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The Hymns of Appar

Dear Friends,

The more I explore and understand the world religious and metaphysical traditions the more respect I begin to have for the Tamilian traditions in this matter. Not only are they the most ancient in the world, related as they are  to Sumerian, but they abound with a peculiar profundity and beauty that we do NOT find elsewhere.  It is rather tragic that,  swept by the waves of modernisation we are losing familiarity with these metaphysical explorations that are of permanent value to mankind as a whole.  Unless the mind is cultured with the purifying metaphysical thoughts , we cannot hope for political stability  and  material progress that seem to be need of the times.

I have been doing my best to resuscitate this tradition  in all ways I can and now I have decided to render into English with explanatory notes some of the Hymns of Appar and the other  Nayanmars I have cherished from my youth. I will follow the same pattern that I follow with the Upatesams of Thirumular so that even those not suffciently fluent with Tamil can enjoy the wisdom contained in these Hymns sung not in the seclusions of social isolation but in the midst of  vibrant battles to recover the essence of Tamil metaphysical wisdom.

Your comments to improve further their usefulness will be most appreciated.

Dr K.Loganathan



 


The Sixth TirumuRai : ȡ Ө

98: maRumaaRRuth tiruttaaNdakam:  .

961.

ġ 狀
    ø   ¢ġ
Ȣ¡ š ġ
   
ġ ¡
    ̨Ƨ¡
ǡ ǡ
    ڸ ɡ

naamaarkkung kudiyalloom namanai yanjcoom
    narakattil idarpadoom nadalai illoom
eemaappoom piNiyaRiyoom paNivoo malloom
    inbamee yennaaLun tunba millai
taamaarkkung kudiyallaat tanmai yaana
    cangkaran cangkaveN kuzaiyoor kaatiR
koomaaRkkee naamenRum miiLaa aaLaayk
    koymmlarcee vadi iNaiyee kuRukinoomee

Ȣ    ɡ ¡  ¡ 𧼡,   š 째 狀;   Ţ ɸ   š쨸 ø츢ɡ , ¡;  ¢   ̨¡ Ҽɧ , Ũ¡ Ȣ¡ š ġ; ¡ . š ý  ¡ ġ  ; ¡   򾿡ã ̨Ƨ¡ è á , 째 ǡ ǡ   ʸ ž ڸɡ.
 

No one is subject to anyone and we shall NOT fear the God of death
    We shall not suffer fire of Hell and any kind misfortunes
Forever in self dignity and free of ailments , we shall NOT submit to anyone
    There is only happiness and no sufferings at all for
We have become totally people of unredeemable  servitude to the King of Supreme Autonomy
    Who wearing in one ear the brilliant white conch,  appears as the Sangkaran, the redeemer of all
And have submitted ourselves to  His FEET of fresh blossoms
 

naamaarkkung kudiyalloom: No one is subject to anyone

namanai yanjcoom: we shall not fear  even the God of Death

 narakattil idarpadoom : We shall NOT suffer fire of Hell

nadalai illoom: we are free also from any kind of misfortunes

eemaappoom piNiyaRiyoom:  forever in self dignity and free of ailments

paNivoo malloom : and we shall NOT submit to anyone

inbamee yennaaLun tunba millai: there is only happiness and no sufferings at all

taamaarkkung kudiyallaath tanmai yaana : Being who as the KING is supremely autonomous

cangkaran cangkaveN kuzaiyoor kaatiR: The Sangkaran , the redeemer of all wearing a brilliant white conch in one of ears

koomaaRkkee naamenRum miiLaa aaLaayk: to this KING we have become totally people of unredeemable servitude

koymalar ceevadi iNaiyee kuRukinoomee : have submitted ourselves to His FEET of fresh blossoms

Commentary:

The anma as a psychic entity exists always  identifying itself with something or other and hence always in bondage. In social existence we are also in servitude to either the king or social  or cultic leaders . But such individuals and things are ENSLAVING and to be thus ensalved is NOT the essence of the anmas. All anmas are destined to live FREE and supremely AUTONOMOUS. But how is this possible? Only by becoming totally submissive towards BEING.

But isn't this another kind of servitude?

No for BEING is an integral whole and as such Supremely FREE and hence anyone who comes close to HIM become like HIM,   like coal becoming  fire inside the fire. Our essence to be FREE and TOTALLY autonomus from all the worldly powers  whether political social  or religious  and this is existentially possible only in metaphysical kind of existence where we are in close proximity with BEING and doing only things that would endear ourselves to HIM. This life  CLOSE TO HIM is life in eternity , in saturated Wholeness and hence free of any cravings that would bring enslaveries  miseries sufferings feelings of guilt  and hellish tortures because of all these.  It is NOT only life in PURITY but also in LIGHT and hence always happy with contentment.

Appar here outlines the political philosophy that can be called MEATAPOLTICS, the kind of political life  that caters NOT for just economic prosperity but for spiritual upliftment and hence a political organisation in which  no  human being can set up himself as the ruler with absolute powers . The real KING is BEING and all  who are devoted to him , icluding the politiocal leaders are equally HIS subjects.

HE being the real king, the tortures and threats  that a local political leader can issue forth become powerless and not intimidating at all.



98: maRumaaRRuth tiruttaaNdakam:  .

962:

Ģ
    Ţ측
ҸĢ Ţ
    Լ
֨ ŢԨ¡
    ɢ ̨Ţġ 󧾡
и âš
    š â ȡ

akalidamee idamaaka uurkaL thooRum
    adduNbaar idduNbaar vilakkaar aiyam
pukalidamaam ambalangkaL puumiteevi
    yudan kidantaal puraddaaL poyyanRu meyyee
ikaludaidaiyan vidaiyudaiyaan eenRu koNdaan
    iniyeetung kuRaiviloom idarkaL tiirntoom
tukiluduttup ponpuuNdu tirivaar collum
    coRkeedkak kadavoomoo turisaR Romee.
 

