Philosophical Appar 6:95

 

Commentary by Dr. K. Loganathan

 

 

Perhaps in the whole of India , it is difficult come across an individual as great as Appar who single handed changed the cultural map of Tamil Nadu and indirectly also the whole of India. He was the architect of the Ahimsa way of battling with the political and religious tyrannies and this more than 1500 years ago. This involvement with sociopolitical processes also made him a revolutionary thinker and who churned out hymns after hymns of outstanding beauties and depth. Unlike the various religious heads with their pomposity and exhibitionism designed to make oneself god-like for the masses, he was one of the most humble and who moved about without seeking to leave behind any marks of his presence ( yaatum cuvadupadaamal).

 

Appar was earlier than Sambantar and is assigned to 6th-7th cent AD and lived to a ripe old age

 

I have chosen the following Patikam ( 6: 95 - Tanit Tiruttaandkam) where occurs the phrase aadduvittaal aar oruvar aadaataaree a phrase that is immensely alive to this day, not only among the Saivites but all the Tamils. I hope that with an in-depth study of this Patikam, the enormous wealth of philosophical ideas of the Tamil mind and Tamil Language comes to be better known. Indian philosophical thinking is NOT exhausted by the Vedas Upanishads Bagavath Gita and so forth. The highest reaches of metaphysical insights of the Hindu mind are available only in Tamil and I hope the world comes to know these ideas so that there is a better understanding of what genuine Hinduism is and which is Agamism or Tantrism.

 

I am helped in this task by the commentary written by Mahavidvan N. AruNaivadiveel Mutaliyaar and published by Tarumai Atheenam (1963)

 

Loga

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-1

 

The Existentialism of Appar

 

If existentialism means a philosophy that accords an important place for feelings and emotions along with or over and above conceptual knowledge then the Philosophy of Appar in this Patikam is Existentialism of an important kind. It is not an accident that BEING is captured not in terms of attributes or guNas or structural forms and so forth but rather in terms of LOVE - Father Mother and so forth. What is described is BEING, no doubt about it but not simply the Brahman, Pure Radiance of a kind, SaguNa NirguNa and so forth. Such Vedantic descriptions are overlooked and BEING maintained as the emotionally appropriated Father Mother and so forth and this obviously to give prominence to LOVE that exists between people as such.

 

Appar wants to SEE the whole universe in terms of LOVE and therefore something existentially MEANINGFUL just as the Family is the most meaningful social nexus for anybody. In fact we can see Appar begins with Family Man and then universalizing it articulates the notion of World Family Man and where he SEES BEING as Father Mother and so forth. What this way of progressing in individual development is that of culturing FEELINGS so that LOVE comes dominate existence and because of which there is no alienating, discriminating people on the basis of birth profession sex nationality and so forth. All such man made barriers break down - the whole world becomes ones little city, the whole of humanity becomes one community and all people become brethren, the cuRRam.

 

It can be seen that this is a frontal attack on VarNasrama Dharma which took a firm hold in the Tamil country at that time where we gather, from MaNimekalai, that even cemeteries were divided along caste lines.

 

 

 

1.

 

Ҩ

Ҩ

š

Ш¡

 

 

:

 

즸 ġ ! Ƣ ɡ, Ũ ¡, Ҹ Ż ȡ. 򧾡 š쨸 Ш Ţ Ҩ ڸȡ. ̸ ġ š쨸 á š쨸 ħ š Ө¢ ǡ Ţ̸ȡ. ĸ ȡ, Ũ ȧ ɡ ĸ Ǣ . 򧾡 ͨŧ ȢŢ 쾢 . ɢ Ŧġ ɢ 񼡦 쾢 . ǡ . ɡ , ġ ţâ Ţ !

 

1.

 

appan nii ammai nii aiyanum nii

anbudaiya maamanum maamiyum nii

oppudaiya maatarum oNporuLum nii

orukulamum cuRRamum oor uurum nii

tuyppanavum uyppanavum tooRuvaay nii

tunaiyaay en nenjcanj tuRappippaay nii

ippon nii immaNi nii immuttu nii

iRaivan nii eeRuurnta celvan niiyee!

 

Meaning:

 

O BEING who is above any definite shape of your own! It is for my sake that you have assumed the shape of a Father who controls sternly, a Mother who pours love no matter how evil I am and the great Guru who illuminates me on metaphysical truths! You also become the in-laws who allow me to have a spouse to enable me to enjoy sexual bliss and domestic happiness. You also become the women of agreeable temper and the economic wealth that allows a happy domestic life. Above all these you become the divine power that makes me see the whole of mankind as One with all the people as kiths and kin and with that the whole wide world as my own city. Now you also become the Power that configures the experiences of higher tastes that serve to lift up myself in spiritual development. And when the time comes you assume all these forms and saturating my heart to the full, also enable me to disengage myself from the mundane. You are really all the precious stones gold pearls and so forth. Thus you are the Great God and also really the one who rides the Bull of all virility.

 

 

Comments:

 

The most important phrase here is oru kulamum cuRRamum oor uuRum nii and which echoes Yaatum uuree yaavarunG keeLir (the whole world is my city and all people are my brethren) of KaNiyan puuGkunRanar (c. 2nd cent. BC) and that of Tirumular OnRee kulamum Oruvaneeet teevanum (all people are of one community and Being is the same for all) and which expresses the SOCIAL UNIVERSALISM of Saivism proper that cuts across the VarNasrama Dharma and such other caste sentiments that is fostered even by modern Saivites. It is interesting that Appar extols this philosophy as part of EXISTENTIALISM and not simply the arid intellectual and logical epistemological philosophies. Such a philosophy in which one relates to others in society in loving terms is a matter of FEEINGS and hence something that belongs to aesthetics and ethics. Unless a person develops in feelings and emotions such a way of relating oneself with others will not be realized.

 

But how does one get cultured along these lines and what is the role of BEING in such a culture?

 

First of all Appar notes that a person must be caught in filial relationships of various kinds so that he respects and honors a father so that there is an inner check against going the wrong way. And further there must be Mother figure to love and cherish no matter what heinous a crime one commits. And following these there must a Guru figure, a sympathetic philosopher so that counseling in the form of illuminating the individual with respect to basic truths is always at hand. BEING becomes all these existential figures to cultivate the bestial mind and which is NATURALLY so because of being infected with the Dark Killing Force and its various phenomenal forms.

 

But these kinds of relationships are in a way secondary compared to the sexual needs of all and which incorporates within itself the instinct to self propagate. A person must be given a sexual partner to gratify such needs and in connection with this BEING becomes the loving in-laws who allow marriage either with their son or daughter and with that enjoy the expression of these instinctual pressures deep within. But here too there can be problems if the spouse is disagreeable and there is economic poverty. So BEING becomes, at least for the deserving one, an agreeable spouse and sufficient wealth to cater for the practical needs.

 

It is only with such blessings that a person can grow in that a mental framework where the model of loving family gets transported to the whole of world and hence appropriating it as ones own FAMILY. If the right sort of FAMILY LIFE is not enjoyed such a culturing will fail and with that there will NOT also be such a social philosophy of universal brotherhood and so forth.

 

But as an intermediate culturing element there must be the tasting of the higher aesthetical - uyppikkum tuyppu - the aesthetic experiences that are UPLIFTING, the divine arts and so forth which dulls the ego and with that catapult the self into higher metaphysical grounds. It is the wealth of metaphysical insights gained by such spiritual sojourn that become the gold pearls precious stones and so forth.

 

Only now there comes to be TuRRappu and which means here not asceticism or sannyasam but freeing oneself from the phenomenal but only because BEING fills fully all these existential needs. When the self is fully possessed by BEING, there is natural saturation of the spirit and because of which INTEREST in phenomenal matters cease to be powerful motivating forces. The various instinctual pressures are redirected into the self relating itself to BEING and with that towards a severance towards the physical but indulgence with the metaphysical.

 

Such a person is the Bakta, the one who LOVES BEING and maintains himself in various kinds loving relationships with BEING and with that lead a spiritual life wholly dominated by LOVE unto all.

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-2

 

The Psychiatric Aspects of Siva Worship

 

The philosophy Appar outlines in this Patikam is a kind of Existentialism where the feeling of LOVE is made to present as the DOMINANT feature of personality so that all the social discriminations are swept away. But we find this is NOT the case with majority of people who thrive in some kind of animism where all attempts are made singly and collectively to put down another group of people and make sacrificial lambs of them to exult in ones own superiority by that kind of animistic act.

 

This is the workings of the SICK mind, a mind that lacks in love but cherishes hatred and because of which it suffers. There are evil karmic deposits lodged in the deepest layers of the mind and which make their presence felt as diseases near-death experiences, melancholy miseries mental abnormality severe depressions and so forth. The hatred that one harbors where as a matter of fact one should harbor only LOVE, brings about an existence full of miseries and the only solution is to worship Siva, the Destroyer who can singe to ashes these bad karmas and bless the souls with Inner Purity that would make also make the loving kind of individuals and with that also CONFIDENT with one self.

