Make your own free website on

Sumerian as Archaic Tamil


Dr K.Loganathan, 2004




Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-1


Central to my various claims about the Dravidian past remains my identification of Sumerian as Archaic Tamil, a fossil of the past of Tamil Language, a fossil in the sense of Aurobindos Evolutionary linguistics. Languages evolve in various ways and it happens that Tamil language has evolved over the last 5000 years at least throwing on the way many fossils of which we have abundance of such fossils in Sumeria (4000 BC to 1000 BC) and from about 300 BC to 300 AD in CaGkam classics and so forth. There is a gap perhaps from about 2000 BC to about 500 BC that needs to be filled up.


But the fact remains, despite these gaps in ancient history and the many gaps that remains to be filled up that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil, a form of Tamil that constitutes as early stage in the evolution of Classical Tamil


So the question that I want to raise is: I am convinced that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil but how can I convince others of the TRUTH of this discovery on mine?


The only way is to PRESENT various samples of TEXTS for the Sumerian and LEAD them to SEE by providing explanatory notes that Sumerian language as exemplified can in fact be SEEN as specimens of Archaic Tamil because there are elements there which identify it as Tamil and at the same time also elements which show that it is Archaic form of it. The situation is similar to that between CaGkam Tamil and Modern Tamil where we can see CONTINUITY amidst CHANGE


So with this in mind, I have selected below samples of TEXTS from the Sumerian which I believe will convince any one that they are in fact fossil specimens of the deep past of Tamil language. I request the scholars to attend to these texts, putting aside other historical questions about how Sumerian came to be there and how the speakers migrated to India and so forth.


The only question here should be : Are these samples of TEXTS samples of an ARCHAIC form of Tamil or not?


The first sample comes from Suruppaks NeRi ( the oldest tablet 2600 BC) and I have given also my notes added to HELP the seeing of these as Archaic Tamil. I would request anyone serious in this matter to reflect DEEPLY on these lines. If you have a knowledge of Tamil, it will be a great help as you can fall back on your native competence. If not you can check with such people and who are OPEN enough to such possibilities.


Sample 1.


Suruppaks NeRi ( < Su. nari: moral instructions)


1. [u] ri-a u sud-ra ri-a ( In those distant days, in those far remote days)

â â

uu eriya uu cuuttira eriya

2. gi ri-a   gi bad-du ri-a ( In those nights, in those far-away nights)

â â

mai iriya mai paNdu iriya

3. mu ri-a mu sud-ra ri-a (  In those years, in those far remote years)

â â

mUu ariya mUu cuuttra ariya

4. u-ba gestu.tuku inim.galam inim.zu-a kalam-ma ti-la-am ( In those days, the intelligent one, who made the elaborate words, who knew the (proper) words, and was living in Sumer .

Ц ġ

uuba kestu.toku enam.kalam enimcuuva kaLamma tillaam

5.Suruppak gestu.tuku inim.galam inim.zu-a kalam-ma ti-la-am ( Suruppak - the inelligent one, who made the elaborate words , who knew the (proper) words, and was living in Sumer

5. Ц   ġ

Cuurupaakku kestu.toku enam.kalam enam cuuva kaLamma tillaam.


1. u . Ta. u, uu : a deictic/referential that denotes something beyond as in up-paal " yonder" .This 'u' remains the one of the deitics the others being ''a' (that)" and "i" (this) also of frequent occurrence in Sumerian as it is Tamil.  The use of 'u' is obsolete now though I understand that it is still in use in Sri Lankan Tamil.

ri-a> eriya (that which burns), uriya (that which becomes) ariya (that which is rare). The root appears to be.  u, uu : to become, to shine forth etc. uu, u> ur, uru: shape form, to become.

ri-a > raa > to come forth (Telugu); ba-ra, ma-ra> marabu : that which comes, tradition.

raa-sag> raasan . arasan, arayan, raayan : king ( Sk: raajah; sag> jah)

Also Su.ri-si  > Sk rishi: the illuminated. The 'si' here is cikaaram: to radiate, to shine forth

eri> eli> Ak. ellu. Ta. ellu, el: daylight, brightness

sud-ra> cuuttira : ancient , distant. Possibly derived from Su. su-du/ Ta. cuudu ; the peak, the top extremity, the highest point in general. Perhaps from the initial notion of very high at the top, the notion of 'distant' has been derived.