ŧġ  վ Ĩ     â    ,  Ȣ 측.  ҸĢ պ򨾧 š, ⧾Ţ  , .  ġ ɢ ڨ š , ¡á ڦ. ɡ  ɢ ̨ȸ ġ, ġ 󧾡. šȢ     и     Ƣ âš     ġ, ɡ ɾ  ġŨ â ȡ.

Those who are locked up  in this wide world and live
    cooking meals and giving alms will never clear the metaphysical doubts
But should they access   the metaphysical realms   and also  continue with the Earth-Woman
    She will not deceive one with delutions  and there will be only truths
And the Powerful BEING with the BULL as his symbol has allowed this access
    We are not in want of anything henceforth and are freed of problems and
Hence because of the PURITY we enjoy,  we are not obliged to listen to the dictates of the worldly individuals
    Who go about brandishing  wearing  silken attire and golden ornaments

akalidamee idamaaka uurkaL thooRum : Those who are locked up in this wide earthly world and live

adduNbaar idduNbaar vilakkaar aiyam: cooking meals and giving alms will never clear the metaphysical doubts

pukalidamaam ambalangkaL puumiteevi yudan kidantaal: but should they access the metaphysical realms  and also  continue to live with the  Earth-Woman;

 puraddaaL poyyanRu meyyee: she will not  deceive anymore  with delutions  and there will be witnessing only truths;

ikaludaidaiyan vidaiyudaiyaan eenRu koNdaan: the Powerful BEING with BULL as His symbol has allowed this access;

 iniyeethung kuRaiviloom idarkaL tiirntoom: and hence we are not in want of anything and are freed also of all problems;

tukiluduttup ponpuuNdu tirivaar collum: those who are still earthly and who go about brandshing wearing  silken cloths and golden ornaments;

coRkeedkak kadavoomoo turisaR Romee:  because of the PURITY we are enjoying,  we are NOT obliged to listen to such individuals and do as they dictate.

Commentary.
==========

The political life, as founded upon various kinds of earthly needs , the economical cultural and social,  is always enslaving. The FREEDOM within  socio-political life is NOT genuine freedom for there will always be rules and regulations and institutions for enforcing them and punishing  the deviant if necessary. The political leaders caught up in this earthly world given over to the physical needs,  will demand obeyance for the easy and smooth running of the country. The FREEDOM they can offer is always conditional-- it should  NOT be used to uproot and wipe out the ruling power.

But all these need to be obliged and be submissive in this and that is no more when an individual enters the metaphysical world, the mantra-world where begins metaphyscial existence that CLARIFIES the primordial existential  doubts beyond the reach of the earthly life. The ACCESS into metaphysical by the clarities it provides makes the earthly existence  UNIMPORTANT and because of that quite irrelevant.  One can continue to live in the world but now with such a kind of existence there will NOT be anymore  DELUTIONS and Falsities but only the witnessing of TRUTHS. With  this newly gained  privilege that the access into the metaphysical world,  one  becomes FREE from earthly and the socio-political demands.  One is NO MORE a citizen of a country under the leadership of a political head but  FREE  in the vicinity of BEING, the most Powerful. The existential obligations are NO MORE towards the KING, the leader of the earthly economic life but rather towards BEING who confers the Supreme Illumination by freeing oneself from the fetters.

In this Appar claims that BEING has granted him this access and he is FREE from the dictates of any political leader no matter how powerful he is.

He does not deny the nedd to live the poltical life. But the political as conditioned by the access to the metaphysical FREES one from the DELUTIONS so that only TRUTHS the life of the nations and the political community.



Appar 1-3
 

963:

 šá ¢ á
    š š š
á ҧá ȡ
    Ƚ ħ ȡ
á Ƨ
    ɧ ȡ
á Ȣ š
    š ȡ

vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom
    maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti
niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom
    niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom
kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak
    kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom
paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum
    paNikeedka kadavoomoo paRRaR Roomee!

š ڸ ǡ š쨸 Ţ𧼡;  ۾ ŢĢ š! š! š áħ ȡ.  򾢨   Ƚ ħ ȡ;     ը¢ ý ĸ   Ƨ Ţ ȡ. š 즸 ġ 츨 츢 á á  ¡ɸ Ȣ ġ úǢ ġ.

We are NOT obliged to listen and obey the words of the kings
   who may rule the world and ride on elephants in royal pomposity
For we have dissolved all worldly desires and also
    having  forsaken even family life with a women with belted-breasts
Are given to early dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise
    chanting Mateeva! Mateeva and wearing only  the sacred ashes and with these
melt the stoney heart with LOVE for all and shed tears like the pouring rains.
 

vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom: we have forsaken family life  with a belt-breasted( and hence young) woman

maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti: chanting Mateeva!  Maateeva!

niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom: we are given over to dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise

niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom: never forgetting to wear only the sacred ashes

kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak:  shedding tears like the rain that pours from the dark clouds,

kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom: we allow the stoney heart melt with LOVE for all and become good

paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum paNikeedka kadavoomoo: We are not obliged to listen  and  do as told to the words of the kings who may rule the world and ride on elephants in (royal) pomposity

paRRaR Roomee! : we have dissolved all attachments.
 

Commentary:
=========

As long as one continues  to live  still the bodily existence, the  forgetting of  the metaphysical is always possible. The symbolic life, taken in the right spirit just serves to maintain oneself firmly in the metaphysical existence overcoming this forgetfullness. But this symbolic life is very simple at least to the genuinely metaphysical individuals such as Appar. It involves chanting the sacred name of Mateevaa and dipping in the cool waters along with the sunrise: a symbolic act of regeneration, the desire to become a NEW person everyday by  becoming purer and purer. The desires becoming PURE through gaining metaphysical illuminations is symbolised by the wearing of the sacred ASHES, the symbol of absolute PURITY for the ashes are peculiar -- even burnt it remains the same.