 

At the root of the animism that makes put down another and deprive him his rights is an Inferiority Complex - the FEAR that one is NOT good enough to command social respect and prestige naturally. It is this FEAR that drives one to seek such honors forcibly and by the social machinations of making a group DOWN BELOW so that one can feel ABOVE them hence somewhat great.

 

If a person is PURE and with inner purity that would allow him to be in the presence of BEING, he would naturally feel that eLiyoom alloom, not inferior to any body at all and hence confident in oneself and content with whatever one is.

 

2.

 

ո

Ţ

â 󧾡 ġ

Ƣ ¢ Ǣ¡ ġ

ġ θ

š ¡

 

:

 

á 󦾡Ƣ ڸ 󾨸 Ŧ, Ƹ ﺨ Ǣ ¢ ¢ Ƣ Ũ¢ Ũ¡ ¡ šȡ ¢ ǡ. է . ¢ Ţ . ɢ Ħ Ȣ š ¡. , áЧ Ţɸ ¡ ġЧ. ɡ , š쨸¢ Ţ ġ ¢. âɡ ͼ, ɡ ȡ, Ǣ¡ ġ ¡ Ţ šȡ .

 

2.

 

vemba variRpatanRu kuuRRam nammeel

veyya vinaippakaiyum paiya naiyum

emparivun tiirntoom idukkaN illoom

enGezil en njaayiRu eLiyoom alloom

ampavaLac cenjcadaimeel aaRu cuudi

anlaadi aan anjcum aaddukanta

cempavaLa vaNNar cegkunRa vaNNar

cevaana vaNNar en cintaiyaaree

 

Meaning:

 

BEING-as-Siva stands disclosing Himself as the Agent of five fold universal Praxis by wearing the Ganges on His gold-red flowing hair (showing the regenerative praxis) and holding burning Fire and in one of His hands (showing the destructive praxis) and dancing with Uma, stays in my thought as such. He also appears in loving red hue of the corals (showing that His intentions are noble), as the red hue of the Golden Meru Mountain (showing that he lifts up all towards high excellence), and of the red hue of evening sky (to show that he is present everywhere as such). And because of this, the Death and death-related mental and physical diseases cease to come to me. The unconscious karmic deposits that are the causes of mental depressions and miseries also become ineffective gradually. All the mental stresses are disappear and I encounter no obstacles in life. On top of all, He stands as the source of inner purity and beauty as well as the Inner Sun of all deep metaphysical illuminations. Thus lifted in spiritual development I feel that I am not downtrodden and inferior to anyone.

 

Comments:

 

We saw that in this Patikam Appar begins a philosophy where he insists that man only as a FAMILY MAN can rise up to living as World Family Man and in that feel the whole world as his own city and all people his brethren and which we saw a philosophical ideal quite ancient among the Tamils as well as something opposed to the immensely unethical VarNasra Dharma that became quite prominent during Appars time. This it was also explained as something that comes about because of the transmutation of the subjectivity within the realms of FEELINGS and EMOTIONS and not just in epistemological knowledge.

 

In this verse he continues this theme detailing now the phenomenology of this subjective transmutations (the noetic dimensions of existence) that brings about such a purity and elegance in the subjectivity of the anmas. BENG stands as the producer-destroyer and hence the Power of all the Universal Praxis, the Pancakirittiyas of which the burning with the Fire and Cooling with Ganges are primordial. On top of that and in order to transmute the self into something elegant beautiful and pure, He appears in different hues of RED and which symbolizes LOVE - Siva fills the psychic depths, the hermeneutic world of human understanding and the whole manifest world itself as RED hued to show that He is every where as the One who promotes PURE LOVE as such. He also appears as the Inner Sun that purifies even the psychic depths of the anmas and driving away everything ugly and devilish, makes it shine forth as something Pure and Beautiful.

 

Against such blessings and engracing presence of BEING, Appar notes as an individual that he is freed of both mental and physical diseases that can bring about premature death, freed also of the evil karmas lodged in the unconscious layers so that he suffers no more bouts of depression melancholy and so forth. Life as whole also becomes something full of happiness with no obstacles and troubles on the way.

 

And now above all Appar notes that because of such a subjective transmutations he feels NO INFERIOR (eLiyoom alloom) to any body at all and which statement is slap on the face of VarNasra Dharma that upholds that the dwija status is a matter of birth and only the caste Brahmins can enjoy it.

 

Anybody at all can ascend in subjective development and become self-confident and psychically Pure and Beautiful provided he allows the grace of BEING work within him where BEING is equally available for all.

 

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-3

 

The Showing BEING and Seeing Anma

 

This verse contains in explicit formulation what was already present implicitly in the very activity of temple building and which is as ancient as Hinduism itself. It might have begun with worship of natural objects like trees springs hills and so forth however in due course the concealed spirits were intuited and formal temples were built. The idea is that of gaining VISIONS of deities that are there but normally beyond the reach of senses but available to the mental seeing, the transductive perceptions, the visions of the Third Eye.

 

Thus we have that the primordial act of consciousness is that of SEEING but something which is possible only because there is a prior showing but which fact may remain concealed from the seer. Thus under normal circumstances a person goes about because of this transcendental concealment that he is the agent and so forth by appropriating the Universal Praxis of BEING and transforming as for self and so forth. This appropriation is a result of the inherent atomicity of the mind and because of which there are ego-actions along the effecting of evils and so forth. The karmic traces that are elicited by such actions are the roots cause of the various kinds problems in life - diseases, pains, miseries and so forth.

 

But what is solution?

 

Appar proposes that we are NOT autonomous players, agents of actions and that we are LED to feel that way only because of the Tirobavam, the Transcendental Concealment. Once we realize that we are playing this and that and assuming various roles in life only because BEING plays us thus, then our ego gets shattered and the self becomes not only humble but also egoless. With this begins a life of real joy because BEING overpowers such pure anmas and blesses them profusely with all that will make existence supremely blissful.

 

 

3.

 

Ţ á

Ţ á

Ţ á

Ţ á ո

Ţ á

Ţ á ¡

Ţ á

Ͼġ 측

 

:

 

Ȣ¢ 񧽡 ɡ оɡ š ! 𨸸 Ţ, Ȣ š ? ɢ ġ Ǣ Ţ ? ɢ š Ţ ɡ ¡ š ? ɡ š ž ո šƧ ոŢ š ¡? ɢ Ǩ Ө¢ ﺦġ ɢ ɡ ŧ , ¡ ? ɢ Ż 츢 즸ġ Ƣ š š š ŢȢ š? 측 측 ĸǢ Ҹ , Ȧġ š? § ʨ Ƣ Ũ¢ ġ , ž ȡ? Ǣ 측 ¡ â Ţ? ¡ š.

 

3.

 

aadduvittaal aaroruvar aadaataaree

adakkuvittaal aaroruvar adaGkaataaree

oodduvittaal aaroruvar oodaataaree

urukuvittaal aaroruvar urukaataaree

paadduvittaal aaroruvar paadaataaree

paNivittaal aaroruvar paNiyaataaree

kddavittaal aarouvar kaaNaataaree

kaaNpaar aar kaNNutalaay kaaddaakkaalee

 

Meaning:

 

O BEING with an EYE on the forehead! Who can refuse to Play and act if played by you from within? Now if decreed that they withdraw and cease acting, who can refuse that and continue an active life? If you drive them away from the physical body they have been enjoying for so long, who again can efuse to escape thus? If you intent that people should not be hardhearted but soft and gentle with a melting heart with love for all, who can refuse to melt thus? Now if you insist that over and above developing the logical acumen, the aesthetics too must be developed with singing hymns with appropriate melodies and so forth, who can refuse to sing thus? Now if you kill the ego and bring about humility and subservience, who can go against it? Now in order to illuminate the mind if you SHOW this and that, who would remain blind to all these? And above all, if you, out of Pure Love for all, do not venture to SHOW thus who would ever SEE anything at all?

 

Comments:

 

Perhaps of all verses from the Bakti burst, there is nothing comparable to this verse in its profundity and influence. For we have the foundations of Pedagogic Hermeneutics, initially formulated in Tolkaappiyam, being recovered against the onslaughts of Buddhist and Jaina epistemological logic. The most important phrase is that kaaNpaar aar KaNNutal kaaddaakkaal? , who can ever SEE anything at all if NOT SHOWN as such by BEING?

 

There is SEEING on the part of anmas only because they are SHOWN such and such. Every seeing is there , and in all states of consciousness - caakkiram coppanam and so forth - only because as an apriori there is a SHOWING and by BEING, the Third Eyed and hence someone who sees always and unfailingly. Since seeing is fundamental and whatever is seen thus is a TEXT, there are also interpretive moves by the anmas and which bring about consciousness and understanding. Here too emerges the meaning of TRUTH - whatever shown by BEING if seen exactly how it is shown, then that congruence is given reinforcement in terms of the provision of truth-experience, that anma in having and enjoying that experience is in fact SEEING exactly as SHOWN by BEING. This notion of truth-experience constitutes the foundation of the Hermeneutic Logic, that which is the foundation of Saiva Siddhanta.