Some of the derivative meanings possible are : ancient people, the natives, the long lived, the highly developed and so forth. It is noteworthy that all the Dravidian folks are called sudras in SK literature but which has suffered a semantic twist has come to mean low castes.

2. gi=mi > Ta. mai, kai: black, dark.  See igi> imai: eyes. Here the cosmic times of utter darkness, state of world before creation and the onset of light. Perhaps the root is 'ngi' and transliterated both as 'mi' and 'gi' in Su. itself

bad-du> Ta. paddu, paNdu : ancient. It is possible the root is Ta. padu: to show up, to become present. padu ( to become  present)> paddu (the time  the world became present> paNdu ( the ancient or primordial times)

ri-a> iri-a : to be there , that which exist . gi-ri-a cannot be the darkness that burns but raher the Darkness that prexist I,e iriya. Evn now in Malayamal iri and Tamil iru means to subsist, to be there etc.

3. mu> Ta. mUu> muLai : to emerge ; here the time the world emerged. It is also used in Su. as a term for the year.

4. gestu> kestu. Ta. akattu, akattiyam: sacred wisdom, deep metaphysical illuminations. gestu(ears)> kaatu (ears). Perhasp the meaning of gestu is the same as Sruti ( <Ta. cuur-uti : illuminations that arise within but now the scritoural wisdom, that which heard and transmitted)

gestu ---< kastiyar, akattiyar: the foremost Sage of the Tamils and a great archetypal  Siddha. In Su. we have Gestin-Anna ; the one skillful in interpreting dreams and such matters of transductive perceptions.

gestu.tu-ku> Ta. kesttutoku: One who has assembled or collected immense Wisdom. The word 'toku' can also be related to Malay taaku: to understand. Also Ta. takavu : greatness

inim.galam Ta. enam.kalam. The word Su.  inim. enim exust in Ta. as the verb "en. enRu' to tell , to relate, enal: speaking, telling.

galam> Ta. kalam: the precious. Also Ta. kal-vi: education, kal :  to learn. Su. ga-la: ritual singer, Ta, kalai: the arts ,Ta. kalainjan: the artist

zu-a=ju-a> Ta. cuuva: cuu: deep illuminations , a varinat of  Ta. cii/ Su. si.  cuu> ta. cuuzl to reflect deeply. cuu-t-tiram: that which has within itself deep knowldge. Su.til-la, tila> Ta. tilam > tiram to exist

5. surupaak> Ta. cuurupaakku. cuuru> cuulam: the spear. paku ( to cut and divide) --> paakku: that whihc cuts and hence derivatively perhaps 'sharp" . Henece suruppak Ta. cuurupaakku: a sharp spear ot cuulam.

Let us reflect a bit on some key words from this text most probably the most ancient literary text in the world coming  from the beginnings of the 3rd Millennium BC and which was committed to writing around 2600 B.C. itself. What surprises anyone who would take the trouble to ponder over the meanings of some words there  is the presence of immensely sophisticated cosmological views present in the first few lines and all articulated in words that stand as good Tamil even to this day.

We have u-ri-a where Ta. u as demonstrative means 'yonder", the "up-pal" "uppar' 'umbar' etc. It has also given us 'uur' 'uyar' 'uti' (to emerge, rise up, move) and such verbal forms. As  nouns we have 'uL' 'oL' ( light, to be, to exist, real etc.) We have also the Su. ur as in 'an-ur-as-a" where 'ur' means the world.

We have also ri-a as iri-a that which exists, something already there etc.

Parallel to this is another variant,  'mu-ri-a" where 'mu' has the Tamil versions Ta. mUu, muLai  ( to move, emerge) and from which are derived Su. mus: to move away, travel, to protrude etc. corresponding to which we have Ta. muucu, muukku, mukam etc. There is a term as a name in CaGkam classics,  Ta. mooci and this may mean the traveller, the yaatrika, the mendicant.

