hence the Female endowed with tireless fecunditive powers. Thus Uma as Inanna (the creatrix) and Kaamatci (she who controls sexual happiness) is the POWER who installs SEXUALITY, the EROS as a fabric of the cosmos. Thus if Muruka is closely related with the Natam-Siva, we can see that Vinayaka should be associated closely with Bindu-Uma, the fecunditive power in the universe. And Appar notes here that people are seized with all kinds of DESIRES (pala pala kaammattar) and which makes them neurotic and so forth and such people are FREED of such neurosis by GaNapati. Thus it would appear that GaNesha, unlike Muruka, goes along the Woman but REGULATES the blind sexual cravings so that they remain within CONTROL. Perhaps here it is similar to what Freud said: the Ego regulating of Id, the blind but very power sexual libido through the exercise of rationality.
Siva assumes the form of GaNesha to regulate the sexual excesses of man implanted by the Vittu, the Cosmic Seed and under the regulation of the Woman. But then why is GaNapati, the older son?
Metaphysical clarities are NOT possible without a prior regulation of the sexual libido and hence Muruka CANNOT function in the mind of man before GaNesha interferes and cultures the blind sexual libido by transmuting into the Gnostic Libido.
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palapala kaamattaraakip pataittu ezuvaar maanattuLLee
kalamalak kiddut tiryuG kaNabati yennuG kaLiRum
valam eentu iru cudarum vaan kayilaaya malaiyum
nalamaar kedilap punalaum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvatu yaathonRumillai anjca varuvathum illai
There is nothing that I fear not only now but also in future. It is all because there is the Elephant-faced GaNapati, who takes possession of the people full of uncontrollable desires of all kinds that drives them to untold anxieties worries and miseries and acting along with them slowly makes these desires withdraw and become powerless. And above it all there is BEING-as-Siva with the lights of the Moon and Sun and staying not only in the Mount Kailash that is distant but also as the most immediate in the waters of this River of Kedilam
Appar here is dealing with people who are almost insane full of anxieties worries and so forth so that they can be considered psychiatric cases in modern psychoanalytic terminologies. The phrase ‘palapala kaamattar” also carries the implication of people with uncontrollable sexual and other kinds of desires, the people classified as belonging to the ecologies of KaikkiLai and PerunðiNai in Tolkaappiyam(c. 3rd cent BC). Thus Appar shows quite clearly a psychoanalytic understanding of human behavior which has been a component of behavioral analysis in Tamil philosophic tradition from days of Tol. at least.
Now it is here he notices the presentation of BEING as GaNapati who stands AS IF the anma itself and going along with it also PULLS the anma to an inner ecology where such excessive desires do not prevail. This is the meaning of the crucial phrase “kalamalakkiddu’ which is really ‘kalantu malakkiddu” i.e. becomes the self itself and causes the withdrawal of the desires. The malakkidal, can also mean ‘pushing into the dark” and hence something like Freudian ‘suppression and repression’. However, as the traditional commentators observe, malakkidal means here “making it weak, powerless” and so forth.
Such a function may be the meaning of puraNic and Icon themes where GaNapati is shown enjoying various kinds of pleasures- sexual aesthetic culinary and so forth. The powerful desires especially the sexual SHOULD NOT be repressed and suppressed and which then will get transferred into the Unconscious creating later insanity and so forth. They have to be ENJOYED and under guidance so that they get burnt off, transmuted, weakened and thuî brought under control.
Now it is here the two lights of the Moon and Sun that BEING holds becomes significant. The Moon is KuNdalini under Bindu, the blind and powerful creative force and the Sun is the KuNdalini under the Natam. While the Moon creates desires of all kinds including the sexual, the Sun introduces the reflective dimensions and with that ego-control and moderations. The reflective appropriation of the genesis of one’s own sexual and other kinds of desires that can drive one crazy, brings about a moderation and control over them and hence sanity.
But Siva stays in Mount Kailash and which means in the deepest realms of the mind and hence the deep unconscious. But Appar notes that BEING as such also makes Himself available readily for all in the waters of the river Kedilam or for that matter in the pure waters of any river. Thus a ritualistic dip in such sacred rivers may have the function of cleansing not only the body but also the inner self thus making it Pure and Clean.
Appar exclaims that he is NOT assailed by phobias right now and is confident that he will not be also in the future because of his UNDERSTANDING of the metaphysical realities as such.
Here it should be noted that Genesha, at least in one of His forms, comes down to the level of the human beings almost insane because assailed by excessive and uncontrollable desires the root one being the sexual. Here we must recall the words of MeykaNdar “veenduvaarkku veeNduruvait taan koduttu”, BEING like a magician gives or assumes shapes that are consistent with the desires of the human beings (and other creatures), BEING does not DISREGARD anyone as unworthy, including the individuals crazy with uncontrollable desires. He descends down to their level and going along with them also lifts them up towards inner ecological regions where such desires do not sprout.
Such a notion of BEING is NOT available in the Semitic faiths and also in Western metaphysics. Perhaps the roots of misunderstanding by the bulk of Western scholars is this Magical aspect of BEING. In seeing GaNesha enjoying various kinds of pleasures including the sexual what we have is actually a picture of a human person being helped by BEING who assumes a form suitable to help him out.