 

Now Appar notes that it is through this device that BEING has complete regulatory power over the CONDUCT of all human beings. Here is the beginning of the Praximatism of Saivism - that it is the Praxis or conduct or actions that count as the most important element of existence. Man must ACT in various ways in order to LEARN and develop understanding and with that also develop as an individual. BEING PLAYS all creatures remaining Himself the concealed or unconscious power behind all and thus leading man think that he is the agent of all his actions, without realizing that he is NOT the true agent but only made to think so by the transcendental CONCEALMENT of BEING. Acting withdrawing becoming soft and compassionate, even willing to accept death, develop aesthetics and with that also feelings and so forth are NOT the doings of the anma but rather that of BEING and all for the redemption of the soul.

 

Thus it follows that it is only because of a BLINDNESS that we are egoistic and when this is removed by BEING disclosing that He is the real agent of all, not only we become humble but also a Bakta, one who loves BEING for all these blessings are given freely and with love. Our ego is punctured and exploded and this is done by BEING at the appropriate time.

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-4

 

BEING Overpowers on His Own

 

BEING presents Himself in various TEXTS composed of the languages of Vaikari Paisyanti Mattimai Cukkumai and finally Aticukkumai. Saivism has a hierarchical view of the Logos, the most primordial form is Om, the Ongkaaram but which splits and develops into the other forms as above the most immediate being the Vaikari form, the language of ordinary speech and which can HEARD and communications established. But BEING draws the understanding from this auditory form of Logos into the more subtle forms where the texts are nonverbal but come as dreams, mythologies, mantra complexes and finally the Logos itself.

 

Thus it is possible for there to be differences in understanding BEING and conflicts of interpretations and because of which we have different religions ideologies and struggles between them. But everybody realizes that BEING is in fact BEYOND any linguistic determinations and stands nevertheless as the Deepest Structure of all TEXTS, just a background impossible to capture in words (colaRkariya cuuzal) and that all should stand in the contemplation of this so that one can FREE of mental fluctuations uncertainties infirmities doubts and so forth. Thus there is a kind of IGNORANCE which is root cause of a primordial doubt that produces basic uncertainties and mental infirmities.

 

But Appar sees that BEING has implanted Himself in the body of all as that remains not only as the absolutely permanent but also as the eternally productive( kaRpagam) principle. The solution to all uncertainties and mental stresses because of that is search this BEING within and repose by firmly attaching oneself to it. This actually requires the breaking down the inner resistances the ego-self develops and with that FREE the mind for the natural possession of the soul by BEING and which He will do readily.

 

4.

 

ͼ ž

â ġ

¢ġ

ġš ġּ

¡ ŢΧ

ɸ ǡ

 

:

 

ţΧȢ âá , ţΧȢ ̸ š , Ż Ƹ ɢ¨¡ ġ ո ͼ. ȢŢ Ǣš̸ žǡ Ÿâ 򾢨 ̨ š̸ǡġ Ƣ ̨¡ ç ɡ Ⱦ, Ģ 츢ȡ Ţ ̽ ġ 𼡾. §! о Ǣ ھ¡ ġ š ĸ. ۨ 򾨸 ɢ š զ š Ҹ즸 ! 򦾡 ק! ¡ ŢΧ !

 

4.

 

naRpatattaar naRpatamee njaanamuurtti

nalanjcudaree naalveetattu appaal ninRa

coRpatattaar coRpatamuG kadantu ninRa

colaRkariya cuuzalaay ituvun tanmai

niRpatottu nilaiyilaa nenjsan tannuL

nilaavaata pulaaludambee pukuntu ninRa

kaRapakamee yaanunnai viduveen alleen

kanakamaa maNi niRattu eG kadavuLaanee!

 

Meaning:

 

O You who stand as the liberator of those who are fit for final liberation and on account of that Icon of Civanjanam itself! You also stand as the One shining aesthetically the best! O you who stand above the four scriptures of the languages of Vaikari Paicyanti Mattimai and Cuukkumai and the Logos itself surrounding all and beyond the words of even the gifted! I fail to be one with firm mind and because of that my heart is restless searching for this and that. My physical body too is transient but you entered it and stand as the KaRpakat Taru, the ever-yielding Tree providing me with so many things to illuminate me. O You who is both gold and intense black (at the throat), I will never leave you at all and no matter what!

 

Comments:

 

Having noted that no one can SEE anything at all unless SHOWN as such by BEING and because of which of BEING plays all the anmas in a way they can dodge and avoid, Appar now brings a personal note that is also typical of genuine Bakti that is immensely PERSONAL and where a dialogic discourse within an I-Thou relationship is developed. Appar declares quite emphatically that he will not ever abandon being-with BEING (yaan unnai viduveen alleen) and for many good reasons.

 

The primary reason is that BING-as-Siva is naRpatattaar naRpatam an enigmatic phrase but with a profundity of its own. BEING stands as an exemplar of the State of Liberation for those already seeking this liberation. This again is a UNIVETRSAL feature of all anmas and NOT something true of only the so-called Brahmanahs who are by birth alone dwijas. Such an immensely discriminatory notion is never condoned in Saivism and most of all by Appar the most brilliant and bold champion of this ancient universalism of the Agamic culture. The NaRpatam is a state of being-in-the-World and which is the most desirable state of being, equally available to ALL whatever their birth and profession.

 

It is understands BEING within this state that He is apprehended not as a simple ICON but a Njana Muurtti, an Icon (Muurtti) of the liberating Civanjanam. The icon presentations of BEING are there not just for worship but also as a TEXTS which embody within itself deep metaphysical messages that one can understand provided one takes the trouble to INTERPRETE scientifically, relate the message to the natural events and understand NATURE itself. It is in this context that we see the Four Vedas, the illuminating metaphysical texts as composed by the languages of Vaikari et al and finally BEING just as LOGOS and hence above all languages. No language can contain BEING , He showing Himself always a SURPLUS and overflowing reality of any linguistic determinations - a surrounding LIGHT (cuuzalaay) who does not allow imprisoning within any language at all.

 

But despite all these BEING presents Himself as everywhere, the carva viyaabi, and thus also in the frail human body that is subject to growth and decay and as the cause of such processes and which is communicated by the body colors of burning fire and cooling dark, the NilakaNdan or alternatively the Red Siva along with the Black Tirumaal.

 

Appar notes that the fragile human mind cannot normally appreciate all these and stand firm with that understanding and because of which it wavers jumping hither and thither. Unless it holds BEING as such firmly in the mind and with intense LOVE, the psychological stability is not attainable. Thus genuine Bakti is immensely stabilizing by providing a firm anchor for the mind.

 

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-5

 

The Philosophy of Temple City

 

The most unifying theme of Agamic Culture is that of the centrality of Temple in every city and residential locality , a fact we notice in Sumeria and Indus in ancient times and since then all over India and the world where Hinduism has planted itself. Each time a temple is erected, Agamic Hinduism comes alive making that locality itself sacred, brining along with the celestial powers to guide them along

 

We have Kes Temple Hymn of En Hudu Anna outlining the philosophy of where it is stated that it contributes to mental health of the people and through that even for economic prosperity. It allows or helps people become great , the ur-sag (> caanRoor) who would reach the heavens with the help of the temple.

 

In this very useful verse, Appar returns to this theme but more in the psychiatric vein. He outlines a Philosophy of Temple city where there will be huge temples with many festivals but also little shrines everywhere so that all people have READY access to the divine forces.

 

One puzzling element is the repeated emphasize of Appar worship with flowers that he also mentions and as usual just before having meals. It appears this linkage between flower worship and having meals may be a recommendations of Vegetarian Food, as not the clean food ( Cutta Pooasnam) but also as that which overcomes animistic tendencies, the inclinations to sacrifice animals and as by way of worship.

 

This is either the birth or reinforcement of vegetarianism in the temples, the great one as opposed to the little ones, the temples for the little deities with the attendant magical practices and blood sacrifices. I tend to think it is resuscitation of an ancient practice for we have also Suruppak saying in his NeRi ( c. 3000 BC) that such forms evil and will bring about undesirable consequences.

 

The metaphor of woods thick with luxuriant growth is also quite apt and its a dream image. The luxuriant undergrowth represents uncontrollable desires and any society creates a city without temples which serve as the culturing agents will turnout to be such a one.

 

5.

 

째¢ ġ Ţ

զ ¡ Ţ

째 򾢨¡

ɡ ľǢ ġ

Ţ

Ţ 񦸡 ġ

Ȣ

Ŧġ Ţ

 

:

 

Ө þ Ƣθ 츢 째¢ ġ ɡ Ţ , ɡ Ŧ Ž 츢 Ȣ¢ տ ¡ š Ţġ ; 򾢧 ġ ¢ âŢ ո Ũ ¡ 򾢧 š ; Ө ڧ¢ š ġ ; Ţ ¡ â¡á ħ ; Ţ 񦸡 ġ Ţơ 񼡼 ; á Ҹǡ Ȣ Ž ɧ ġ Ŧġ Ţ̸ š ʦʸ ¡.