The meaning is clear: u-ri-a and mu-ri-a mean the same : the bursting forth of FIRE or molten rocks violating the Darkness that prevailed ( gi-ri-a > mai iri-ya). Thus we have quite unmistakably  what is now known in astrophysics as the Big Bang Theory of the origins of the Universe.

The word bad-du which exists even now as Ta. paNdu, the ancient also has given a number of words related to the above cosmological views. We have Ta. badivam , vadivu, vadivam all meanings 'shape' 'structural forms " etc. Thus the word for 'ancient times", paNdu (<bad-du) is again derived from the notion of the shaping of the universe, the emergence of world violating the Darkness inside which it was resident and hence unmanifest.

(to continue) 1

Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-2

Now I provide the second sample text but from the same Suruppaks NeRi who incidentally also gets mentioned in Rig Veda as I have already pointed oit

Notice that in line 53 we have anse translated as steppe-ass but actually the horse ,the arche of form Ta/ Sk. asuvam related Ta. acu, asai : to move fast. Elsewhere in the same text horses are called dur i.e. turakam. Without realizing this the IE linguists have made a big sh0ow of the horse as something the Aryans brought into India

In line 61 we have uru.tus lu-ka na-ab-ta-bal-e-de, where uuRu-tunju and paal are quite clear. The paal, meaning to cross over has given paarampariyam, paramparai , parabtam etc. In paal-idu ( <bal-e-de) we have also a clear instance of idu. Ede as an auxiliary verb

Grammatically the following sentence is very interesting:

64. su-ga-ab su-ga-ab si-me-si-ib-be-e-ne ( Restore! Restore! - they will say to you)

Here we have the pronominal postposition e-ne in the plural while in 65. mu-un-ku-e-en, we have the en in singular. We can see si-ib-e-ne as the arche form ceppuvinee ( > ceppuvaaree) with ene> ere which we have even in Sumerian. This contrasts with singular sense of -en as in mun-kuuy-i-en ( < mu-un-ku-e-en)

Suruppak's NeRi

51. us si-ga kaskal si-ga-am ( A safe foundation is a safe road)

*Ta. uc.i siGka kasikaal siGka aam   ( Having a good goal is moving in the good road)

52. kaskal gi na-du sa-bi sag hul-a ( Do not walk on the road at night, its interior is (both) good and bad)

* Ta.   kasikaal mai naa. udu  saaybi saan olla  ( Do not walk in dark streets, inside there may be evil people)

53. anse.edin-na na-ab-sam[....] ugula da-bi-es (....)-e-zal ( Do not buy a steppe-ass, constantly the foreman(?) must ... at its side.

*Ta.   ansee eetilla naa aab sum.u  [.....] uukku.Lu idabicee  (.....) ee cel   ( Do not buy a wild horse, rider has to go to its side  always?)

54. geme-zu-ur gis na-an-du zu-ur su-mu--ri-in-sa ( Do not have sexual intercourse with your slave girl, she will call you: Traitor ! (?)

*Ta.   kaimmee soora kuc.i idu soor suu muRaiyin col    ( Do not have sexual intercourse with an immoral woman, she will announce it  to the public)

55 .as  a.zi na-ab-bal-e su-us im-si-nigin ( Do not curse with violence, it will turn around your hands)

*Ta.  aasi azi naa avallee suur-usu imsi niiGkin  ( Do not curse for the destruction of others, it will torture you for a long time)

Lexical Notes

51. us> Ta. uc.i> ucci : high, lofty, peak etc.  :  ; si-ga> siGka, sikka> cokka . Also siGka> cemma : something elegant and beautiful.
kaskal= kashikaal > Ta. kadikaal : a road for going fast kaci, kashi> kazi. kadi : to move fast. :

52. gi = ngi> mi. mai: dark, black :  du> udu> vidu : to go :  ; sa-bi> saaybi>saayvu : a depression, something inclined. inside etc. :  sag> saan> taan : someone   hul-a> olla: something evil

53. anse> ansee > asee. asuvam : horse; asai: to move fast.   edin-na>eetilla : the outskirts, the plains etc. See eetil.aaLan  : the one from a foreign place, outskirts etc. ; sam > sum. sumattal : to carry, sumai: load  ugula> uukku.Lu : the one who encourages or drives.  zal>  sel. sal> sari: to move. slide etc.