From: "Dr. K.Loganathan" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: <email@example.com>; "Abhinavagupta" <Abhinavagupta@yahoogroups.com>
Cc: <firstname.lastname@example.org>; "Yoga Psychology" <email@example.com>; <NavyaShastra@yahoogroups.com>
Subject: Re: [akandabaratam] Good Taste, Bad Taste, Hindu Taste - why are art historians more deserving of GaNeza's (sweet) favor (modakas)?
Date: Monday, November 03, 2003 10:19 AM
First of all let me say that I am not in favor of such petitions. The worst
offenders to Agamic or Tantric Hinduism has been Hindu acaryas than, I
think, Western scholars. While admittedly quite a number are misguided
because of their hidden and not so obvious Christian theologies, there are
many who have studied Hinduism in a way that are really fascinating. You
have mentioned some and I should add to that list Heinrich Zimmer Jung and
a host of others. We can also add Prof Antonio who is with us. Though we
may not agree with all his insights he is very sincere with good intentions
and has brought out new methodologies for unraveling the meaning of Rig Veda
verses. He is willing to enter into a dialogue even with me with the
intention of joint learing! Will a Vedic Brahmin do that? The first thing
he would do is to say that I am NOT qualified because a Sudra and such
I think we should take up such misunderstanding on the part of some Wetsern
scholars as challenges to our own understanding of Hinduism . I notice that
even Saiva Atheenams in Tamil Nadu are NOT living the genuine Saivism and
they appear to be more Adavities than Siddhanties. Caste sentiments
premature Canniyasam etc have crept into their way of life and which is NOT
at all as portrayed by the Nayanmars. Saiva Siddhanta has been presented as
the Philosophy of the Velaalars ( even in Sri Lanka!)
With this, let me react to the following words of yours:
why did the Indians invest so much of their creativity,
> and over so many centuries, into producing such 'grotesque' figures as the
> 'lord of the (disfigured) hosts' (gaNa-pati)? And what was the secret
> their success in transforming him into not only a lovable but also
> 'beautiful' icon, obliging us, even without thinking, to reshape our
> ingrained aesthetic norms. The initial 'love-affair' with the concrete
> inhibits them from over-adventurous and invariably reductive (Freudian,
> Durkheimian, Lévi-Straussian, etc.) speculation on the cultural
> of GaNeza. Such modesty is coupled with valuable new insights into the
spread of Bhairava worship in South India in the work of Karine Ledrech
Yes aesthetics has been the INITIAL language of the Divine forces and
captivated by that the human mind is lifted up into the heavenly mode of
being but sometimes unfortunately remains mesmerized by it. The aesthetical
is only the initial and when the anma succeeds in tearing itself away from
it and enter deeper realms even in aesthetics, it will witness another kind
of beauty qualitatively different from the earlier. So the learning even in
aesthetics continues, incorporates ethics into it and finally transcends all
in terms of Pure Love and understand BEING as LOVE ( anbee Sivam) and with
Siva Nadarajah as the Image of it all.
Now let me ask you : If Hindu people live such a life and Hindu Acaryas
promote such a way of life, will there be any caste discriminations?
Elements of varNasrama Dharma as part of Hindu culture? The point is, as I
told even the Atheenams in Tamil Nad in a major conference where they were
also presnet that Saivism is DEAD, no Saiva Atheenams seem to promote a
life such as that led by the Nayanmars.
I feel that I am learning something new , the hidden dimensions of Hinduism
when I pour over Zimmer Jung and even our mitra Antonio.
Having said this let me also say something about the way sexuality is
handled in Agamism, also a theme that is suppressed now ( because of the
dominance of Vedanta, Christianity, Islam?)
As Dr V.V. Raman has also expressed, in the various activities of the sexual
kind and in all living creatures ( the Siddhas will extend it even to the
physical matter) have at the deepest recesses the union of Siva Sakti. This
is the SACRED dimensions of sexuality that Appar sees in the sexual
activities of elephants birds, cows and bulls. His vision pierces through
the surface level features and sees the deepest and the most universal and
where he locates one kind of Dance of Siva and Sakti.
So there is the question of the quality of the subjective self of the
individuals. While people like Appar would see the dance of Siva Sakti and
moved emotionally would burst into lyrics of the most profoud kind, the
ordinary individuals in their metaphysical BLINDNESS cannot see such depths
and hence remain captured by the flesh and can see nothing divine in such
activites at all. What can be a solution such a BLINDNESS except a course in
spiritual pedagogy which will open their eyes?
Now there is another dimension to this issue as well and which comes quite
effectively in Appar's GaNesha.
BEING does not remain, the Most High, the Above All, the TaRparan, the One
etc and a Power that can self-destroy, self-regenerate etc. But He is also a
Magician who takes countless number of avatars and with which he PURIFIES
the anmas so that they all can enjoy the Civattuvam, the inner purity that
would prepare them for enjoying Civanjaanam, the Absolute Understanding.