 

5.

 

tirukooyil illaata tirvil uurum

tiruveNNiiRu aNiyaata tirvil uurum

parkkoodu pattimaiyaaR paadaa vuurum

paaGkinoodu palataLikaL illaa vuurum

viruppoodu veNcaGkam uutaa vuurum

vitaanamum veNkodiyum illaa vuurum

aruppoodu malarpaRittiddu uNNaa uurum

avaiyelaam uurallaa adavi kaadee

 

Meaning:

 

The cities that do not have temples with well consecrated icons and hence without the divine Grace; cities that do not have people wearing the Sacred Ash indicating the desire to be Pure in heart and soul; the cities where there are people who are not humble and with genuine Love for BEING do not sing the hymns that melt the heart; the cities where in every street corner there are no simple shrines for people to worship the deities readily; the cities where there are no spiritual individuals who would counsel and with that relieve the confusions or people around; the cities where there are no festivals celebrated with banners and flags raised to create an atmosphere of mirth and joy; the cities where there people who do not worship the icons with fresh flowers before they eat anything at all - all these cities are NOT genuine cities but simply woods with thick wild growths

 

Comments:

 

Right from very ancient days Hinduism, the genuine shape of which is Agamism or Tantrism has been a temple-centered culture as we can see now from SumeroTamil literature such as that En Hudu Annas Sirbiyam, Kes temple Hymn and so forth. This was the case in CaGkam epoch as well where we have a collection of hymns, the Paripaadal and which presuppose icons and worshipping such icons in temples. Appar is trying to recover this Agamic notion of temple-centered cities as the TRUE cities and all else simply woods with thick wild growths and hence not conducive at all for the culturing of man. This Dravidian notion of culture i.e. naakariikam is also temple centered as the word nakar , the city also means a temple.

 

He also emphasizes the wearing of sacred ash as an important element of culture for it establishes the whole motivational dynamics of the people - that of becoming and being PURE at heart for the general well being of all. Where there is no such desire, people will cheat, will be corrupted, become selfish, mean, miserly, nasty an so forth and hence the whole society would lack in cohesion, lack in mutual trust and hence also cooperative activities, the ingredient of economic and all other kinds of successes.

 

For the psychological well being there must be not only the and magnificent temples but also simple shrines (taLikaL) at every street corners so that the vision of icons are readily available for all. Everyone should live with the presence of BEING in some icon form in the heart and mind of people so that they are free of depressions, melancholies and so forth and which are impediments towards energetic and persistent actions which alone will bring about success.

 

Now along with this, people should be humble and LOVING unto all to be cultured and truly spiritual so that the deities remain actively present in their body and mind guiding them effectively. For this people must sing HYMNS born out from genuine bakti and which would in turn channel the mind in that direction.

 

Now I am interpreting the blowing of conch as symbolic of Giitopateesam and hence philosophic counseling by people who are spiritually well developed. There must an abundance of such AntaNar or NaRpatattaar, the truly liberated (and not the charlatans and casteic Brahmins and so forth) who would counsel the distressed people without any ulterior motives (like extracting money, converting to ones own religion, making them slaves unto one self etc)

 

Now festivals have an important place in the social life of people. Such festivals bring out the Social Dimensions of Existence in addition to serving people to relate themselves with the deities and with that also enjoy a spiritual regeneration that would serve better to lead another spree of active economic and domestic life.

 

Now the habit of worshipping the deities with flowers before one begins to eat also has immense significance. The eating is the most fundamental earthly activity related to survival and the food has to be CLEAN, not stolen begged and so forth but rather a product of ones own toil. The offering of flowers indicate also the dominance of the spirit of LOVE and hence this habit may also mean that food on consumes must also be CLEAN, a product of LOVE as a whole.

 

Now all cities but which do not have the above features are said to be simply large woods with thick wild growths in a metaphorical way to indicate that they would FAIL to CULTURE people.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-6

 

 

The Mantra Recital and Temple Worship

 

We have seen that Icon Thinking is the central element of Hindu worship and for which purpose temples are built and where even Appar recommends not only the building of huge temples but also little shrines so that everyone can enjoy the presence of the gods of their choice very readily. Now at the higher levels where Icon Thinking collapses, we have the birth of Mantra Recital and which for the Saivites is Na-ma-si-vaa-ya, the anjcezuttu. For the VaishNavas it remains namo naraayaNa and for the Muruka baktas Om SaravaNa Bava and so forth. But despite all these differences, all converge on Om, the Ongkaaram, the Primordial Logos and after which only Deep Silence is possible. The Siddhas have recommended even this practice of Deep Silence as an effective tool of psychotherapy for gaining mental purity and so forth.

 

But Appar also recommends the TALK of fire-hued Siva and the wearing of the sacred ash as associated practices to make the mantra recital effective. The mind must be FILLED with divine thoughts along with the desire to be absolutely PURE and the fact that Siva is the DESTROYER who would access even the deepest recesses of the mind and singe to ashes the evil karmic deposits there.

 

Life becomes meaningless and mechanical once a person abandons such motivations for existence - life is given to one to become PURE and getting rid off the deposits of the evil actions one has done, knowingly or unknowingly

 

6

 

տ 了 á

Ȧո á

ո 째¢ ơá

Ȣ á

է ¡á

Ǣȡ š ɢ

է Ģ

Ƣġ 츢ȡ

 

:

 

ﺢ ɢ Ŕ ɢ տ, ŧ ﺸɡ ȡ š’ ﺡ ۾ Ƣ ¡á; ̸ Ƣ 򾢧 Ŧ Ȧġ Ţ ¡ ơá; ɢ 򾢸 째¢ Ũ Ž Ȣ¡¢, 째¢ 츧 ġá; ¡ ӧ Ƨ 򾢨 Ƣ ġá; , ý Ȣ¢ ¡á - ġ ը . ɢ šȢ 츢ȡ šȡ ɢ, Ǣ ɡ է Ţ Ģ š Ƣġ ž Ȣ.

 

6.

 

Tirunaamam anjcezuttu ceppaaraakil

TiivaNNar tiRamorukaal peecaaraakil

Orukaalun tirukkooyil cuuzaaraakil

UNpatanmun malarpaRittiddu uNNaaraakil

ArunooykaL keda veNNiiRu aNiyaaraakil

ALiyaRRaar piRantavaaRu eetoovennil

PerunooykaL mika naliyap peyarttunj cettup

PiRappataRkee tozilaaki iRakkinRaaree

 

Meaning:

 

Those who do not chant the name Siva! Siva! and the mantra Namasivaaya indicative of the Panjcakrittiyas of BEING both loudly and softly; those who do not reflect and speak often the DSTRUCTIVE powers of BEING by beholding the Fire-Colored Siva; those who championing Atheism and thus not believing in the existence of gods do not go the temples and worship the deities there; those who not do the arccanas with fresh blossoms before having meals; those who do not wear the Sacred Ash on their forehead in order to secure inner purity and with that drive away all the mental and physical diseases - all these people become unfit for the blessings of BEING. Now if asked why they are allowed to exist at all, know that it is for them to suffer with diseases difficult to cure and thereby immensely suffer by way of extirpating the evil karmas they have acquired and thus simply live to die and to be reborn to continue such miseries till they become pure.

 

Comments:

 

Saivism is a very rational religion that focuses upon man becoming PURE psychologically so that he can lead a life in good mental and physical health and because he becomes fit thereby for the endless Grace of BEING. Living in the vicinity - the Cannitaanam of BEING - is the safest thing one can do to secure all the protection one needs to safeguard self and body from the attack of the evil forces that bring about diseases and death. Thus religious life is NOT simple a life of vain study of scriptures and verbal profession of dogmas and so forth. It is living with a will to be PURE at heart and with that mindful of every action of oneself so that they do not deviate from this inner purity.

 

Now Appar enumerates a number of overt behaviors that are indicative of such a disposition and all centering on temples and icon related thinking and rituals.

 

He mentions first of all the Mantra Recital - that of the name Siva Siva and the root Siva-mantra Namasivaaya (just like Tirumular) which one can do anytime anywhere. The Mantra Recital follows after the collapse of Icon Thinking which is more concrete and which enable an individual to apprehend BEING as Panjca Krittyan Njana Muurtti and so forth.

 

Now central to BEING-as-Pancjakrittiyan, the Agent of the Five Fold Universal Praxis is that of Destruction and which is symbolized by the Fire-Colored Shape He assumes, Siva as Kaalagni Rudra. One must continually contemplate upon the presence of DESTRUCTION everywhere and hence Rudra for only then the associated praxis of regeneration sustenance and so forth will become intelligible. One must wage a war with evils within oneself and with Grace of Rudra-Siva destroy all these so that on can become PURE.