But all these are  possible only if the mind is TOTALLY absorbed in the metaphysical realms  and for which family life that still remains sexually active is transcended. This involves the transmutation of the sexual libido itself into metaphysical libido, the Iccaa Sakthi into Njana Sakthi which is another meaning of the Sacred Ashes so impotant in the Saivite way of Life.

But what is the use of all these? Appar has explained this in many places: to MELT the HEART the remains like a stone with lovelessness,  a heart that has NO COMPASSION and MERCY for the suffering. The real purpose of genuine metaphysical life is to become one full of LOVE and COMPASSION ready to shed tears like the pouring rains at the sight human sufferings.

The narrow sex-dominated family is transcended only to own the WHOLE WORLD as one's family. Now this accomplishment of genuine metaphysical life also LIBERATES a person from his political moorings and hence such a person is NOT AT ALL obliged to listen to the political leaders, no matter how powerful and pompous they are for their suzerainty does not extend beyond the confines of his narrow nation. How can a person who has become  a citizen of the whole universe descend to the level of a nationhood?


Appar 1.4

964.

šš ɡ
    Ž򧾡 š
š
    ¡ ġ
š ɢƢ á á
    š ġ š
š ¡ ¡
    ͼ § ȡ

uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL
    uduppana koovaNattoodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee
ceRuvaarunj ceRamaaddaar tiimai taanum
    nanmaiyaac ciRappatee piRaippiR celloom
naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar
    namaccivaayac colla valloom naavaal
cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda
    cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee

¡ Ȣ 쾢ǡ Ţ šš.  ɢ ¾ Ţ Ž .  š ɡ ¢   ¢ ; š Ţ .  ţΧ 츢 š ġ   Ƣ ġ.  ɢ     Ţ ɡ Ţ  Ŧ š Ǣ  ȡ.   Ţ   â ġ ѾŢƢ   Ũ ǡ Ȣ  Ũ ¡ ȡ.

Because we have managed to ascend to the stage where
    we see everything with the brilliant Third Eye of BEING that
Powdered to dust the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark
    We have as our aids the whole lot of the celestial warriors and
Have for wearing only loin clothes and rags  that are not at all pompous and because of which
    even those who wish to attack us become subdued and even the evils   they wish to  do
Become in fact good.  And these  because   we want to escape the karma that causes rebirth
    And furthermore we are blessed by BEING who appears as the one wearing
The golden garland of honeyed flowers of  pleasant fragrance,   a life where we become capable of
  uttering continuosly the mantra NAMACIVAYA (that establishes us in universality)
 

uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL: the celestial warriors  will become our (earthly) aids

uduppana koovaNattodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee: what we have for wearing are only loin clothes

ceRuvaanj ceRamaaddaar : even those who want to attack us will become subdued

tiimai taanum nanmaiyaac ciRappatee : even the evils  that people want to  do in fact shine forth as  the good

piRaippiR celloom: we escape the karma that causes rebirth

naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar namaccivaaya: The mantra NAMACIVAYA of BEING who appears as the one wearing golden garland of honeyed flowers of pleasant fragrance

 colla valloom naavaal : we become capable of uttering that

cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda:  powdered to  dust  the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark

cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee:  we have attained seeing with the  brilliant Third Eye of BEING (that shows only truth)

Commentary:
===========

It is imposibble to bring forth the whole range of meanings buried in the metaphors and mythologies alluded to here. Sufice to say that Appar here oulines the basic motives of all metaphysical struggles of man which is also the primordial purpose of Human Existence as such i.e the attainment of SEEING with the Third Eye of BEING Himself, the discardance of seeing with the human fleshy eyes and seeing everything in the glow of of the Third Eye that only BEING can bless one with. All we human beings can do is to become FIT for this blessings and which requires that we become CLOSE TO BEING by allowing us to be transmuted into his form offering no resistances at all.

And His genuine form is one of PURITY , a purity where worldly desires are sundered and singed to ashes. The Manmathan , the Indian Cupid, is the archetype of sexual desires,  that which keeps the Kundalini forever as the sexual libido. His antics are symbolically shown by the flag of the SHARK,  for earthly desires function like sharks, ready to kill anyone who gets into its sharp jaws. There is NO ESCAPE from early and untimely death for those  who wallow in the earthly pleasures as if they are the real pleasures.

This severance from the antics of manmatan is SHOWN by a life of simplicity where there is the avoidance of even wearing pompous clothings such as those of the political leaders who thrive by thrilling the crowds with such pomposities.  There is no showmanship to impress the crowd and maintain them in AWE so that their political control over them can continue as ever.

But this dissociation with political power and hence the securities that the armies and other defences provide, does not mean one becomes  weak lacking in security. For now the whole lot of celestial beings ,  seen here as the Rudra KaNam, i.e warrior gods come to the  aid fighting on their behalf with all the enemy forces. Such detached individuals may have become isolated and single but NOT LONELY for unknown to the naked human eyes the whole lot of the celestial warriors are there as their aids.

And very importantly, their ACTIONS actually become the Malarcci VinaikaL, the actions of BEING Himself and hence actions that are NOT instrumental at all. Whatever effected are actions with BEING as their agents and  only because of this the Ego becomes completely WITHDRAWN. And this withdrawal and allowing oneself function totally egoless and hence only as a locale of BEING ensures the non accumulation of Karma that throws one into an endless phenomenal circulation, the earthly life with unending existential repetition.

It is  only at this stage that the meaningful uttrance of SIVAYANAMA, the mantra of Universal Processes that sustains both the phenomenal and noumenal world , becomes possible for a person. This is the Mantra that keeps the mind forever in UNIVERSALITY and the benefits of which are symbolised as the Garland of  honeyed golden flowers of supremely fine and pleasant fragrance. These metaphors stand for the exultations, the Bliss that one enjoys or tastes as one continues a life as one  capable of utterring openly the Namacivaya Mantra.