So BEING comes down to the level of the human beings, and noticing in SOME
( mentally sick ?) excessive desires that leads to phobia and so forth,
assumes the shape of Ganesha and enacts a PLAY whereby while the such human
beings are allowed to enjoy various kinds of pleasures including the sexual,
they are gradually and perhaps unknown to themselves lifted up from the
realms of darkness into that of light.There is a SHIFT in existential
ecology so that they are freed from the immensely dangerous hold of the
killer energy, the ANavam etc.
With this let me pose a question to you: How many Hindu Acaryas and
Scholars TALK like this of sexuality? I have not come across any ( may be I
am limited in my scholarship)
When the Hindu Acariyas and scholars are INCAPABLE of UNDERSTANDING
sexuality which is such a powerful force, how can they explain EXISTENCE,
its meaning and so forth?
----- Original Message -----
From: "Sunthar (Yahoo!Mail)" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: "Abhinavagupta" <Abhinavagupta@yahoogroups.com>
Cc: <email@example.com>; "Ontological Ethics"
<firstname.lastname@example.org>; "Yoga Psychology"
Sent: Monday, November 03, 2003 1:04 AM
Subject: [akandabaratam] Good Taste, Bad Taste, Hindu Taste - why are art
historians more deserving of GaNeza's (sweet) favor (modakas)?
> Dear Loga (and Dr. V.V. Raman - Loga, please forward),
> It's worth noting that "Studies on an Asian God: Ganesh," praised below
> its scholarliness, was edited by an art historian rather than by an
> 'Indologist' proper. Similarly some of the most sympathetic, and least
> obfuscating, accounts of various aspects of South Asian religions have
> from the hands of art historians: Mary Slusser (Newar civilization),
> Kramrisch (The Presence of Shiva), Alice Getty (GaNeza). They also convey
> insights that are often missing in the corresponding works of philologists
> (or even 'anthropologists'...), because the primarily oral, and hence
> 'visual', orientations of these cultures encourages the expression through
> the plastic arts of esoteric ideas that are not explicitly elaborated
> anywhere, not even in tantric texts reserved for initiates: such is the
> for GaNeza and the VidûSaka (a living icon!). The art historian is seduced
> first of all by the 'exotic' beauty of the objects in his/her collection,
> and then starts cataloguing the thematic and stylistic conventions, a
> 'taxonomic' exercise that obliges and facilitates deeper enquiry into the
> underlying meaning: why did the Indians invest so much of their
> and over so many centuries, into producing such 'grotesque' figures as the
> 'lord of the (disfigured) hosts' (gaNa-pati)? And what was the secret
> their success in transforming him into not only a lovable but also
> 'beautiful' icon, obliging us, even without thinking, to reshape our
> ingrained aesthetic norms. The initial 'love-affair' with the concrete
> inhibits them from over-adventurous and invariably reductive (Freudian,
> Durkheimian, Lévi-Straussian, etc.) speculation on the cultural
> of GaNeza. Such modesty is coupled with valuable new insights into the
> spread of Bhairava worship in South India in the work of Karine Ledrech
> (need to complete my translation):
> This seductive appeal of GaNeza, precisely because he is paradoxically
> so 'inhuman' and 'human', can be seen in the most cosmopolitan quarter of
> Amsterdam. In summer 2001, we were surprised to see huge wooden and other
> representations, authentic enough to warrant worship from any passing
> above the doors of souvenir shops and even in a large and busy café: not
> a niche on the wall but dominating the entire space from above. Though
> GaNeza is thus making significant inroads into this famous 'red-light'
> of the 'libertarian' capital of Europe, I doubt that any of his Dutch
> advocates have read Paul Courtright's book or are aware of his secret
> Tantric allegiances: so it is unlikely that they are seeking a 'flaccid'
> protection from the even more voracious 'women of easy virtue' stalking
> area (when they are not themselves standing motionless like statues in
> glass cages...), nor deluding themselves that the outstretched trunk of
> (Carl's and Sathia's) Vîra GaNapati will enable them to sample a larger
> variety from this international buffet without having to fill the coffers
> the Viagra multinationals with their hard-earned guilders. After all,
> is also a beautiful new Chinese temple in the vicinity (the refuge for
> Taoist tantric refugees from Beijing?). The point here is that the Divine
> India immediately seduces the senses and the heart, even before the
> intellect can intervene!
> Rare are the scholars, like Ananda K. Coomaraswamy (Curator of the Boston
> Museum of Fine Arts), who combine such deep aesthetic sensibility with
> scientific precision (he was geologist by training) and extensive
> The problem is that this massive 'scholarly' apparatus (he cited freely
> Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Greek paganism, 'primitive' religions, etc.,
> and in the original languages...) makes his insights inaccessible if not
> intimidating (unlike GaNeza's dainty, choosy and non-threatening
> for lay (not just) Indians eager to fathom the depths of their own
> and metaphysical traditions (that are so intimately intertwined). You
> need to be a scholar to appreciate (Indian) music, poetry, theater,
> sculpture, ritual, mythology and, of course, GaNeza's laddus (rounded
> easily available in Little India)!
> This is why our first volume on Abhinavagupta and the Synthesis of Indian
> culture, gradually appearing online at svAbhinava, is devoted first of all
> to (the metaphysical underpinnings of Indian and comparative) aesthetics.