 

Now this is related to the symbolic act of wearing the Sacred Ash on the body and which symbolizes the act of destruction and as its limit becoming absolutely PURE. To become PURE in and out is the primordial MEANING of existence and must live as for this. And this brings in the need to avoid animal sacrifices and replace it worship with fresh blossoms. This way of worship indicates a transmutation of self so that it expresses LOVE unto all and not at all animosity and an Inner Purity within the aesthetics of Beautiful.

 

This inner PURITY and dominance of LOVE ensures the flow of Divine Grace, the aruL so that because of the divine presence all evil forces are naturally driven away making existence itself a joyous one lived with good mental and physical health.

 

Now the question arises: How is that there is also the gift of existence for those who do not live thus and thus become beyond the grace of BEING?

 

Such people are also given a lease of existence but not to enjoy the bliss of divine presence but rather SUFFER by way of extirpating the evil karmas already lodged in the deeper recesses of their Unconscious. They assail the person as incurable mental and physical diseases and bring about premature death and so forth by way of allowing the evil karmas express themselves out and with that also disappear.

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-7

 

Assimilating Self into the Image Worshiped

 

The psychic entity is peculiar in that it can transform itself into the IMAGE that it worships intensively and with love. This Appar mentions and interesting enough in connection the Vedic way of life. It is interesting to investigate further whether this is purport of the Yajna that was emphasized in the Vedic tradition. However it is clear it applies to Icon Thinking that is the central intellectual culture of the Temples where divine images in the form of icons are installed and worshipped. There is a magical or alchemical processes at work where because of intense love and continuous thought of Siva, the psychic entity becomes transmuted into the image of Siva himself.

 

But why is this important in connection with the general theme of this Patikam , that of becoming free of the evil karmic deposits that are sources of all problems and miseries in life?

 

The presence of divine powers within the psychic interior will naturally dislodge and drive away the evil powers, the ghosts demons and so forth. So temple and worship of icon with deep love, will serve to INSTALL them within the psychic interiority and with that drive away the evil powers and make the soul really pure.

 

The divine images have endearing aesthetic qualities about them and if not have elements of POWERS that would battle with the evil spirits. Thus installing them and making the body itself a kind of temple is really a very effective Sadhana for overcoming the ills of life.

 

7.

 

ɡš âȢ ¡ɡ

째 Ţɡ

ɡɡ 째 Ӿɡ

ɡ ɡ

ɡɡ ¡ɡ ɡ

Ҹ է

ɡɡ ɡɡ ɢ ġ

Ƨ Ģ ŧ

 

:

 

§! 째 ǡ Ƣ ¢Ȣ š Ţ 𦸡, Ҹ ȡ ȡ. ɢ Ǣ Ƣ âЦ Ţ ո Ţ ɡ. Ƣ § 򨸧¡ ţռǡ ž Ҹ ɡ. Ţ Ţ ӨȨ âШ ž ȡ ո ĸ ɡ. ĸ ħ ɡɡ ¡ɡ ɡ. Ȣ á Ţ ġá Ȣ Ҹ ǡ §! ɡ ɡ Ţ Ţ žġ, , Ģ Ȣ¡ 츢 !

 

 

7.

 

ninaavaar piRarinRi niiyee yaanaay

ninaippaarkaL maanttukkoor vittumaanaay

mannaanaay mannavarkoor mutamaanaay

maRai naaGkumaanaay aaRaGkamaanaay

ponnaanaay maNiyaanaay pookamaanaay

puumimeel pukaztakka poruLee unnai

ennaanaay ennaanaay ennin allaal

eezaiyeen en colli vaazttuvanee!

 

Meaning:

 

O Lord! You possess and transmute the personality of those who love you and serve you ardently into your own image so that they do not become something else! You also become the seed forms that blossom into deep metaphysical illuminations for those who meditate upon you fervently. You have also become the world leaders and the Soma juice that serves as the ambrosia of immense strength for such warriors. You have also the Four Vedas and the six associated disciplines by way of fostering the worship of Fire. You have become the gold, the precious stones and all the good and enjoyable experiences in the world. In fact tearing yourself away from being totally ABOVE all, you have become the world and everything praiseworthy there. As such there is nothing left for my poor self to mention and praise You except to be bewildered saying that you have become this! You have become that! And so forth.

 

Comments:

 

We have one of the most precious concepts occurring here and which underlies the very meaning of worship- ninnaavaar piRanRi niiyee yaanaay - you become those who worship you intensively you yourself. Here is the science of self-transmutation, the spiritual alchemy where through intense worship love and service to Siva, the anmas also get transmuted alchemically so that their personality gets transformed into that of Siva Himself, a projection of BEING as if for the anmas. The act of worship is to allow self- destruction so that the ego-self is destroyed and the Siva-self gets installed.

 

And it is towards such a magical possession and alchemical transmutation that BEING presents Himself as the seed of so many thought forms for those who meditative deeply and intensively on Him. Here it is the various icons that are mentioned as seeds for it is through such icons, manifest or concealed, that deep reflections are stimulated.

 

Now such a task requires great bravery for such contemplations are a WAR against the blinding and demonic forces within and the anma has to be a brave warrior, the mannan (mun> man), he who stands in front as the foremost, the leader who guides the people towards the WAY. Now such leaders, who are also brave warriors, will also require immense KuNdalini Sakti to sustain their warring life and for which Siva as Somasundaran feeds them with Soma juice and which may actually be sexual enjoyment with young women or some other such mechanisms.

 

Now it appears that this is how Appar incorporates the whole of Vedic culture with its Yajna, Soma Juice and the various sciences associated with the proper understanding of the Vedas.

 

The next line indicates that the enjoyment of earthly life and which may be related to the Vedic Culture, is not to be abhorred but rather to be enjoyed to the full as a blessing of BEING. The premature ascetic way of life. As promoted by Buddhism and Jainism, is a misadventure if it means shunning the worldly life before all the passions are satiated.

 

BEING becomes all - the so many physical things and metaphysical icons and all to illuminate the self and transmute its being into that of Himself, to make them all enjoy the Sivattuvam and thus enjoy Viidu PeeRu, the final redemption.

 

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-8

 

Washing off the Sins and the Real Conversion

 

The Bakti revolt of Nayanmars and Azwars brought back the understanding that BEING is Most Loving and not simply the emotionally indifferent Brahman or simply the Sunyata, a Void. BEING is all LOVING and for those who discard THINKING and approach with LOVE, He is most readily available (eLiyai) though otherwise extremely difficult to encounter (ariyai)

 

Appar, consistent with his Existentialism emphasizes this aspect of spiritual life in this verse to show that only by developing the aesthetic dimensions of the mind where FEELINGS and EMOTIONS are purified of their inherent animism that a CURE for the various mental and physical ailments are possible. We must also recall here that it was a disease where he suffered unbearable pains in his intestines that brought Appar from Jainism back to Saivism.

 

There is mention here also the metaphor of cleansing by bathing in the pure and divine waters, a ritual practice that we find in all religions. The real baptism is cleansing oneself of all the filth that is already in the deeper recesses of the mind and which are the deposits of the evil actions one has done. And this baptism as self-purification is a continuous processes and which requires going to the temples and worshiping the deities there repeatedly. BEING will bear all the sins and accept any soul no matter how mean and low it is provided it repents genuinely.

 

Genuine conversion is not jumping from religion to another but an inner process which also a continuous one. It is essentially ascending into higher and higher states of inner purity and which can be achieved only by cleansing the inner self of the animism lodged there so that one emerges more and more humane.

 

Baptisms and conversions must humanize the soul by getting rid of the animism already there.

 

8.

 

ʧ¨

츢 즸

â Ǣ ¡ɡ

¡

ɸ

ç ¡

ը ¢š

 

:

 

š ġ Ч츢, ɡ š Ȣ ʧ¨ ɡ , 𦸡. Ȣ ġ Ţ Ǣɡ. ɧ¡ Ţ â¡ , â Ǣ ɡ ɡ츢 Φ ¡Ǣ ɡ 즸. ھ¢ġ , Ż ¡ Ȣ¡ , 쾢 , Ч Ч Ħǡ զġ â . ¢ š š Ƣ ȡ Ģ򾨾 , § ը Ţ츢 .

 

8.

 

attaavun adiyeenai anpaal aarttaay

aruLnookkil tiirttal niir aaddikkoNdaay

ettanaiyum ariyai nii eLiyai yaanaay

enaiyaandu koNdiraGki yeenru koNdaay

pittaneen peetaiyeen peeyeen naayeen

pizaittanakaL attanaiyum poRuttaayanRee

ittanaiyum emparamoo aiya aiyoo

emperumaan tirukkaruNai yiruntavaaRee

 

Meaning:

 

Instead of being a neutral and feelingless Pure Spirit, you showed yourself as my Father and showering and filing me with LOVE have overpowered me. You have also with a look of abundant LOVE, washed away my sins with Ganges and purified me thus. In all these, you who are so difficult to approach and apprehend, have become so easy to witness and enjoy the presence. On top of that you have possessed me transmuting me into your essence and with that accepting me as one your flock. I am mad with an infirm mind, an ignorant fool with no understanding whatsoever of Civanjanam, an evil sprit full of devilish forces in the heart and a dog that roams around the streets for this and that. But despite all these you have not only tolerated all my misdeeds but also showered me with your endless kindness. O Lord! It is so so impossible for me to appreciate your kindness, so immense it is!

