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Utu-he-gal ¯Ð ²¸û

Dear Friends,

You might have noticed that S.N.Kramer in his book The Sumerians, portions of which I am publishing now in Tamil Net and Meykandars mentions a great king of the past --  Utuhegal,  the founder of the Third Ur dynasty , the last dynasty of Sumerian Tamils who ruled Sumer. This dynasty includes  Urnammu and the great Sulgi who was not only just a great warrior but also a mighty scholar and philosopher, almost like the Philosopher-King of Plato. There are many striking parallels between this Ur dynasty and that of the Vira Cholas from the 9th to the 14th cent. who ruled the Tamil country and whose greatest King was Rararaja Chola. It will be very instructive to study the personalty of this Chola and that of Sulgi and wherein we can see a lot of parallels. Both of them were not only great warriors but also very devout .  It is well known that Rajaraja was a great Saivite who  built the great Temple of Tanjore which remains to this day singing his glory. While Sulgi in addition to building temples or renovating them also wrote many 'hymns' outstanding for their literary qualities . Rajaraja though didnot write literary pieces but  wrote in stones TEMPLES as texts that are lasting to this day telling their own stories for those who can interprete and understand.

I am  providing the following text of Utuhegal, taken from C.J Gadd's  " Sumerian: A Reading Book" (pp65-66) with Tamil renderings  and with my own analytical studies and where I offer my own interpretations.  The text is quite long with 63 lines and so I would publish it several instaltments.
 

Loga


TEXT: Utuhegal
 

1. *en-lil gu-ti-um-(KI) ( Enlil- Gutium)      mus-gir-har-sag-ga ( the stinging serpent of the hills)

2. lu (who (was)     a-nam-gal-dingi-ri-e-ne ( the enemy of the gods)

3. lu ( who)  nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra(var. sumer-ra) ( the sovereingty of Sumer)  kur-su   (to the mountains)    ba-tum-a(had carried off)

4. ki-en-gi-ra( and Sumer)  nig-a-erim (with enmity)  ne-in-si-a (had filed----)

5. dam-tuk ( (for)  from him that had a wife)      dam-ni ( his wife)  ba-an-da-kar-ra (had been reft away)

1. ²ñÄ£ø §¸¡¾¢Ôõ  ãÍ ¸£÷ ÌÚº¡í¸

2. ¬Ù ¬½õ¸û ¾¢í¸¢Ã¢Â¢§É

3. ¬Ù ͧÁ÷à ¯Ù¸û¿õ ÌÚ§º À¡òÐõÁ

4. ͧÁ÷à ¿¢¸ ±Ã¢õ §¿¡ö º£Â¢ýÉ

5. ¾õ¦¾¡Ì ¾õ«§É Àñ½¢Î ¸¨Ã
 

6.  dumu-tuk( and from him that  had a c¨¸ld)   du-mu-ni (his child)  ba-an-da-kar-ra (had been reft away---)

7. nig-a-erim ( and enmity)  nig-a-zi ( and  wickedness)  kalam-ma (in the land)

8. mi-ni-in-gar-ra ( he had set)  ; *en-lil-lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge ( Enlil, the king of the lands)

9. mu-bi  ( his name ) ha-lam-e-de ( to destroy)  * utu-he-gal (Utu-hegal)

10. nitah-kal-ga (the mighty man)  lugal-unu-(KI)-ga (the King of Erech)
 

6. ¾Ó¦¾¡Ì ¾Ó«§É Àñ½¢Î ¸¨Ã

7. ¿¢¸±Ã¢õ ¿¢¸«Æ¢ ¸ÇõÁ

8. ¸¡÷ÃÁ¢É¢ý. ²ñÄ£ø ¯Ù¸û ÌýÈÌýÈ째

9. §Á¡À¢ ÅÄÁ¢§¼(?)   ¯Ð²ö¸û

10. ¿¡¾: ¸¡û¸ ¯Ù¸û °Û¸
 
 

11. lugal-an-ub-da-limmu-ba ( the kingbof the four regions)  lugal-dug-ga-na ( the king whose word)

12. nu-gi-gi-da ( is not gainsaid) ;  *en-lil,  (Enlil)  lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge (the king of the lands)

13. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( gave (him) mission).  * inanna-nin-a-bi ( (To ) Inanna, his lady)  mu-na-an-gin (he went)