> would think that Lord GaNeza, the remover of obstacles, whom pious Indians
> worship not only for success in their undertakings (Rddhi and Siddhi) but
> also for greater intelligence (Buddhi), will be offended, like the
> modaka-loving VidûSaka, if our collaborative enterprise did not begin with
> determination of "Good Taste, Bad Taste, Hindu Taste."
> P.S. So, leaving aside the question of right and wrong, true and false, is
> the online petition against (Courtright's) GaNeza in 'good taste'?
> [rest of this thread at Raja Mylvaganam, Re:
> <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Abhinavagupta/message/1212> The scholar's
> Dear Dr V.V. Raman
> Thank you and I am so glad a great scholar like yourself appreciates such
> essays. There are so many such insights in the Tevaram Divviya Prabantam
> and other Tamil literature that need to be brought out to the attention of
> world of scholars. Tantrism has been misunderstood (even by traditional
> Hindu acaryas) and its real shape can be brought out, I think, by looking
> it psychoanalytically. It is NOT an accident that TirukkuRaL contains a
> whole book on Kaamattuppaal.
> I join your endeavors to bring out the Tamil Gems to world at large which
> seems to be very unfortunately unaware of muc of it.
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "V.V. Raman"
> To: <
> Sent: Saturday, November 01, 2003 8:57 PM
> Subject: [NavyaShastra] Subtle ideas
> Sexual dimensions of spirituality
> 1. Thank you, Mr. Loganathan, for clarifying a very important element in
> the Hindu worldview. The recognition of the mystical dimension in the
> act is one of the deep insights of Hindu visionaries. On ultimate analysis
> it is the one act that leads to Creation, the formation of a physical body
> in which consciousness emerges. The role of sex in the persistence of
> embodied consciousness is of enormous significance. This is at the root of
> tantric tenets.
> 2. As per the Hindu framework, while we are at the purely physical level,
> blinded by the associated physical pleasure, sexual union expresses itself
> as lust. At a higher spiritual level, it is associated with love. And at
> mystical level, it is based on an awareness of its cosmic significance.
> 3. Conditioned as we have been by Victorian sexual morality which deals
> with the topic in hush-hush modes, and regards the act as a matter for
> shame, we are shocked when it is brought into the open, and outraged when
> is mentioned in the context of worship and deities.
> 4. None of this is to say that distorted, unsympathetic, misunderstood,
> and offensive interpretations of PurANic and mystical representations by
> insensitive scholars (Western or Eastern) should be condoned or tolerated.
> Dr. Loganathan has rightly pointed out: "The SACRED in every act of sexual
> union is beyond the reach of such scholars and because of which they
> something revolting, carnal and promiscuous. The fault is NOT in such
> and their depiction in temple iconography and so forth but rather in the
> BLINDNESS of such scholars who cannot see the DIVINE presence in such
> 5. I would add that it is no less a deficiency, if not a fault, on the
> part of Westernized Hindus that we still regard sexual mysticism in our
> tradition as matters of embarrassment or impositions by Western scholars.
> 6. I would like to repeat that by this clarification I in no way applaud
> or approve of the work on Ganesha that has been cited. I have not read the
> book, but from reviews and quotes it strikes me as a most inappropriate,
> not to say dangerous, publication that could further serve the cause of
> misrepresentations of our tradition which is already
> understood/misunderstood only at the most simplistic and most
> unsophisticated level in many parts of the world. It is all the more
> since I know of Westerners who treat Ganesha statuettes with fondness and
> affection, and even as a symbol for success in an undertaking. A book like
> this does much dissservice for intercultural respect and appreciation
> we sorely need in our divided world.
> 7. On the other hand, "Studies on an Asian God: Ganesh," edited by Robert
> L. Brown, and published in 1991 is a scholarly and legitimate work.
> V. V. Raman
> November 1, 2003
The Psychotherapy of Appar-6
Aesthetics and Overcoming Fear
The main theme of this verse is that the philosophic culture that emphasizes debates in forums where only bookish or scriptural knowledge is exchanged and that too in the form of achieving and enjoying intellectual supremacy, will not serve the psychological purpose of removing the FEAR that assails one and makes one tremble with anxiety. What can do this, is being in the Living Presence of BEING and that to in a kind of spiritual LOVE.
But how to attain this if scriptural knowledge and debates on them are not at all efficacious?
One must tear oneself away from books and scriptures seek out the DEPTHS where lurks the burning metaphysical TORCHES that keep on illuminating the mind, be sensitive to the Mantra sounds there and which enable the translations of such disclosures into WORDS and witness the DANCE of BEING as Siva Nadarajah that makes possible all these and creations of a cluster of celestial beings who manage various kinds world plays so that such illuminations are appropriated as part of one’s own understanding.