Appar 1.5

965.

  ¡ š ġ
    տ 즸á š
ڿ ڦ š ġ
    Ŧ ʧ ȡ
Ȣɡ ̨Ԩ¡ ġ
    ¡ ȦġƢ ɡ
Ȣɡ ½ ɢ
    ¨ ǡ.

enRumnaam yaavarkkum idaivoo malloom
    irunilattil emakketiraa vaaru millai
cenRunaam ciRuteyvam ceervoo malloom
    civaperumaan tiruvadiyee ceerap peRRoom
onRinaaR kuRaiyudaiyoo malloo manRee
    uRupiNiyaar ceRalozintid doodip poonaar
ponRinaar talaimaalai yaNinta cennip
    puNNiyanai naNNiyapuN Niyat tuLoomee

We are ever with the blessings of  BEING of all blessings   who
    wears as the head-garland a string of skulls and we are
Because of that NOT any lesser to anyone and furthermore
    There are NONE  equal to us in this wide world for  we avoid
The worshipping of the little gods and abide forever at the FEETof BEING , the GREAT and
    Because of this we are NOT  LACKING in anything knowing very well that
Those who dispute all these disappear  having lost all their might.

츢 š   ɢ¢ Ŧ, ¨ Ţ 츢ȡ. ɡ ڧ ¡  ơ ĸ ¡. ¢  Ǣ Ũ  ġ ڦǡ ȡ Ƨ 𧼡. ɡ  ĸ Ţ ̨Ԩ¡ á¢, ¢ -- Ȣɡ ̨Ԩ¡ ġ. Ŧ Ũ š ɢ Ƣ Ȣš.
 
 

enRumnaam yaavarkkum idaivoo malloom: We are not ever and anywhere lesser to  anyone

irunilattil emakketiraa vaaru millai: there are NONE equal  to us in this wide world

cenRunaam ciRuteyvam ceervoo malloom: we shall never go and worship the little gods

civaperumaan tiruvadiyee ceerap peRRoom: we  forever abide at the FEET of Siva, the BEING supreme

onRinaaR kuRaiyudaiyoo malloo manRee : and because of this we are NOT lacking in anything

uRupiNiyaar ceRalozintid doodip poonaar, ponRinaar : those who challenge us with sickly mind have lost  and  disappeared

talaimaalai yaNinta cennip : the BEING who wears as HIS head-garland a string of skulls

puNNiyanai naNNiyapuN Niyath tuLoomee:  we are in the blessings of the BEING of all blessings

Commentary
==========

In this verse Appar articulates very succintly the elements  of metaphysical courage, the primordial impulse towards martyrdom that we see also in many other world religions. The symbolism of head-garland of skulls is certainly very primitive and may appear as a sign of hidden savagery. But taken as a symbolism of the metaphysical life it means something different and stands for HEROISM that is certainly part of metaphysical life. Siva, the BEING most often appears as the DESTROYER;  for the EVILS in the world must be DESTROYED in order for the DIVINE to rule. In the world, particularly in the political life there is always MORAL CONFLICT with tyrannical individuals trying  to suppress and repress the common people in order to enjoy being worshiped by them as earthly gods. The powerful  individuals whether in politics or religion want to USURP the place of BEING and want to enthrone themselves as the GOD almighty to whom the people must submit unquestioningly. Such arrogant individuals must be FOUGHT WITH  even  if it means death and Appar stands out as one who did it and emerged not a martyr but a HERO who vanquished  all his foes, they being the Jains of the times among whom was the mighty  Pallava emperor who wanted to subdue him and threatened to kill him towards that.

For Appar such individuals are the little gods whom, he says , the worshippers of SIVA, the BEING Supreme will NEVER at all worship. To worship BEING means not worshiping anything below BEING whether they are deities or mighty kings trying to become deities.  The worship of BEING is the HIGHEST and hence woshipping anything else would mean a FALL, submitting to the pull that pulls one DOWN.

Now it should also be noted that BEING as LOVE cannot  be a head-hunter and hence gruesome as some hasty individuals would immediately say. The symbolism of chopping off the head which is MYTHOLOGICAL  is like a DREAM-IMAGE  where it means the REPLACEMENT the head  of IGNORANCE with the head of ILLUMINATION. BEING only TRANSMUTES  and purifies by replacing the existing evil-prone personality with something  purer and more divine. The political and metaphysical struggles all over the world have this as the underlying  transpersonal  meaning!

And to be blessed with this archetypal presentation of BEING is the supreme reward the metaphyscially courageous individuals earn and which makes them feel they are NOT below anybody but rather ABOVE them and that they are NOT lacking at all in anything. For the capacity to DEFEAT all the foes also means  earning the RIGHTS to  enjoy all the PLEASURES of life that provides genuine FULFILLMENT. The GOOD in life pertains only to  the heroic individuals  just like only the brave youth who defeats the bull wins over the heart and the hands of the most beautiful damsel.

The genuine and everlasting happiness is  a REWARD and it is enjoyed only by the truly valiant and that too only at the end of their metaphysical battles and emerge a HERO in that.


Appar 1.6

966

Ţ  Ӿš տ
    򾢧
째 š
    էɢ ŧ
ר¡ ¡ ר¡
    Ÿ á
ħ Ţ Ţ 
    ġ Ψ¡ ȡ

muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay irunaan kaana
    muurttiyee yenRumup pattu muuvar
teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum
    cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum
naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee
    naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana
kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung
    kadavamalloom kadumaiyodu kaLaR Roomee
 

As long as we remain blessed with the name of CIVA forever in the mouth and
    Who rules us standing with us as the brilliantly red BEING of absolute PURITY
BEING who stands as the most primordial  of the THREE major archetypal presentations and
    Also  emerges as the UNIVERSE and hence ONE with  eight forms  and praised as such
By the thirty three devas and such other celestial beings
    We are NOT obliged to obey the royal commands not just of   this king but even the king of the whole wide world
For we are FREE of VIOLANCE as well as GREED to own lands and properties, and snatching it from others.