14. sub ( a prayer)  mu-na-tum (he brought)  : nin-mu ug-me ('My lady, lioness of battle)

15. ku(r)-kur-da( who on the mountains)  du-du (art fair)  * en-lil-li (Enlil)

16. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra ( the soveriegnty of Sumer)  su-ba (into its hand)  gi-gi-de (to restore)

17. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( has given (me) mission);  a-tah-mu (my support)  he-mu ( Be thou)
 

11. ¯Ù¸û Å¡ý ¯õÀâ¼ ŢǢõÓÀ ¯Ù¸û àì¸ýÉ

12. ¿¡Á£ûÁ£Ç¢¼; ²ñÄ£ø ¯Ù¸û ÌýÈÌýÈ째

13. ¬øÀ¢ §Á¡Â¢¼¡ý ¬ì¯; ®ýÉ¡ ¿¢ýÀ¢ ÓýÉý¿£ñ

14. ÍÀ(õ) àÓýÉ: ¿¢ý§Á¡ ¯ìÌ ¦ÁöÂ

15. ÌýÚÌýÈ¢¼ àòÐ ²ñÄ£ø

16. ͧÁ÷ýÈ ¯Ù¸û¿õ ÝÀ¡ Á£ûÁ£Ç¢§¼

17. ¬øÀ¢ §Á¡Â¢¼¡ý ¬ì¯; ¬¾¡ù §Á¡ ²õÓ
 

Briefly stated the first 17 lines contain the information that the  war Utuhegal waged was a war of independence, the recovery of the sovereignty of Sumer now taken away from them by the hill tribes, the Gutians. And interestingly it is not a war waged by an individual but rather by Enlil, who later in the Dravidan history became the Purusha and later still Vishnu, the Manifest BEING who discloses only part of Himself and keeps many other parts concealed. Thus it is a war of CULTURE against Unculture, the war of devas against Asuras as all the righteous wars are. And having realiazed  this Utuhegal invokes the assistance of Inanna, the KoRRavai, the Goddess of War and who smites the enemies in the battle field, and this Utuhegal is surprisngly close to the Great Cholas Pandiyas and Ceras of Tamil country who always  claimed that they are victorious in the battles they waged  only because they had the Great Woman-Powers  , the Powers of Earth  and Heavens as their consorts.

Let us continue.

18 ti-ri-ga-a-an ( Tirigan)  lugal-gu-ti-um (KI)( the king of Gutium)

19 inim-bi ( this word)  [mu-dug/] (has spoken)  lu nu-mu-si-e (" No man is come out (against me)"

20 idigna (The Tigris)   gu-a-a-ba ((and) the shores of the sea)  ne-in-dib he has barred)

21. sig-su-ki-en-gi-ra ( unto the lower parts odf Sumer)   gan (the fields)   ne-kesda (he has barred)

22. igi-nim-su ( unto the upper parts)  gir (the way)   ne-kesda (he has barred)

23. kaskal -kalam-ma-ge (the roads of the country)  u-gid-da  ( long grass)  ne-in-mu (have grown)

18. ¾¢Ã¢¸¡«ý ¯Ù¸û §¸¡¾¢Âõ

19. ±ÉõÀ¢ [Óý àìÌ]: ¬Ù ¿¡ Óýº£§Â

20. ­ÊìÉ¡ ÜÅ ¬ôÀ §¿ «¨¼ôÀ¢ý

21. º¢í¸¢ ͧÁÃýÈ  ¸¡ñ §¿ ¸ð¼

22. ­í¸¢ ¿¢õ§º ¸£÷ §¿ ¸ð¼

23. ¸¾¢¸¡ø ¸ÇõÁ째 ° ¿£ð¼ §¿ ã¢ý
 

24. lugal ( The King) *en-lil-li  (whom Enlil )    a-si-ma (had endowed with might)

25 *inanna  sag-gi-pad-da (the chosen of the heart of Inanna)   *utu-he-gal ((even) Utuhegal)

26. nitah-kal-ga ( the mighty man)   unu-(Ki)-ta (from Erech)   mu-si-e (went forth)

27. e-iskur-ra( The temple of Ishkur)      gis-ne-du (he reached?)