There is the culture of AESTETICS, music songs and dance where BEING shows Himself and THINKING should submit itself to the dictates of aesthetics that culture the FEELINGS which also establish and INTIMACY with BEING. It is the intimacy with such a way of life and understanding of it that would relieve one of FEAR as such
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karantna koLLi viLakkuG karaGku tudiyin muzakkum
paranta patiNen kaNamum payinRaRi yaatana paaddum
arangkidai nuul aRivaarkaLaal aRiyappadaator kuuttum
niranta kedilap punalum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvathu yaatonRu millai anjcavaruvatu millai
There is nothing that I fear not only now but also in future. It is all because in the depths there are the concealed torches that illuminate the mind when needed and there is always the intense beats of the hand drum of Siva that translate these illuminations into linguistic forms so that they are intelligible to the human mind. On top of that there are these 18 kinds of celestial beings who ensure such illuminations reach everyone and also in the form of hymns that are novel with rhythms of their own. And there is also the undying DANCE of BEING that is always beyond men of intellect who assemble in forums and discuss vehemently their bookish knowledge. I am a close associate such a BEING who is also the Lord of the Pure Water that fills the river Kedilam.
Here emerges a favorite theme of all the Nayanmars and which has become an integral part of Temple Culture and because of which Temple itself becomes a psychiatric clinic of a sort. So finally it turns out that it is Metaphysical Illuminations of profound sort that can relieve oneof FEAR, the main theme of this Patikam. As we suffer from fear phobia anxiety and so forth and struggle in various ways to free us from them, there emerge FLASHES of metaphysical insights that also serve the medicine that cures one of such fears. It is phenomenon that is taken for an in depth analysis here by Appar.
Not only he recognizes the presence of concealed torches (karanta koLLi viLakku) but also the sound waves produced by the beating Drum of Siva (karaGku tudiyin muzakku) and which translate the metaphysical illuminations of the hidden torches into LANGUAGES of all sorts - the Cuukkumai to Vaikari- so that the human mind can INTERPRET them and UNDERSTAND such revelations or disclosures. Here we have to see the special role of the 18 types of celestial beings. These are divine powers, the gods, who enact various kinds of PLAYS in the life history of individuals and make them REFLECT and appropriate such illuminations as part of their personal understanding.
Here emerges another kind of obstacle. The scholastic individuals enter the stage after gaining such insights but instead of going into the depths, ARREST themselves and with scriptural knowledge wage vain ego battles for supremacy. Such people remain IGNORANT of the DANCE behind it all and hence not able to witness BEING-as-the-Dancer and with that gain a closeness with BEING that would dispel all the fears as He, as the Lord of Pure Waters would cleanse all karmic deposits that can emerge into consciousness as nightmarish experiences that create fear and anxiety.
The Psychotherapy of Appar-7
Becoming a Warrior and Overcoming fear
It has been observed from the days of Tolkaappiyam that FEAR grips one only when one lacks the spirit to FIGHT BACK bitterly against the evil. We must recall that Appar was a fighter; a warrior who fought single-handed a mighty emperor with huge armies.
This verse discloses the secrets of outstanding warrior qualities and the sources of it. The whole message in encrypted within Icon Thinking and hence we have to practice again Hermeneutic Semiotics to wrest out meanings and which I have done below in the comments.
It turns out that BEING-as-Siva promote WARFARE even with killing but not the war of aggression and ego boosting such as that of the Asuras. There are aRappoor and arudpoor, the wars of Dharma and Love and those close to Siva are blessed with all powers necessary to fight only such wars.
The details are available below.
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kolaivari veeGkai yataLung kuvavoodu ilaGkupoR Roodum
vilaipeRu caGkak kuzaiyum vilaiyil kapaalak kalanum
malaimakaL kaikkoNda maarbum maNiyaarntu ilaGku midaRum
ulavu kedilap punalaum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvati yaatonRu millai anjca varuvatu millai.
I have nothing to fear now and there will be nothing to fear in the future as well. And this because I am a close associate of One who would come to my rescue at all times. Who could this be? It is none other than Siva who wears the skin of ¦¾ fierce tiger just to indicate that he can empower me with the spirit of the tiger; appears with hill-like shoulders glistening gold arm bracelets just to show He would make me a brave warrior of immense strength. Just to show the battle has to be fair, He appears wearing the white conch on His ears and holds the priceless skull bowl in his hands. And to show that all this must be out of LOVE for all, He appears as the One who has as equal half the Women along with showing Himself as the Dark-Throated NilakaNdan, who drank the POISON and kept in His throat. He also shows Himself as capable of boundless kindness by being the Lord of River of rushing water of Kedilam.
In this verse Appar discloses the understanding that was already well established even at the time of Tolkaappiayr viz. there will be NO FEAR as long as one is NOT AFRAID to fight back. (piNaGkal saallaa). Believe in Siva and a close intimacy with Him would enable one to gain this fighting spirit and with that eliminate the genesis of FEAR as such totally. Here we notice that Appar does not go beyond the Symbolic elements that comes along with the Icon of Siva which we have to interpret and wrest out the MEANINGS to understand what Appar seeks to communicate here.
First of all we have Siva wearing the skin of the fierce Tiger along with very huge hill-like shoulders glistening with golden arm bracelets. This is an archetype that once installed in the soul of a person then he would be a brave warrior can fight like a fierce tiger, even quite ready to kill if the need arises. But such wars battles and fights have to be FAIRLY fought for otherwise it will be EVIL and hence would become another source of fear. The battles fought with justice and fairness would be a war of Dharma, the aRappoor, and hence NOT evil at all. And this requires that one SPEAKS, discusses, advises and so forth first and which is indicated by the white Conch Shells worn on the ears. This same White Conch serves as the war weapon of Tirumaal and which there stands for Giitopateesam, the Divine counseling. It is only when this fails that the Skull Bowl must be used and which is bringing about death. The evils must be eliminated at any cost for otherwise the GOOD will not survive and prosper.