â Ţ Ӿġ , ﺧ ɡ  ¡, 째 ǡ ǡ   " էɢ ŧ!"   Ȣ Ũ¢ Ȣ ¡ Ţ Ţ Ţ̸ȧ ɡ ŧ Ţ̸ȡ. ɢ Ө ¢ Ψ θ   â  ǧ ġ , ĸ򨾧 ɡ    ¡ ġ.
 

muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay:  The most primordial of the THREE major presentations as Aran Ari and Ayan

irunaan kaana muurttiyee : thou art also the BEING who has become this universe assuming the Eight Fold forms

yenRumup pattu muuvar teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum :  thus being praised by the thirty three devas and other celestiall beings

cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum:   BEING with  a form  glowing RED

naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee: those who are blessed to utter thus are also ruled by HIM

naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung : even if commanded by the King of the whole world

 kadavamalloom : we are NOT obliged to obey

kadumaiyodu kaLaR Roomee: for we are FREE of Violance and GREED

Commentary.
==========

One cannot but lament the utter neglect of the serious and modern studies among the Tamil with regard to the wisdom buried in their ancient literature particularly the hymns.  They are just sung as if they are simply prayers, mantras of a kind and in this  FAIL to notice the enormous metaphysical insights they embody and how these metaphysical insights were gained in the course of IMMENSE SOCIAL  STRUGGLES against the various forces of reppression and suppression. And here in this verse we have the philosophy of Satyagraka being articulated not simply by an appeal to Ahimsa but rather with the UNDERSTADING of the real roots of political wars and for which purpose such wars are waged by the kings.

For the local politics , as opposed to the metapolitics that Appar fought for and articulates in this patikam,  is founded upon VIOLANCE and GREED and hence economical and egological- the craze for enjoying POWER over others and amass wealth as for oneself.  The phrase  Kadumai ARRal stands for non-violance and the practice of Ahimsa and KaLavu ARRal, that of absence of greed  to take possession of the lands and wealth of others as our own. When these desires are rooted out from the heart, the primordial impulses towards political wars cease to be there and a person who has ALREADY REACHED this state of Being can never be part of this local politics. He transcends such political membership not just to his own nation but FOR ANY king and hence for any nation  whatever. The entry into the realm of metapolitics transposes an individual into another world beyond the reach of the power crazy and economically  greedy kings no matter how mighty they are.

And what accomplishes this transposition?

The acceptance of BEING , who rules this vast universe including the celestial,  is also the  one who rules oneself from within. But why in this context the name Civa and that he GLOWS in RED is mentioned at all?

For CIVA as LOVE only breeds LOVE and compassion and hence institutes a non-violant disposition in the hearts of whoever understands HIM as thus and keeps on muttering that NAME as a way firming oneself in that way of Being. And the RED  glow signifies the burning of ALL DESIRES and hence becoming PURE without any GREED.

The worship of BEING as such is NOT just simply transformational, it is also immensely UPLIFTING, it TRANSPOSES one into the realms of metapolitics by FREEING one  from political  bondages  founded upon violance and economic greed. This transposition is also PURIFYING self from all the elements within that urges on an individual with all kinds mundane desires, even of  the religious kind that seek to enslave the mind of others.


Appar 1.7

967


    ɡ ȡ š ɡ
ը ը ¡
    Ҩ¡ Ǣ¾ ġ
¡
    ¨ ¡
Ҩ š
    Ч ȡ

niRpanavum nadappanavum nilanum niirum
    nerupppinodu kaaRRaaki neduvaa naaki
aRpamodu perumaiyumaay arumai yaaki
    anbudaiyaark keLimaiyathaay aLakkalaakaat
taRparamaay cataacivamaayt taanum yaanum
    aakinRa tanmaiyanai nanmaiyoodum
poRpudaiya peesak kadavoom peeyar
    peecuvana peecutumee pizaiyaR Roomee

 ¡ š ¢ǡ ¢ ǡ š ɡ  ̽Ǣ ը¡ɾ ը¡ â¾ Ţ Ũ;  ¡ Ȣ¦š񽡾ɡ , Ҩ째 Ǣɡ , Ţ ǨŸǡ ɡ ġ¢ ɡ ¡ ¡   Ȩ¨, ¡ ɢ  ¡¡ ġ,  Ȣ Ҹ о 츼š  ¡,  ú Ţ š ġ š Ȣš.

We are given over to praising with understanding the BEING who pervades both the mobile and immobile creatures, the physical world of earth water fire wind and vast sky; BEING who founds the psychological qualities of good and the bad as well those that  are rare to achieve; BEING despite being immeasurable in terms of any conceptual categories but remains someone who can easily be understood by those who develop LOVE ; BEING though the WHOLLY OTHER and beyond the reach of the human mind is THERE as Cataaciva, BEING-as- the -WORLD  and all in it; BEING who is while of capable  being ALONE as HE is HIMSELF is also capable of being what I am.    When we are destined to praise BEING  as such how can we talk like the mad crowd the words that please the worldly kings? In denying such kind of speech, we also know that we are NOT in the wrong
 

niRpanavum nadappanavum :  BEING who stands as the mobile and immobile sentient creatures

nilanum niirum nerupppinodu kaaRRaaki neduvaa naaki:  the earth , the waters, the fire, the wind and the vast sky

aRpamodu prumaiyumaay arumai yaaki: the qualities the good and bad as well as the rare to achieve

anbudaiyaark keLimaiyathaay :  easy to understand only for those full of LOVE

aLakkalaakaat taRparamaay : the WHOLLY OTHER and beyond the reach of any catogries