 

Comments:

 

We have to keep in mind the existential and psychiatric thrust of the whole of this Patikam and where in this verse Appar articulate what can be called the Saivite mode of CONFESSIONS that is NOT like that available among the Catholics where confessions are made to a human Father. Here consistent the philosophy of Temple City where over and above major and majestic Temples, little shrines in every street corner is recommended, we have a situation where the confessions are directed at BEING not as neutral and feelingless Pure Spirit but rather as a LOVING Father, one who graces even most despicable sinner with aruL nookku, the Look of Immense Love.

 

When the anma breaks through its ego defenses and SEES itself as what it really is, away from all masks one has been wearing and hiding one self with - as Brahmanah, Njaani, Rishi, Acarya, King and what not - then one would realize that one is a mad man, an ignorant fool, an devilish individual and a dog that roams around seeking this and that. This self realization, this atmanjaanam, is the precondition for the countless blessings of BEING and with that also a life free of mental and physical tortures.

 

When one REPENTS for all the weaknesses that one is and without hiding them by leading an inauthentic life, the GRACE of Siva will flow in and out and the waters of the heavenly Ganges that flows from the tuft of Siva, will be allowed the flood even the deepest recesses of the psyche and with that cleanse off all the dirt there.

 

Thus every little shrine where God is available most readily and in an icon form most meaningful to the individual, is in fact a clinic where psychotherapy is given freely by Siva Himself in His own way. This way of self-purification is available equally for all for BEING as Father is most kind and His kindness has no bounds whatsoever.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-9

 

Repenting and Confessing

 

The root cause of many ills of man are his egoistic arrogance symbolized for the Saivites by overbearing RavaNa who dared to shake off even Kailash where resides Siva with Parvati. Perhaps Appar saw such RavaNas in the kings of the times who equated themselves with God and sought to displace the worship of God with the worship of Kings. So it is not an accident that Appar notes and sings bravely against such arrogance and in that also sings eloquently the need to root out this arrogance born of metaphysical ignorance induced by aaNavam, the Dark Killing Energy, which has also as a secondary meaning this arrogance.

 

Another widespread arrogance is that of the Brahmanahs who got away with their immensely illogical claim that they are the twice-born and are so by birth alone and hence are the only people who are spiritually matured and hence belongs to the highest social order. The whole of history shows how the Brahmanahs twisted and turned history to substantiate the VarNasra Dharma and Sanskrit as Divine Language earning by this, the deep-seated hatred of the ordinary Hindus.

 

So as an antidote to this unbecoming arrogance of the kings and the priests, Appar outlines the characteristics of the genuinely religious and which avoid every element of this social arrogance. When a person matures spiritually and becomes aware of the inherent PURITY and that LOVE is the most endearing personality trait of such individuals, they begin to repent and confess how lowly evil wicked one is really - the kulam pollen (have an evil community as my community), kuNam pollen (have evil traits as my traits) etc. Such repentance and confessions overtly to the deities is actually declaring freedom from all arrogance, egotism such as that of Kings and Priests and who function only with the interest of becoming gods themselves. Such confessions cut across such arrogance and roots out even the slightest tendency in that direction thereby contributing towards becoming genuinely PURE.

 

9

 

̽ Ȣ

ȧ âШ

ɢ

ġá 󾢧 Χ

Ţ Ţġ Ƣ

â

š Ȣ Ƨ§!

 

:

 

§! Ҧ ġ, Ҹǡ ̽ ġ Ҹ Ȣ ġ¡ 츢. žġ Ũ¡ ǧ â ɡ 츢. ̸ Ţ ǡ ¡ġɡ ɡ ġɡ Ż Ǣ ¡ ġ ﻡɢ¡ 츢. Ҹ ġǡ Ģ š . Ţ̸ ¡ Ţ̸Ǣ ̽ Ţ ġ ɢ ɢ . ¡ռ ¡ɡ żȢ  â Ţ . Ţ󧾡 측, Ƣġ즸 ¡ Ȣ ġ ¡ š. š š쨸 , š ¢á Ȣ âŢ .

Ȣ: ɧ Ȣ ǡ Ǣ Ҹ Ȣ âиȡ .

 

9.

 

kulampolleen kuNampolleen kuRiyum pollen

kuRRamee peritudaiyeen koolamaaya

nalampolleen naan pollen njaanaiyalleen

nallaaroodu icaintileen naduvee ninRa

vilaGkalleen vilaGkallaa tozinteen alleen

veRuppanavum mikapperitum peeca valleen

ilampolleen irappatee iiya maaddeen

enceyvaan toonRineen eezaiyeenee!

 

Meaning:

 

I do not have a circle of friends and associates who are good. I do not have any personal qualities that are dear to all with behavioral and other signs that are appealing to all. I am also prone to do only the evil and ignoble without having any beauty in my personality. And out of my metaphysical ignorance I am also an evil person, despicable by all and who shuns the company of the good people. I am neither the cruel beasts nor the gentle beasts between the human and such beasts. I have not discarded the animal nature of myself and become the humanized human. I am also prone to speak nastily without the necessary self -control so that others really hate me. I do not maintain a home where guests are welcome but rather lead a miserly life where I only beg from others accumulate all without giving out anything. I dont know what to do and also do not know why I am blessed with an existence at all.

 

Comments:

 

We have seen Appar, in a psychiatric vein, has been recommending temple worship and so forth where a person has to CONFESS not to individuals like gurus and so forth but directly to the deity of ones choice. In front of some shape of BEING, all the ego defenses must be shattered and self-understanding that removes all maskings must be gained and articulated overtly or silently to BEING who is the only one who has the power to cleanse the soul of all the evil karmic deposits and which are the root causes of all such ailments.

 

Now in this verse Appar goes to enumerate the various dispositions that are the likely the source of mental ailments projecting himself onto such individuals. Such people have a circle of friends who are themselves evil and hence who would reinforce the already existing evil tendencies. Overtly there will be no behavioral or other kinds of signs that would help others to see the good qualities in the person and with that respect him, love him so forth. Qualities and forms of speech that only breed DISLIKE and hatred show absence of social LOVE and acceptance and which would make life itself very miserable. We cannot neglect the community into which we are born and unless such a community LOVES and CHERISHES the company, sanity of mind and mental health are not possible.

 

Metaphysical IGNORANCE and with that absence of endearing aesthetic qualities are also another source of socially derived miseries. The psychically UGLY person with nothing beautiful about him and hence nothing endearing about him, will not be loved at all and such people will feel left out, thrown out of society from society and so forth. This is a social punishment that can be very painful.

 

Now another important aspect that Appar enumerates is burning the animal nature and becoming a genuinely humanized human being. A loveless human being is also prone to hate and dislike and in that also put down collectively a group of people and thrive in such degradations and denial of human rights not caring for injustice being done. Such individuals, no matter of what birth, are in fact animistic and hence evil in a way. Such a disposition, by the injustice it betrays, will also bring evil karmas that will spell out disasters and miseries of all kinds in their life.

 

Here it may be possible that Appar is criticizing severely the VarNasra Dharma with which he could not go along as he makes it clear in many verses.

 

Another trait that would count as evil is that of miserliness - the reluctance to GIVE and give freely whatever one can to the needy and hoard up whatever one accumulates even by begging. Such conducts enhance the atomicity and hence the possessiveness that comes along with it. Since such an attitude would DISTANCE the self from BEING and hence create opportunities for the invasion and occupation of the evil forces, they are also to be avoided.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-10

 

Love Unto Siva is the Most Endearing

 

Here we have Appar declaring something the same as the VaishNava Azwars - the material riches and happy and prosperous kingly life on earth are of little importance in relation to a life lived in the LOVE of BEING, be it Siva or VishNu. The sweetness of the taste of Divine Life is so great that not only there is nothing comparable to it but also unlike other pleasures, the pleasures enjoyed here do not diminish at all. The Divine Bliss, the Civanantam of the Saivites, the Niratiyasa Anantam of the VaishNavites, is such that it uproots totally the joys from all other kinds of tastes.

 

Thus there is transmutation of tastes and values, and uplifting the existence itself into the Divine Ground, the Inda-sim, the Beautiful Peak of Sulgi (c. 2000 BC). This lifting up in the spiritual ground of ones existence that feeds new values from within also provides NEW EYES whereby one is able to penetrate through the outer appearance and reach the inner core.

 

When a person gets the x-ray eyes to penetrate the surface and reach the hidden depths, and which is the function of genuine religious life, one can see even a leper or a CaNdaLa as truly religious if they happen to be people worshipping Siva earnestly. The point is that the inauthentic religious people are BLIND to the spiritual essence of the genuinely religious and care only for the externals such as the bodily appearance, the kind of profession they practice, and the kind of attire and symbols they wear.