28. dumu-uru-na-ge-ne ( (to) the men of his city)     gu-mu-ne-de-e (he cried0

29. gu-ti-um (KI) ( Gutium)  *en-lil-li ( Enlil)  ma-na-si (has delivered it (into my hands)

30 nin-mu (My lady)     *inanna (Inanna)  a-tah-mu-un ( is my support) . *dumu-zi (Tammuz)

31. ama-usumgal-an-na-ge The soverign (?) of heaven)   nam-mu (my destiny)  ne-dug (has pronounced).
 

24. ¯Ù¸û ²ñÄ£ø§Ä ¬ø º£õÁ

25. ®ýÉ¡ º¡í¸¢ À¡÷ò¾ ¯Ð²¸û

26. ¿£¾: ¸¡û¸ °Ûò¾ Óýº£§Â

27. ­ø ®ÌýÈ ¸£§É ­Î

28. ¾Ó °ÕÉ츢§É Ü Óý¢§¼

29. §¸¡¾¢Ôõ ²ñÄ£ø§Ä ±õÁÉ º£

30. ¿¢ý§Á¡ ®ÉýÉ¡ ¬¾¡×Óý ¾Ó¢

31. «õÁ¡ ¯Íõ¸û ¬ýɡ째 ¿õ§Á¡§É àì¯

32. *gis-bil-ga-mes ( Gilgamesh)    dumu-nin-sun-na-ge  (the son of Nin-sun)

33. maskim-su ( for the protector) ma-an-si ( he has given me) . dumu-unu-(KI)-ga (The sons of Erech)

34. dumu-kullab-(KI)-ka (The sons of Kullab)  sag-hul-la (joy of heart)   ba-an-gar (was caused (unto them)

35. uru-ni (His city)   lu-as-gim ( as one man)  egir-ra-ni (behind him)  ba-ab-us (pressed)

36. ka-kesda (upon) the King(?)   igi-bar-ra (glance of their eyes)   si-ne-sa (they kept straight0
 

32. ¸£ À¢ø¸¡§ÁÍ  ¾Ó ¿¢ýºí¸Ã

33. Á¡¸¢õÍ Á¡ º£«ý. ¾Ó °ÛŸ

34. ¾Ó ÌÄ¡À¸ º¡í¸¢ ¯ÅøÄ Àñ¸¡÷

35. °Õ§É ¬Ù ²¸¹¢õ ±¸¢÷ýȧɠ À¡ «ù °Í

36. ¸¡¸ð¼ ­¹¢À¡÷à º£§Éº¡
 

Before we go on and subject the text to a detailed linguistic and other kinds of analysis,, we should note some salient features of the text of the above lines  that are highly informative. Though Utuhegal was a mighty man ( nitah-kal-ga) it is stated that he is so not because of his own ego efforts but because of the love of the Gods especially the great Goddess Inanna, the later day KoRRavai and Durkai of the Tamil. It is the endearing gaze of Inanna ( *inanna-ge sag-gi-pad-da)  which is another way of putting that it is only becuase of HER Grace that he is a great hero. And the war of liberation is entered into only because he was ALREADY given to understand that the victory is already his. And this is what he COMMUNICATES and boldly announces to all the people of Sumer, the  groups of young men in the various cities who now accept him as the divinely appointed SOLE leader . They all pressed ahead united under his sole LEADERSHIP with UNDIVIDED LOYALTY. (uru-ni lu-as-gim egir-ra ba-ab-us) . Here we must also mention that the phrase 'kakesda" (36) probably means a regiment, with kesda>  kaddu i.e. discipline for only then they can be single minded and have their eyes on nothing else but liberating their country from the barbaric Gutians ( igi-bar-ra si-ne-sa) that they can attain success.

We shall continue now

37. e-iskur-ka (When from the temple of Ishkur)     zi-ga-ni ( he had departed)   u(d)-limmu-kam-ma( on the fourth day)

38. nak-su (id) en-uri-gal-ka ( the ford(?) of the river En-urigal)   gis-ne-du (he reached(?))

39. u(d)-ia-kam-ma (on the fifth day )  bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  (the shirine of Ili-tabba)  gis-ne-du (he reached (?))