cataacivamaayt :  appearing as Cataciva i.e the WORLD- as - a-WHOLE

taanum yaanum aakinRa tanmaiyanai : who is capable of both to be wholly Himself and at the same time wholly myself

nanmaiyoodu poRpudaiya beesak kadavoom: we are obliged to praise such a BEING with understanding

peeyar peecuvana peecuthumee : as such will we ever speak like the mad crowd the ordinary speech (that would please the kings)

pizaiyaR Roomee: we are NOT wrong in denying this

Commentary.
==========

Let us take a deep breath and try  to understand the tremendous implications of these words Appar whereby he UPROOTS the whole foundation of Sangam culture of the Tamils as well as  the political  culture of mass media of today, the media of mundane speech , the speech of the mad crowd , the Peeyar, according to Appar. For such speech at the bottomost level are egological and full of greed for wealth and power. One praises the King or the political leaders for some kind of FAVOUR , to get as  rewards wealth and so forth. We also scold him when we fail in it somehow.  The whole lot of PuRam literature of the Sangam period was as such, mostly eulogies and which earned lands and gold for the poet.  The poems of protest were also poems of disgust at being NOT rewarded. Even the Aham literature was collected and arranged only on the command of the Kings. Here we have all this literature being thrown out as the speech of mad crowd, speech which have  such mean intentions as the primordial impulses.

This is applicable even today to the mass media which thrives with  various hidden agendas - racial hatred, intentions to colonise , ideological propoganda, religious hegemony and what not. Even the academic "research" is NOT free from such prejudices. The true OBJECTIVITY that one would expect is hardly met with.

Appar throws away the whole range of such speech and calls for the MEATAPHYSICAL language, the language that talks of BEING, BEING as understood as above , uncanny and immensely mysterious, BEYOND the reach of   understanding  in terms of any  mental categories but within the reach of those with genuine LOVE and so forth.

Here comes the CLUE for this mental revolution and uprooting the whole of Sangam culture and the foundation of the political culture everywhere. For all these cultures in being predominantly egological WILL NOT PROMOTE the LOVE that cares for ALL despite any social restrictions . The LOVE that humanises an individual in spirtualising him makes him TRANSEND all BOUNDARIES, national ethnic linguistic and what not. It is life moving in SPIRITUAL FREEDOM, a freedom in which one exercises LOVE without considering any of the identities that found group dynamics. One helps NOT because he is a member of the family , the clan, the nation , the cult group, the religious group and so forth. All these are the MAD CROWD for Appar and he  says that speech of such people is NOT for him and that he KNOWS that in rejecting it as such he is NOT doing anything wrong.

Here Appar touches the real roots of communism or socialism but with a metaphysics with a deeper reach than Karl Marx or any other political philosophers of the world.


Appar 1-8

968

ĸ
    â¡
ɢ ȡ
    了
ȡ
   
š ġ 󧾡
    š

iicanai evvulakinukkum iRaivan tannai
    imaiyavartam perumaanai eriyaay mikka
teecanai cemmeeni veNNiiR Raanaic
    cilambaraiyan poRpaavai nalanj ceykinRa
neecanai nittalum ninaiyaip peRRoom
    ninRuNbaar emmai ninaiyac conna
vaacakam ellaam maRantoom anRee
    vantiir aar mannavan aavaan taan aaree

ġ ɡ Ц , ɡ ġ ĸ ɡ Ũ, š 즸ġ ɡ Ţ ; 쨸 Ţ Ż Ţ â ɢ  ø š Ũ, 򨾧 զȡ, 쨸 ġɡ 쨸 ɡ ǡ žŢ 了 ĸ 了 š šȡ. Ģ úɢ Ţ š š  š ¡ ţ󦾡Ƣ   ġ 󧾡. ¢ ǡ, ¡Ţ? ¡?

We are forever living in the thoughts of BEING who is the LEADER and the LORD of all the worlds, the highest among all the celestial beings,  who appears as  the brilliant flame in order to singe to ashes all the dirt in the bosom of the anmas , who appears wearing the ashes all over the body to indicate that He is the source of all PURITIES and who conjoins with undiminishing LOVE the FEMALE, Parvathi, the daughter of the King of the Hills to produce the world and everything in it. And as such you who live at the mercy of the Local King : Listen! I have forgotten all the indoctrinations forced upon me. And who are you really? And who is really the King?

iicanai evvulakinukkum iRaivan tannai:  BEING, the Most Powerful and who is the Lord of all the worlds

imaiyavartam perumaanai: the  Highest among all the celestial beings

eriyaay mikkaeecanai : the Fire who shines resplendently

cemmeeni veNNiiR Raanaic: who wears the ashes all over the whole the red body

cilambaraiyan poRpaavai nalanj ceykinRa neecanai : the ONE who conjoined with undiminishing LOVE the FEMALE, the daughter of the King of Hills

nittalum ninaiyaip peRRoom : we are given over to think of HIM always

ninRuNbaar emmai ninaiyac conna vaacakam ellaam maRantoom anRee : we have forgotten all the indoctrinations that people who lived at the mercy of the King forced  upon  me to remember

vantiir aar :   Who are you really?

mannavan aavaan taan aaree: and who really deserves to be the king?

Commentary:
===========

Appar outlines here another politically explosive issue which have been forgotten for so long and which we needs to be recaptured again. For he raises the fundamental political question of who is really the King along with the  metaphysical question of what is really the essence of human beings.

All human beings OUGHT to be the subject of only BEING, that is the human essence but which is lost sight of because of the  metaphysical ignorance that prevails naturally.  The political system capitalises on this IGNORANCE and props up a miserable individual as the King and sometimes even the God through a system of propaganda and indocrinations. The ordinary literature sustains this idealogy and surreptiously conditions the mind to perpetuate this slavery. Thus ordinary people- the NinRu Unpaar-- those who gain their subsistence by subscribing to this ideology and perpetuate it without knowing that that is NOT their essence.