 

The little minds care only for the externals while the genuinely spiritual minds for the inner core of the person and which is possible not because of erudite scholarship of Vedas and Scriptures and the chanting the mantras endlessly but only by transmuting self through cultivating LOVE unto all.

 

 

 

10.

 

¢

ý¡ šɡ ŧ

š ġ

ġá

ġ ̨ á

â Ҩ§

š á

Ž ǡ

 

:

 

ǡ , 쨸¢ ͸ Ţ ʨ ŧ ġ, á šĸ ɾ츢 â , Ǣ ġ ġ ž, ¡ ġ. š Ŧġ Ǣ է Ũɧ 󨨾 ġá Ž̧š ġ. Ÿ, ¡ ġ ظ ġ ̨ Ԩá¢, Ƣ Ũ¢ Ч θǢ â 즸 š ǡ Ҩ ¢, Ȧġ , ¡ Ө¢ Ԩ Ŧ á , ǧ ǡ Ž̧š Φţ!

 

10

 

caGkaniti patumaniti uyiraNdum tantu

taaraNiyoodu vaanaaLat travareenum

maGkuvaar avar celvam matippoom alloom

maateevarkku eekaantar alaaraakil

aGkamellaam kuRaintu azuku tozu nooyaraay

aavurittut tinRuuzalum pulaiyareenum

kaGkai vaar sadaik karantaarrku anbaraakil

avar kaNdiir naam vaNagkum kadavuLaaree

 

Meaning:

 

Even if I am offered vast heaps of gold, the political power over not only the earth but also the heavens, since such wealth is of diminishing importance I will not cherish them at all. And furthermore if offered by people who are not single-minded in their worship and thought of Siva, I will not value them at all (as they would not be of any use for understanding Siva further) Now on the contrary if there are people with the sole thought of Siva and total love for Him, be they lepers with the flesh rotting away and thus of disgusting appearance, and people of the lowly profession of skinning the dead cows and living out from such income, you should know that I would readily worship such people as if gods (on earth)

 

Comments:

 

Appar continues his tirade against the supremely unjust and injurious social practices that stand in the way of genuine religious life. The first is greediness for material wealth which is a mental disease and driven by which men commit great evils even in the name of religion. Related to this is Political Power, the desire to reign not only the whole of the earth but also the heavens. Since these are products of mental diseases and would please only people of such diseases, Appar boldly says that he would reject them totally especially when those who offer do not have any thoughts of Siva at all.

 

People whom he would respect are not the economically and politically powerful but rather the humble souls but who are great in their single-minded devotion to Siva. Such people may, for external appearance, be disgusting like the lepers whose bodily flesh is rotting away, or the Pulaiyas who are despicable not because of appearance but because of the their profession - skinning the dead cows and living off it. What Appar seeks to drive home with these very emotionally loaded words is that people who are deeply devoted to Siva, no matter of what physical appearance and profession, should be treated as if gods on earth.

 

In other words wealth, political power, physical appearance and caste differences should NOT be given any importance at all in the evaluation of spiritual worth of person. What matters is the intensity of Bakti, how fervently and deeply he worships Siva.

 

 

 

 

The Essences of the Philosophy Appar-1

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-1

 

The Existentialism of Appar

 

If existentialism means a philosophy that accords an important place for feelings and emotions along with or over and above conceptual knowledge then the Philosophy of Appar in this Patikam is Existentialism of an important kind. It is not an accident that BEING is captured not in terms of attributes or guNas or structural forms and so forth but rather in terms of LOVE - Father Mother and so forth. What is described is BEING, no doubt about it but not simply the Brahman, Pure Radiance of a kind, SaguNa NirguNa and so forth. Such Vedantic descriptions are overlooked and BEING maintained as the emotionally appropriated Father Mother and so forth and this obviously to give prominence to LOVE that exists between people as such.

 

Appar wants to SEE the whole universe in terms of LOVE and therefore something existentially MEANINGFUL just as the Family is the most meaningful social nexus for anybody. In fact we can see Appar begins with Family Man and then universalizing it articulates the notion of World Family Man and where he SEES BEING as Father Mother and so forth. What this way of progressing in individual development is that of culturing FEELINGS so that LOVE comes dominate existence and because of which there is no alienating, discriminating people on the basis of birth profession sex nationality and so forth. All such man made barriers break down - the whole world becomes ones little city, the whole of humanity becomes one community and all people become brethren, the cuRRam.

 

It can be seen that this is a frontal attack on VarNasrama Dharma which took a firm hold in the Tamil country at that time where we gather, from MaNimekalai, that even cemeteries were divided along caste lines.

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-2

 

The Psychiatric Aspects of Siva Worship

 

The philosophy Appar outlines in this Patikam is a kind of Existentialism where the feeling of LOVE is made to present as the DOMINANT feature of personality so that all the social discriminations are swept away. But we find this is NOT the case with majority of people who thrive in some kind of animism where all attempts are made singly and collectively to put down another group of people and make sacrificial lambs of them to exult in ones own superiority by that kind of animistic act.

 

This is the workings of the SICK mind, a mind that lacks in love but cherishes hatred and because of which it suffers. There are evil karmic deposits lodged in the deepest layers of the mind and which make their presence felt as diseases near-death experiences, melancholy miseries mental abnormality severe depressions and so forth. The hatred that one harbors where as a matter of fact one should harbor only LOVE, brings about an existence full of miseries and the only solution is to worship Siva, the Destroyer who can singe to ashes these bad karmas and bless the souls with Inner Purity that would make also make the loving kind of individuals and with that also CONFIDENT with one self.

 

At the root of the animism that makes put down another and deprive him his rights is an Inferiority Complex - the FEAR that one is NOT good enough to command social respect and prestige naturally. It is this FEAR that drives one to seek such honors forcibly and by the social machinations of making a group DOWN BELOW so that one can feel ABOVE them hence somewhat great.

 

If a person is PURE and with inner purity that would allow him to be in the presence of BEING, he would naturally feel that eLiyoom alloom, not inferior to any body at all and hence confident in oneself and content with whatever one is.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-3

 

The Showing BEING and Seeing Anma

 

This verse contains in explicit formulation what was already present implicitly in the very activity of temple building and which is as ancient as Hinduism itself. It might have begun with worship of natural objects like trees springs hills and so forth however in due course the concealed spirits were intuited and formal temples were built. The idea is that of gaining VISIONS of deities that are there but normally beyond the reach of senses but available to the mental seeing, the transductive perceptions, the visions of the Third Eye.

 

Thus we have that the primordial act of consciousness is that of SEEING but something which is possible only because there is a prior showing but which fact may remain concealed from the seer. Thus under normal circumstances a person goes about because of this transcendental concealment that he is the agent and so forth by appropriating the Universal Praxis of BEING and transforming as for self and so forth. This appropriation is a result of the inherent atomicity of the mind and because of which there are ego-actions along the effecting of evils and so forth. The karmic traces that are elicited by such actions are the roots cause of the various kinds problems in life - diseases, pains, miseries and so forth.

 

But what is solution?

 

Appar proposes that we are NOT autonomous players, agents of actions and that we are LED to feel that way only because of the Tirobavam, the Transcendental Concealment. Once we realize that we are playing this and that and assuming various roles in life only because BEING plays us thus, then our ego gets shattered and the self becomes not only humble but also egoless. With this begins a life of real joy because BEING overpowers such pure anmas and blesses them profusely with all that will make existence supremely blissful.

 

(to continue) 1

 

 

The Essences of the Philosophy Appar-2

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-4

 

BEING Overpowers on His Own

 

BEING presents Himself in various TEXTS composed of the languages of Vaikari Paisyanti Mattimai Cukkumai and finally Aticukkumai. Saivism has a hierarchical view of the Logos, the most primordial form is Om, the Ongkaaram but which splits and develops into the other forms as above the most immediate being the Vaikari form, the language of ordinary speech and which can HEARD and communications established. But BEING draws the understanding from this auditory form of Logos into the more subtle forms where the texts are nonverbal but come as dreams, mythologies, mantra complexes and finally the Logos itself.

 

Thus it is possible for there to be differences in understanding BEING and conflicts of interpretations and because of which we have different religions ideologies and struggles between them. But everybody realizes that BEING is in fact BEYOND any linguistic determinations and stands nevertheless as the Deepest Structure of all TEXTS, just a background impossible to capture in words (colaRkariya cuuzal) and that all should stand in the contemplation of this so that one can FREE of mental fluctuations uncertainties infirmities doubts and so forth. Thus there is a kind of IGNORANCE which is root cause of a primordial doubt that produces basic uncertainties and mental infirmities.