40 ur-*nin-a-zu ( Ur-Ninazu)  na-bi-*en-lil (and Nabi-Enlil)

41. sagub-ti-ra-ga-a-an (the lieutenants of Tirigan)   ki-en-gi-su (unto Sumer)

42. kin-gi-a ( upon (the king's orders) )  im-gi-es (returned)
 

37. ­ø ­¨º§¸¡Ã¸ £¸¿£  ¯Ð ŢǢõÓ¸¡õÁ

38. ¿¡ìÍ ®¨¼ ²ñ °Ã¢¸û¸  ¸£§É ­Î

39. ¯Ð ³¸¡õÁ  À¡÷ ­Ä¢¾ôÒ ² «¸ ¸£§É ­Î

40. ¯Â÷ ¿¢ý ¬Í ¿À¢ ²ñÄ¢ø

41. ºíÌÀ¢ ¾£Ã¸¡«ý  ¸£ú ²ñ¸¢Í

42.¸¡ñ¸¢Â Á£Ç¢õÁ¢Í
 

Note: In line 40 we have the occurence of what can turned out to be one of the most importnat discoveries viz. na-bi *En-lil. The whole sentence sholud be understood as " Uyar Nin aasu, nabi * eN lil" ( ¯Â÷ ¿¢ý ¬Í ¿À¢ ²ñÄ£ø)
Here it may possible the the Great Goddess , The KoRRavai and Durga of the ancnet Tamils for aasu means power here, another variant of aal from whilc we have aaRRal, is said the the NABI of Enlil, the later day Purusha. The na-bi probably means " aNaibi" i.e she who embraces EnLil and hence makes him really powerful.

Is there any connection between this 'na-bi" and the islamic 'nabi" in the sense of 'messenger?
 
 

Dear Friends,

Slightly excited I paused for awhile to think further. The word 'na-bi' that we have discovered occuring in line 40, constitutes to me something very interesting that may throw further light on the origins of the Semitic traditons in genral and in particular the  Islamic tradition. On second thoughts the sense of 'messenger" is possible if we note that the 'a-zu' could be an ancient form of Ta. aasi: as in 'aasir vaatam" etc i.e bestowing grace. Nin-a-zu  could be Nin-aasi: the Goddess of all blessings.  Thus "nabi" could be the Power from Enlil who announces or discloses a certain message,  here the return of the lieutinants of Trigaan to Sumer to inspect it on his orders. It is a divine disclosure, a telepathic communication , something that happens in transductive perceptions, a phenomenon akin to dreaming but now understood as lucid dreaming or something like that. This pheneomenon and existence guided by such transductive perceptions was the rule in Sumeria, that by which they lived. All the Nabies in Islam or the prophets were also people of such gifts. They prophesized on the basis of such transductive perceptions. While Sumer we have the Female Power Ninazu doing this , in the Semitic tradition it is ascribed to Gibrail. Looks as though while the presnt world has gone internet, the ancients  had mantra-net with capacity to receive  messgaes from the Divine Powers once we get logged in . The  mighty warriors like Utuhegal, Urnmmu, Sulgi and so forth and later the prophets were the people who could thus get logged in.

In additon to this we have also in support of this interpretation the word 'navil' meaning 'to tell" still in use in Tamil. Hence in this context 'nabi' is the Female Power a Goddess who communicates the WILL of EnLil. We should also recall that Inanna is also said to utter ( du-du) by which is meant acting according to words of An in the Sirbiyam of Enhudu Anna which later probabaly  gave rise to the notion of Prakiruti, i.e parakaruti, the transendental Power  that is active forever autonomously.

With these ideas as something to be thought of further , let us continue.

43. bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  ( When from the shrine of Ili=tabba)  zi-ga-ni (he had depareted)

44. u(d)-as-kam-ma ( on the sixth day)  ka-muru-(KI)-ka (´ver against Muru)   gis-ne-du (he reched)

45. *iskur-ra (Unto Iskur)  mu-na-an-gin (he went)   sub ( a prayer) mu-na-tum (he bought)

46.  *iskur (Oh Iskur!)  tukul  (the weapon) *en-lil-li ma-an-si (Enlil has given to me)

47. a-tah-mu (my support)   he-me( be thou)--------------

48. erim ( An army)  mu-na-sug (he led out)   *utu-he-gal (Utu-he-gal)

49. nitah-kal-ka (the might man)  UKU.GAN-im-mi-si (smote)

50. sagub-bi (those lieutinanats).  u(d)-ba (on that day)  ti-ri-ga-a-an (Titigan)

51. lugal-gu-ti-um-(KI) (King of gutium)  as-a-ni  (solitary)  gir-ba-da-an-kar(fled away)