But there is another aspect to this and which will free people from the GUILT that such battles may occasion. Any battle that is fought out of LOVE will not breed guilt and this aspect is shown by the fact Siva holds Uma as His equal half and Uma is LOVE itself. When LOVE stands as the equal half of the soul, the battles fought cannot but be GOOD actions and hence immune to guilt and so forth.
Now what can be the significance of the Blue-Throat here? Siva became such a NilakaNdan only because He drank the most powerful poison, that which kills all and against the power of which both Vishnu and Brahma were helpless. The poison is the Malam, the aaNava malam, that which not only kills but also installs egotism. So it carries the implication that the battle must be fought, fought even bitterly only to eliminate the Malam, the source of the egotism in man.
The Vision of DANCE Overcomes Fear.
In the hermeneutic analysis of the emotion of FEAR, Tolkaappiyar lists aNaGku as the first and most important source of human fear. This aNaGklu has different meanings but the most important is that it a spirit that oppresses the human mind and strikes FEAR and TERROR into the heart. Appar seems to propose a SOLUTION to this in this verse, something that was not available during period of CaGkam culture and it is witnessing everything as the DANCE of Siva to the accompaniment of rhythmic songs and instrumental music of thousands of instruments and which are played by the devas and devies.
In such a way of life there are no more the oppressive aNaGku but only the metaphysically informative celestial powers, intelligent mantra bodies that also ILLUMINATE the soul, they bring LIGHT instead of DARKNESS. The music and dance of the spiritual type pulls the soul into the heavens and in that also away from the hell, to speak here in terms of very ancient metaphors.
But Appar also points out that such a way of looking at the WOLRD is rather difficult. For afraid of encountering BEING and seeing that one is what one is only because of the BLESSINGS of BEING and hence non-autonomous, the human mind recoils and MOVES AWAY by negating the world as the Vedanties do, weave a picture of endless flow of momentary particulars like the Buddhists do and deny by definitional means any visions of the DEPTHS by the artifact of saying that only sensory perception is valid as the Lokayatas do.
It appears to Appar that becoming one who sees the World as a DANCE of Siva that would dispel the birth of fear itself is rare and is a blessing that only a selected few enjoy!
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aadal purinta nilaiayum araiyil asaitaa aravum
paadal payinRa palpuutam pallaayiraG koL karuvi
naadaR kariyatoor kuuttum nankuyar viiraddanj cuuzntu
ooduG kedilap panalum udaiyaar oruvar tamr naam
anjcuvati yaatonRu millai anjca varuvathu millai
There is nothing that I fear now and there will be nothing to fear in the future as well. For I am a close associate of Siva who DANCES throughout the world enacting various plays creating for this various kinds of hymns and songs with music comosed with thousands of musical instruments and various of celestial powers to bring them to the consciousness of the creatures. He is also the DANCER of the dance difficult to witness with the fleshy eyes but not so with the mental eyes. On top of all these He remains the Warrior in this temple of Viiraddam where flows the river Kedilam that he owns as well.
The witnessing of the DANCE and the appropriation of the HISTORY, the cosmic and human as DANCE of Siva has something about it that it is essentially psychotherapeutic in effect. This is the message that comes through this verse and we have to see how it can be so.
First of all, we have to notice that this DANCE is NOT that easily sought after by people (nadaR kariyatoor kuuttu) and hence a mental culture towards seeking to understand the whole phenomenal world as the DANCE of Siva is a pre-requisite for dispelling the fear and phobia that can assail the human beings that make them neurotic. There is some POWER in this appropriation of world events as DANCE that needs to be understood.
In this connection we have to notice that this DANCE with hymns songs and music of thousands of instruments come along with a large number of celestial beings, the devas and devies and who are the INTELLIGENT powers, the immediate agents in bringing these dances sings and so forth into the MIND and FLESH of the creatures so that they too sing and dance. There is NO LIVING creature that does not dance and sing (in a way) as recent biological and anthropological studies would indicate.
Thus in dancing and singing we are in touch with these celestial powers and in that also with BEING and away from the EVIL powers, the aNaGku or the devils who would strike terror and seek to bring about DEATH and with that mortal fear.
The dance and music and perhaps all the arts that come along with them, the aesthetic cultures, transport the anma into a metaphysical realm where the celestial beings reside and hence the HEAVENS, the mantra world of the gods, (the Makluks of Islam, the angels of the Christians and so forth)
The Psychotherapy of Appar-9
The psychologies of the typical females are vastly different from that of the typical males and Appar notes in this verse that BEING-as-Siva comes to rescue of weak females as well and with that allay their fear.
The more feminine a woman is the more timid and coy she is also. This is the function of BINDU that dominates such women and hence makes them not only coy but also timid. Such women may FEAR not getting a husband who can charm them with elegance and good appearance. For such women Siva possesses a young male and makes him handsome and attractive in appearance by adorning attire that glistens and produces music-like soft sounds. Such a male company would allay her fear of LONELINESS.