 

But Appar sees that BEING has implanted Himself in the body of all as that remains not only as the absolutely permanent but also as the eternally productive( kaRpagam) principle. The solution to all uncertainties and mental stresses because of that is search this BEING within and repose by firmly attaching oneself to it. This actually requires the breaking down the inner resistances the ego-self develops and with that FREE the mind for the natural possession of the soul by BEING and which He will do readily.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-5

 

The Philosophy of Temple City

 

The most unifying theme of Agamic Culture is that of the centrality of Temple in every city and residential locality , a fact we notice in Sumeria and Indus in ancient times and since then all over India and the world where Hinduism has planted itself. Each time a temple is erected, Agamic Hinduism comes alive making that locality itself sacred, brining along with the celestial powers to guide them along

 

We have Kes Temple Hymn of En Hudu Anna outlining the philosophy of where it is stated that it contributes to mental health of the people and through that even for economic prosperity. It allows or helps people become great , the ur-sag (> caanRoor) who would reach the heavens with the help of the temple.

 

In this very useful verse, Appar returns to this theme but more in the psychiatric vein. He outlines a Philosophy of Temple city where there will be huge temples with many festivals but also little shrines everywhere so that all people have READY access to the divine forces.

 

One puzzling element is the repeated emphasize of Appar worship with flowers that he also mentions and as usual just before having meals. It appears this linkage between flower worship and having meals may be a recommendations of Vegetarian Food, as not the clean food ( Cutta Pooasnam) but also as that which overcomes animistic tendencies, the inclinations to sacrifice animals and as by way of worship.

 

This is either the birth or reinforcement of vegetarianism in the temples, the great one as opposed to the little ones, the temples for the little deities with the attendant magical practices and blood sacrifices. I tend to think it is resuscitation of an ancient practice for we have also Suruppak saying in his NeRi ( c. 3000 BC) that such forms evil and will bring about undesirable consequences.

 

The metaphor of woods thick with luxuriant growth is also quite apt and its a dream image. The luxuriant undergrowth represents uncontrollable desires and any society creates a city without temples which serve as the culturing agents will turnout to be such a one.

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-6

 

 

The Mantra Recital and Temple Worship

 

We have seen that Icon Thinking is the central element of Hindu worship and for which purpose temples are built and where even Appar recommends not only the building of huge temples but also little shrines so that everyone can enjoy the presence of the gods of their choice very readily. Now at the higher levels where Icon Thinking collapses, we have the birth of Mantra Recital and which for the Saivites is Na-ma-si-vaa-ya, the anjcezuttu. For the VaishNavas it remains namo naraayaNa and for the Muruka baktas Om SaravaNa Bava and so forth. But despite all these differences, all converge on Om, the Ongkaaram, the Primordial Logos and after which only Deep Silence is possible. The Siddhas have recommended even this practice of Deep Silence as an effective tool of psychotherapy for gaining mental purity and so forth.

 

But Appar also recommends the TALK of fire-hued Siva and the wearing of the sacred ash as associated practices to make the mantra recital effective. The mind must be FILLED with divine thoughts along with the desire to be absolutely PURE and the fact that Siva is the DESTROYER who would access even the deepest recesses of the mind and singe to ashes the evil karmic deposits there.

 

Life becomes meaningless and mechanical once a person abandons such motivations for existence - life is given to one to become PURE and getting rid off the deposits of the evil actions one has done, knowingly or unknowingly.

 

(to continue) 2

 

The Essences of the Philosophy Appar-3

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-7

 

Assimilating Self into the Image Worshiped

 

The psychic entity is peculiar in that it can transform itself into the IMAGE that it worships intensively and with love. This Appar mentions and interesting enough in connection the Vedic way of life. It is interesting to investigate further whether this is purport of the Yajna that was emphasized in the Vedic tradition. However it is clear it applies to Icon Thinking that is the central intellectual culture of the Temples where divine images in the form of icons are installed and worshipped. There is a magical or alchemical processes at work where because of intense love and continuous thought of Siva, the psychic entity becomes transmuted into the image of Siva himself.

 

But why is this important in connection with the general theme of this Patikam , that of becoming free of the evil karmic deposits that are sources of all problems and miseries in life?

 

The presence of divine powers within the psychic interior will naturally dislodge and drive away the evil powers, the ghosts demons and so forth. So temple and worship of icon with deep love, will serve to INSTALL them within the psychic interiority and with that drive away the evil powers and make the soul really pure.

 

The divine images have endearing aesthetic qualities about them and if not have elements of POWERS that would battle with the evil spirits. Thus installing them and making the body itself a kind of temple is really a very effective Sadhana for overcoming the ills of life.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-8

 

Washing off the Sins and the Real Conversion

 

The Bakti revolt of Nayanmars and Azwars brought back the understanding that BEING is Most Loving and not simply the emotionally indifferent Brahman or simply the Sunyata, a Void. BEING is all LOVING and for those who discard THINKING and approach with LOVE, He is most readily available (eLiyai) though otherwise extremely difficult to encounter (ariyai)

 

Appar, consistent with his Existentialism emphasizes this aspect of spiritual life in this verse to show that only by developing the aesthetic dimensions of the mind where FEELINGS and EMOTIONS are purified of their inherent animism that a CURE for the various mental and physical ailments are possible. We must also recall here that it was a disease where he suffered unbearable pains in his intestines that brought Appar from Jainism back to Saivism.

 

There is mention here also the metaphor of cleansing by bathing in the pure and divine waters, a ritual practice that we find in all religions. The real baptism is cleansing oneself of all the filth that is already in the deeper recesses of the mind and which are the deposits of the evil actions one has done. And this baptism as self-purification is a continuous processes and which requires going to the temples and worshiping the deities there repeatedly. BEING will bear all the sins and accept any soul no matter how mean and low it is provided it repents genuinely.

 

Genuine conversion is not jumping from religion to another but an inner process which also a continuous one. It is essentially ascending into higher and higher states of inner purity and which can be achieved only by cleansing the inner self of the animism lodged there so that one emerges more and more humane.

 

Baptisms and conversions must humanize the soul by getting rid of the animism already there.

 

(to continue) 3

 

The Essences of the Philosophy Appar-4

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-9

 

Repenting and Confessing

 

The root cause of many ills of man are his egoistic arrogance symbolized for the Saivites by overbearing RavaNa who dared to shake off even Kailash where resides Siva with Parvati. Perhaps Appar saw such RavaNas in the kings of the times who equated themselves with God and sought to displace the worship of God with the worship of Kings. So it is not an accident that Appar notes and sings bravely against such arrogance and in that also sings eloquently the need to root out this arrogance born of metaphysical ignorance induced by aaNavam, the Dark Killing Energy, which has also as a secondary meaning this arrogance.

 

Another widespread arrogance is that of the Brahmanahs who got away with their immensely illogical claim that that they are twice-born and are so by birth alone and hence are the only people who are spiritually matured and hence belongs to the highest social order. The whole of history shows how the Brahmanahs twisted and turned history to substantiate the VarNasra Dharma and Sanskrit as Divine Language earning by this, the deep-seated hatred of the ordinary Hindus.

 

So as an antidote to this unbecoming arrogance of the kings and the priests, Appar outlines the characteristics of the genuinely religious and which avoid every element of this social arrogance. When a person matures spiritually and becomes aware of the inherent PURITY and that LOVE is the most endearing personality trait of such individuals, they begin to repent and confess how lowly evil wicked one is really - the kulam pollen (have an evil community as my community), kuNam pollen (have evil traits as my traits) etc. Such repentance and confessions overtly to the deities is actually declaring freedom from all arrogance, egotism such as that of Kings and Priests and who function only with the interest of becoming gods themselves. Such confessions cut across such arrogance and roots out even the slightest tendency in that direction thereby contributing towards becoming genuinely PURE.

 

 

Philosophical Appar 6:95-10

 

Love Unto Siva is the Most Endearing

 

Here we have Appar declaring something the same as the VaishNava Azwars - the material riches and happy and prosperous kingly life on earth are of little importance in relation to a life lived in the LOVE of BEING, be it Siva or VishNu. The sweetness of the taste of Divine Life is so great that not only there is nothing comparable to it but also unlike other pleasures, the pleasures enjoyed here do not diminish at all. The Divine Bliss, the Civanantam of the Saivites, the Niratiyasa Anantam of the VaishNavites, is such that it uproots totally the joys from all other kinds of tastes.

 

Thus there is transmutation of tastes and values, and uplifting the existence itself into the Divine Ground, the Inda-sim, the Beautiful Peak of Sulgi (c. 2000 BC). This lifting up in the spiritual ground of ones existence that feeds new values from within also provides NEW EYES whereby one is able to penetrate through the outer appearance and reach the inner core.

 

When a person gets the x-ray eyes to penetrate the surface and reach the hidden depths, and which is the function of genuine religious life, one can see even a leper or a CaNdaLa as truly religious if they happen to be people worshipping Siva earnestly. The point is that the inauthentic religious people are BLIND to the spiritual essence of the genuinely religious and care only for the externals such as the bodily appearance, the kind of profession they practice, and the kind of attire and symbols they wear.

 

The little minds care only for the externals while the genuinely spiritual minds for the inner core of the person and which is possible not because of erudite scholarship of Vedas and Scriptures and the chanting the mantras endlessly but only by transmuting self through cultivating LOVE unto all.

 

 

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