The real Lord is BEING, HE  who brings into PRESENCE the world and everythiing in it, by conjoining the FEMALE and sustains it by remainging the LORD of all the worlds including the celestial beings. HE is the  most powerful in addition to being  the most PURE and BENIGN

For those who been uplifted into these metaphysical realms their King is this BEING and NOT the miserable individuals who proclaim themselves as the King in imitation of BEING  and sustain it through propagandist  literature  that seeks to INDOCTRINATE the individuals at the pain of various kinds of THREATS.

Appar remains adamant and boldly and clearly declares, perhaps for the first time in Indian History  that he has forgotten all these  "ninaiyac conna vaacakam",  words forced into his head and made to remember. But all these are NO MORE, thay have fallen and disappeared  just like darkness on the rise of daylight. The daylight here is the metaphysical illumination, the Civanjaanam, the TRUTH which also discloses the essence of BEING.

For individuals who live forever in the thoughts of BEING and hence TRUTH, the propagandist ideas will NOT matter at all and cease to determine their way of Being in the world. They LIVE but NOT subject to the dictates and commands of the political powers and the literature and media that sustains it.


Appar 1-9

969

Ԩ¡  ̨Ƨ¡
    ɢ
ŢԨ¡ ġ
    Ǣ ǢԨ
Ԩ¡ ¡
    á
Ԩ¡ ¡ ġ
    ţ ʧ¡
 

cadaiyudaiyaan cangkak kuzaiyoor kaatan
    caambalum paambum aNinta meeni
vidaiudaiyaan veengkai ataL meelaadai
    veLLippoR puLLiyuzai maantool caarnta
udaiyudaiyaan nammai udaiyaan kaNdiir
    ummodu maRRum uLaraay ninRa
padaiyudaiyaan paNikeedkum paNiyoom alloom
    paacam aRa viicum padiyoom naamee

𦸡 ¡ɡ ħ ɡ , Ħ ﺸǡ Ԩ¡, Ƣ 񽡸 Ţ ̨Ƨ¡ ,   á ţâ ŢԨ¡,  쨸¢ 쨸 , ġɡ Ţ  츢   ը¢ ¢ ¡ ! , ǡ ţ Ǣ Χš Ţ, Ĩ   ġ Ũ¢ ¡ ǸǢ ţ ǧ ú , 򾨸 ¡  ¡ š ġ.

 We are ruled by BEING who has taken possession of us, the BEING who  in addition to being absolutely TRANSCENDENT is also IMMANENT  dancing with the long tuft spread out fully,  BEING who destroys and regenerates and hence who appears as the MALE-FEMALE, BEING who provides the VIRILITY needed by all through assuming the archetypal form with the  BULL,  BEING who shows Himself as the one one burns to ashes every dirt and at the same time  who provides the necessary psychic energy through the  snake HE wears , BEING who gets angry and violantly destroys the evil as the archetype of who wears the tiger-skin and at same time gentle and benign as shown by the attire of the deer -skin with silver spots all over. You must see this and note that we are obliged only to the actions of BEING that would secure LIBERATION from the snares that condition the earthly life and as such we certainly  will not do the political actions of the local king to whose  armies you belong!
 

cadaiyudaiyaan : BEING with the hair spread out fully

cangkak kuzaiyoor kaatan:  BEING who appears as MALE-FEMALE with conch shells worn in one of the ears

caambalum paambum aNinta meeni: who smears Himself with the ashes  but  also wears the snake as neck garland

vidaiudaiyaan : BEING with the BULL of virility

veengkai ataL meelaadai veLLippoR puLLiyuzai maantool caarnta udaiyudaiyaan : BEING who has as HIS attire the skin of the fiery tiger as well as that of the gentle deer with silver spots

nammai udaiyaan kaNdiir: see that we are possessed by such a BEING

ummodu maRRum uLaraay ninRa padaiyudaiyaan : the king who has you and others as his army

paNikeedkum paNiyoom alloom: we are NOT  obliged to do the political actions that are required of us

paacam aRa viicum padiyoom naamee: we are only to do the actions that would LIBERATE us from the snares of mundane existence

Commentary
=========

Appar continues his tirade against the local political system and now directed at the POLITICAL MACHINERY that sustains an individual as the King. A king can continue to be a King only in a political system that is sustained by an army of different types of individuals. Thus the POWER of the King comes to be only because of the COMPLIANCE of the people who opt to become his servants doing as bidden by him and who bids in such a way that the political system continues to survive and he as the  king. But this kind of life is a life in worldly snares, a life that perpetuates the metaphysical ignorance in which people are  already. Thus it does NOT constitude a life where actions that LIBERATE the soul can be effected. Such actions will certainly be DISALLOWED and worse still even discouraged severely.

The citizenship to metaphysical world of BEING provides for him an alternative, that unlike the socio-political LIBERATES the individuals and where only actions that are  liberating will be strongly favoured and fostered.  This  is another system that is also available in existence-- that of metapolitical system with all kinds of armies of BEING.
 

First BEING is there whereby as the Pancakritiyan , HE who conceals an reveals and in revealing produces, sustains and destroys. He is  also the MALE-FEMALE and hence the POWER underlying the sexual dynamics and hence HE who controls  the sexual libido and hence the happiness in general.   In this HE  also burns to ashes the impurities and replenishes the anmas with the much needed psychic energy that reactivates the sexuality and infuses new dynamics.  HE is also the BULL of VIRILITY that provides a healthy and youthful body and hence  the GROUND of good health. And also HE is  the supremely ETHICAL who bounces upon the immoral like a tiger but would and at the same time GRACE those who repent and reform with kindness and gentility like the sanguine deers  These are the TANTRAS, the strategies in the WAR GAME that HE conducts throughout and to which all of us are subject to whether we like it or not.