Now there are such women caught in marriage with males with insatiable sexual desires and with that intolerable demands made on them. For such individuals Siva appears as the mendicant wearing only the loin cloth and possessing such individuals, makes them ascetic and with that saves the women from sexual tortures.
Another type of sexual males is the aggressive and violent who, without any moral principles and qualms, would even dare to rape such women to satisfy their cravings. Such individuals are seen as mad and huge elephants and are SKINNED and the skin worn as a symbol of such possibilities by BEING. The skin stands for THOUGHTS and what this mythical theme unravels is that BEING in the shape of a warrior would BATTLE within the mind of the person and REMOVE such thought from him.
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´Ä¢¸û ¸¢ÇôÒõ Á½¢¸û ¦À¡¾¢ó¾ §º¡ÁÍó¾Ã §Å¼òÐ Ð¸¢Öõ, «¾üÌ ±¾¢Ã¡¸ þÕìÌõ ¸¢Æ¢ó¾ ¬¨¼Â¢ý ±Îì¸ôÀð¼ §¸¡Å½ì ¸£Ùõ «½¢ó¾ÀÊ ¯Ä¸ô Àü¨ÈÔõ «¾ý ÐÈô¨ÀÔõ ¾ÃÅøÄÅÉ¡ö ¾ý¨Éì ¸¡ðÎ¸¢ýÈ¡ý þ¨ÈÅý. Â¡Æ¢ý ¦Á¡Æ¢ §À¡ýÈ þÉ¢¨ÁÂ¡É ¦Á¡Æ¢ÅÆ¢ «ÉÒ ¸¡ðÎõ ¯¨Á µ÷ ¦ÀÃ¢Â Á¨Ä§À¡ýÈ µ÷ ÓÃðÎ Â¡¨É ÅÃ «¾¨Éì ¸ñÎ «ïº¢Â§À¡Ð, ¾¡ý «ïº¡Ð «ó¾ Â¡¨É§Â¡Î ¦À¡Õ¾¢ «¾ý §¾¡¨Ä ¯Ã¢òÐò Ð¸¢Ä¡¸ ¯Îò¾¢Ôõ, Å¢Ã¢óÐ «¸ýÈ ¦À¡Æ¢ø Ýúó¾ þó¾ Å£Ãð¼òÐ ¦¸ÊÄô ÒÉÖõ ¯¨¼Â¡Ã¡¸ þÕìÌõ º¢Å¦ÀÕÁ¡ÉÐ ¦¿Õí¸¢Â ¾Á÷ ¿¡õ. «¾É¡ø þýÚ ±¨¾ì ¸ñÎ «ïÍÅ¾¢ø¨Ä ±ýÀ¦¾¡Î ±¾¢÷¸¡ÄòÐõ «ïº ÅÕÅÐõ Â¡ÐÁ¢ø¨Ä ¸¡ñ.
cuuzum aravat tukilum tukil kizi kaavaNak kiiLum
yaazin moziyavaL anjsa anjcaatu aruvarai poonRa
veezam uritta nilaiyum viripozil viiraddnj cuuzntu
taazung kedilap punalum udaiyaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvati yaatumillai anjca varuvatu millai
BEING-as-Siva is capable of both an attire of gems that splash brilliant light as well s musical sounds and the attire of just loin cloth indicative of ascetic stance. At the same time He emerges as the very brave warrior when Umai of words of VeeNa recoils with fear on seeing a wild and huge elephant and defeats it and skins it and as a sign of His victory wears also it as His attire. Such a BEING stays in this Viiraddam with beautiful ponds and as the owner of the River Kedilam with flowing waters. When I remain the close associate of such a BEING, there is nothing to fear now as well in the future.
We must note a special peculiarity of Divine Plays as the one being mentioned and analyzed here. They are DOUBLE texts - one component pertains to the human beings and another the celestial beings. Siva assuming the forms of Somasundaran the handsome bride AND the form of the ascetic wearing only the loin cloth is FOR the human beings and NOT to disclose His own essence. Similarly the young damsel with musical sweet voice is a charming but worldly woman where part of the feminine seductive charm consists in sweet speech. Such women are also psychological weak and hence tend to FEAR men who are aggressive and would not even rape such women to satisfy their sexual desires. The huge elephant that such women fear is metaphor for such men. But Siva is there to come to the rescue of the deserving. He takes over a warrior and defeats such an elephant and removing such aggressive thoughts- the skin - wears it to show the world His kindness.
Appar here is placing himself in the position of such women and says that as long as there is Siva who sends a loving bridegroom, transforms the excessively sexual into an ascetic a warrior-like male to rescue from the attacks of aggressive males and there is NOTHING to fear at all.
The Political Fear and it’s Diffusion
As we ponder over the salient features of ancient civilizations we can see that, the tribal chief, just simply the lugal, the Great Man becoming also like Gilgames two-thirds God and only one-third man. This conflation of self with God and which leads to such claims as “ I am Brahman” “I am son of God” and so forth, leads also making the king the God on Earth and hence the supremely authoritative. During the time of Pallavas in Tamil Nadu this came to a head where the kings assumed titles that were applicable only for BEING and in collusion with the priestly. Bakti movement was a REVOLT of the most powerful kind that shook the whole of India against such authority usurpers and who would strike TERROR into the heart of the commoners to maintain this supremacy.