43. À¡÷ ­Ä¢ ¾ôÒ ²«¸ £¸§É

44. ¯¾¢ ¬¸¡õÁ ¸¡ ÓÕ«¸  ¸£§É ­Î

45. ®§¸¡÷ýÈ ÓýÉÉ¢ý ¿£ñ, ÍÀ(õ) ÓýÉòÐõ

46. ®§¸¡÷! иû ²ñÄ£ø (±õ)Á¡ý º£

47. ¬¾¡:§Á¡ ±õ§Á--------

48. «Ã¢õ ÓÉÝíÌ  ¯Ð²ö¸û

49. ¿£¾: ¸û¸ URU.GAN ­õÁ¢ º£

50. ºíÌÀ¢ ¯¾¢«ôÀ ¾¢Ã¢¸¡«ý

51. ¯Ù¸û §¸¡¾¢Âõ ¬§É ¸£÷Àð¼¡ý ¸¡ø
 
 

On reading this epigraph of the campaign of Utuhegal, one gets the impression that one is reading a mythological tale such as those in Ramayana, KanthapuraNa , Theevi Makaamityam etc where the Great Godods wage battles with the Asuras and save the world. Here the campaing is that of a man Utuhegal but he is just an  instrument in the hands of the great Gods EnLil , Inanna and so forth. When the evil forces take control over the good and breeds unculture and barbarism  the divine forces wake up  , takes possession of a particular man and people and make them battle fiercely against the forces of evil. This may be true all the time but while the Sumerians knew and were conscious of it, and hence their heroes really humble,  we moderns have lost that capacity and hence also the humility. We think battles and wars are purely economical and remain  blind to the moral issues involved. I am mentioning this so that the deito-historicism of the ancient Sumerians and which was NOT  lost with all the great Kings of Tamil Nadu should  be something that we  recall and bring to bear upon the current issues as well. The major struggles in the world are basically ethical, wars of Dharma against Adharma.
 

With this we come to the final portion of this text.

52. ki-zi-ni ( (His stronghold)     ba-da-an-kar-ra (where he had fled)

53. dub-ru-um-(KI)-ma( in Dubrum)  ba-an-sag (he was welcomed)

54. lu-dub-ru-um-ma-ge( (but) the men of Dubrum)     *utu-he-gal ([seeing that] Utuhegal)

55. bar lugal ( the king)    *en-lil-li  (by Enlil)     a-si-ma (endowed with strength)

56. i-me-a ( was)    i-zu-a-ge-es (because they knew [this])

57. ti-ri-ga-a-an-ra ( to Tirigan)     su-nu-ni-ba (their hand gave not)

58. (lu)kin-gi-a-utu-he-gal (The messenger of Utuhegal)

59. ti-ri-ga-a-an( Tirigan)      u  (and)   dam-dumu-ni (his wife and children)

60. dub-ru-um-ma mu-ni-dib -------( in Dubrum captured)

61 *utu-he-gal mu-dur  (Utuhegal sat down).     gir-ni-su (At his feet)

62. mu-nad (he (Tirigan) lay;     gu-na Upon his neck)  giir-ne-gub (he set his foot)

63. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra The sovereignty of Sumer)  su-ba ( into his hand)  im-mi-gi (he restored)

52. ¸£ú £Å§É Àð¼¡ý ¸¡øÄ

53. Ðôå×õÁ («)Àý º¡í¸¢

54. ¬Ù Ðôå×õÁ째 ¯Ð ²¸û

55. À¡÷.  ¯Ù¸û ²ñÄ¢ø§Ä ¬ø º£Â¢õÁ

56. ® ¦ÁöÂ.     ® ÝÅ째¢Í

57. ¾¢Ã¢¸¡«ýÈ  Ý ¿¡ ¿£ûÀ

58. ¸¡ñ¸¢Â ¯Ð²¸û

59. ¾¢Ã¢¸¡«ý ¯õ ¾¡Ãõ¾Ó§É

60. Ðôå¯õ  ӧɫ¨¼ô¯----------------

61.  ¯Ð²¸û ÓóÐü¯. ¸£Ã¢§ÉÍ

62. Óý¿Î; ¸ù×ýÉ ¸£Ã¢§É ÌôÒ

63. ¯Ù¸û¿õ ͧÁ÷à ݫÀ ­õÁ¢Á£û
 

The text is concluded. 


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