The ordinary political processes  and the machinery  that maintains it,  sustains only the life of ensnarement and does NOT have the powers such as those of BEING to work towards liberation.  BEING has control over the FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES of life where else the king only over a small fragment of it and that too with a very fragile hold on it -- it lasts only as long as the people consent to be his army.

Weighing both,  APPAR opts for the  Universe of BEING-as-Civa as that which is beneficial to him as it is to all.


Appar  1-10

970

š ɧ ȡ
    ȡ ǡ Ţ ȡ
š š
    ¦ɡ Ȣâ ġ
š Ŧ
   
š ȡ
    ̽ ǡ ̽Чǡ

naavaara nambanaiyee paadap peRRoom
    naanaRRaar naLLaame viLLappeRRoom
aavaa enRu emai aaLvaan amarar naatan
    ayanoodumaaR kaRivariya analaay niiNda
teevaati teevan civanen cintai
    ceerntiruntaan tenticaikkoon taanee vantu
koovaadik kuRReeval ceyken Raalum
    kuNamaakak koLLoom eNkuNattuLLoomee

ţ ǧ ¡ š Ȣ ǡ; Ƣ׸ š Ţ ǡ; ɡ ո ո ڧ 򧾡 ç Ŧ; Ũ Ȣ ȡŨ ġ 狀¡ Ǣ  Ŧ;  ɡ ɡ š ɡ Ŧ , ¡ ġ ̽Ǣ Ţ Ţ ̽á , ŧ ú ɡ, Ţ ̽ Ũ¢ š ġ.
 

We are given over to attaining  BEING through singing hymns so pleasing to the soul We are also blessed with no desire for the company of those people not ashamed of evil and unbecoming qualities. And on top of that we  remain most welcome to the abode of BEING, HE who defeated Ayan, the God of scriptures and Thirumaal, the God of the manifest universe by disclosing Himself as the FLAME with  upper and lower limits beyond their reach, and WHO because of this remains the God of the gods,  becomes our LORD  who rules us by Being us  and through  which allows us the enjoyment of all noble qualities in life. As against this we are NOT inclined to obey and be submissive to the King who may be the God of death himself threatening with dealth penalties when meeting with  disobedience from us.

naavaara nambanaiyee paadap peRRoom: we are given over to singing the hymns so pleasing to the soul

naanaRRaar naLLaame viLLappeRRoom: we are blessed with not wishing the company of those individuals who are not ashamed of the evil and unbecoming qualities

aavaa enRu emai aaLvaan amarar naatan: BEING the lord of the celestial beings rules us always inviting to HIS world

ayanodumaaR kaRivariya analaay niiNda teevaati teevan civan : the God of the gods who disclosed Himself as the Flame the upper and lower limits of which were beyond the reach of Ayan, the God of the scriptures and Thirumaal,  the  God of the manifest world

en cintai  ceerntiruntaan: BEING remains in my soul as that HE Himself

tenticaikkoon taanee vantu koovaadik kuRReeval ceyken Raalum : even if the  God of death in the guise of this King demands submission and obedience

kuNamaakak koLLoom eNkuNattuLLoomee : we will take them as unbecoming of us as we are with all the noble qualities of BEING

Commentary:
===========

Appar begins here another line of attack against political submission that can be coercive and even may mete out death penalties for the defiant individuals as it happened really to  Appar. We have from his own words that he was pushed  into the sea with a rock tied  to his back so that he  would drown and die. But he escaped miraculasly by chanting the mantra NAMASIVAYA and survived by reaching the shores of Punaluur about which he has also sung many hymns

This verse  is important PSYCHOLOGICALLY as it is also socio-politically for it touches upon the FEELINGS that would condition  the PERSONALITY structure of a person. Appar claims that the life of submission and obedience to the local king and in modern times to the political leadership will NOT FOSTER the growth of the most excellent and NOBLE qualites and hence something NOT to be desired by those who cherish a way of life in which one always wants the noblest sentiments guiding the socio-political existence.

In this verse also emerge the essence of AGAMISM, why Hymnology is raised  to the  level being the most effective TECHNOLOGY for Being with BEING and allowing HIM to rule the person. For the Divine ILLUMINATION is BEYOND the reach of the WORDS and hence  beyond literature of any kind including the scriptures. Scriptural exegetics may  clear away some confusions and illuminate certain matters but ABSLOUTE ILLUMINATION can be enjoyed only if we TRANSCEND all the scriptures for such an illumination being Non-thetic is BEYOND LANGUAGE even of the scripture type. And it is also BEYOND the Hermeneutic Understanding which confines understanding to the phenomenal, the MANIFEST ,  here indicated by the notion of being beyond Thirumaal, the Lord of Manifest Universe. BEING is a FLAME the upper and lower limits of which remain UNFATHOMABLE by such efforts and hence BEING supremely MYSTERIOUS and always the victorious because as such.
 

How are we to ATTAIN a nearness, a proximity with such a BEING?  The singing of HYMNS is the way for the hymns over and above all the other  efforts MELTS  the heart and TOUCHING the soul LIFTS IT UP to a higher existential plain and through that write in fundamental changes in personality. Being transposed to a higher level of existence is simultaneuos with personality development , the persuing of existence only with noble sentiments  including the socio-political existence. In this the HIGHEST possiblity is made availble when BEING HIMSELF is allowed to RULE the individual and at which point emerges the "eNkuNam" the term that simply means all the noble qualities that sustains one in divinely existence. The  word  "eN" is variant of "eeN" meaning high, noble, divine,  the most excellent etc.

As  against this compliying  to the  demands of the socio-political  dictates would constitute  a FALL for in this life prevails corruption envy stealth jealousy the intention to kill and destroy, the inclination to bring misery to others and what not.  Such people are NaaN aRRoor , individuals not ashamed of the beastlity of their personality. So such a socio-political  life is NOT for me, says Appar, even if it means death penallties from the ruling king.



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