The rights of ordinary man were asserted and proclaimed and with the commoners led to understand that they are also equally entiled to LOVE and GRACE of God whatever birth and whatever profession they practice and which was also slap on the face of VarNasrama Dharma.
Appar fought against the perpetuation of such political fears in the confidence that BEING-as-Siva is also a WARRIOR who can put down and make bleat even the most powerful human warlord. BEING is the POWER and the AUTHORITY and anyone who is in a loving relationship with BEING has nothing to fear at all.
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«ýÚ þÃ¡Å½ý º¢Å¦ÀÕÁ¡¨É§Â «¨ºìÌÁ¡, ¯¼ÖÚ¾¢Â¢ý ¿Ãõ¦ÀØ ¨¸¸û ¦¸¡ñÎ À¡÷Å¾¢ ¿Îí¸ ¨¸Â¢¨Ä¨Âô À¢ÊòÐ ¯¼ø ¯Ãõ ÁÉ×Ãõ §À¡ýÈ ±øÄ¡ ¯Ãí¸¨ÇÔõ ¦¸¡ñÎ «¾¨É ±Îò¾¡ý. «Ð¦À¡ØÐ º¢Å¦ÀÕÁ¡ý º¢È¢§¾ ¾ý ¸¡øÅ¢Ãø¸Ç¡ø «Øò¾ «ó¾ ÀòÐò¾¨Ä þÃ¡Å½Ûõ ÅÄ¢¦À¡Úì¸¡Ð ÐÊòÐ «ÄÈ, º¢Å¦ÀÕÁ¡ý «ÅÉÐ ¬½Åî ¦ºÕìÌ «Æ¢ó¾¨¾ì ¸ñÎ, «ÅÛìÌ ÀÄ ÅÃí¸¨ÇÔõ ¾óÐ «Õû ¦ºö¾¡ý. «ô§ÀüÀð¼ º¢Å¦ÁÕÁ¡ý þó¾ «Æ¸¢Â ¦À¡Æ¢ø¸û ¿¢¨Ãó¾ Å£Ãð¼õ ÝúóÐ ¿¢üÀ§¾¡Î ÅüÈ¡Ð ¿£§Ã¡Îí ¦¸ÊÄô ÒÉ¨ÄÔõ ¾É¾¡¸ì ¦¸¡ñÎ þÕì¸¢ýÈ¡ý. «ÅÃÐ «ýÀ¢üÌÃ¢Â ¾ÁÃ¡¸ þÕì¸¢ýÈ§À¡Ð, þýÚ «ïÍÅÐ Â¡ÐÁ¢ø¨Ä ±ýÀ§¾¡Î ±¾¢÷¸¡Äò¾¢ø «ïº ÅÕÅÐõ Â¡ÐÁ¢ø¨Ä ±ýÈÅ¡Ú.
narambezu kaikaL pidittu naduGka malaiayai
uraGkaL ellaaG koNdu eduttaan onpatum onRum alaRa
varaGkaL koduttaruL ceyvaan vaLarpozil Viiraddam cuuzntu
niramba kedilap punalum udiayaar oruvar tamar naam
anjcuvati yaatonRu millai anjcavaruvatu millai.
Once the mighty RavaNa arose with nerves-bursting arms to shake Kailas to the great fear of Parvati with all his bodily and mental strength. Then when Siva pressed the Kailas just with His toe, the ten-headed RavaNa cried with unbearable pains. Seeing that RavaNa repented, Siva graced him many boons. Such a Siva is resident in the Viiraddam surrounded with luxuriant gardens and stays as the owner as well of this river Kedilam with water flowing always. When one is a close associate of such a BEING, there is nothing to fear now and there will nothing to fear in the future as well.
Appar refers to political fears a person can suffer when subjected to tyrannical rules of mighty kings who want to become also the God of the people. Such tyrannical rulers will be intolerant of difference and will seek unquestioning abeyance and anyone who is different will be tortured to death till compliance is offered. This may have a personal reference to himself in his single-handed battle with the Pallava Emperor, who sought to become also the God for the people very much like the ancient pharaohs and others. For Appar such a king was the embodiment of the ten-headed RavaNa where the ten heads represent MIGHTY ARROGANCE where even God is sought to be DISPLACED so that one becomes the sole authority both in politics and religion.
Such tyrants strike terror and fear is a byproduct of such tyrannical rules. But Siva is there to put them down and make them CRY with unbearable pains, as has been the case with all great warriors who were also tyrannical. No matter how mighty they are, diseases assail them bringing not only DEATH but also unbearable pains. It is this that makes them REPENT and reform themselves and move away from the oppressive tyranny.
Those lonely fighters like Appar, the presence of such BEING along with an intimate relationship with Him, becomes the source of confidence and courage with the believe that BEING will not be blind and indifferent to their fears and anxieties and will hasten with appropriate measures to remove the sources.