54. geme> kaimmai ( the widow but here the slave?   zu-ur> soor: the adulterous  gis> kuc.i lit. a stick but here the male organ  :  gis-du> kuc.i idu : lit. to insert the stick but means sexual intercourse, copulation.   mu-ri-in-sa> muRaiyin col: to complain properly?

55. as> aasi : to bless   a.zi> azi: to destroy . as-azi: curse? ; ab-bal> aval ; to speak loudly or in distressing way?  im-si> imsi: to cause distress  nigin> niigkin: for a long time 


61. uru.tus lu-ka na-ab-ta-bal-e-de ( Do not transgress peoples dwelling places)

uuru. tus.u uLu-aka naa aabta paalyidee ( )

62. si-du-un si-du-un si-me-si-ib-bi-e-ne ( Go away ! Go away! - they will say to you)

siiduyen siiduyen siimmee seppiyinee ( )

63. gis) kiri-ka da-bi nam-bi-du-a ( Do not break the side of the sweet reeds in the garden)

kiir.tuGka ( kis)kiri-aka iaibi naa-am piittuva ( )

64. su-ga-ab su-ga-ab si-me-si-ib-be-e-ne ( Restore! Restore! - they will say to you)

suGka-aab suGka-aab siimmee seppiyinee (Pay a price ! Pay a price! , they will say to you)

65. ur nam-mu-un-ku-e-en du nam-ur-ur-re-en ( Do not feed a hostile person, do not throw down a man)

oor naa-am munkuuyiyen tuu naa-am uriuriyen ( Do not eat alone and do not syringe the (liquid) food ?

Some Lexical Notes

uru: Ta. uuru : town , village etc. . tus> Ta. tunjcu: to stay, sleep etc. . uru.tus> uurutunjcu: while the people are asleep? : lu-ka> uLu akam: among the people : ab-ta> aabta Here the deitic there or them. bal-e-de > Ta. paal-idee : to cross over, to pass by/ Here e-de> i-du is an auxiliary verb. The word bal also occurs as bal-bal-a and clearly the root from which words like paramparai, paarampariyam, piraabtam and so forth have been developed.

62. si-du-un> Ta. siiduyen> seliduyen : go away !; si= sii> siil> sel : to go away. si-me> siimmee: they ? si-ib-bi-e-ne> seppinee ; they will say.

63.> kiirtuGka : sweet tasting palnt: sugar cane reeds? ? kiri-ka> kiri-aka ; Here kiri perhaps meant a garden or a farmplace. Only later it must have acquired the meaning hill , as in Niila Kiri and soforth. Note also kiirai: the greesn in genral.

64. su-ga> suGka, suGkam; here the price one pays for an abject. Perhaps later it has acquired the meaning of tax as suGka vari etc.

65. mu-un-ku-e-en mun kuuyiyen.; ku> kuuz> kuuy : to eat, sweets : uru-ur-re-en> uriuriyen. uri> urinjcu : suck in


We have already analysed in sufficient details the lines beginning with uru-tus lu-ka in a separate essay and brought out the enormous importance these lines have for detailing the evolutionary developments of Tamil syntax and morphology that provides additional evidences for the claim that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil, an embryonic form that was already well developed to identify it as Archaic Tamil


The above lines also contain references to some agricultural practices that may be historically important. This and many other such detailed references to agricultural practices disclose the fact Suruppak was probably a cultivator, the kizaar and who in addition the priests and kings contributed substantially to the growth and development of what now we know as Hinduism. Here it should be noted that the tradition of kizaars or agriculturalists who economically very powerful were the earliest sociologists and psychologists. T Perhaps o these kizaars go the tradition of scientific analysis of society as distinct from the eschatological of the priestly. The tradition that Tolkaappiyam represents seems to be a continuation of this, as the similarities would make it abundantly clear. In both there seems to be a concern with speech as the essential way of accessing the mind.


Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-3


Let me now come to the third set of Sumerian lines that I have studied carefully and ascertained that the language is Archaic Tamil. Let me mention the lexical grammatical and other linguistic features, the IlakkaNam that tells that the language is Archaic Tamil are ALREADY in the texts and are NOT inventions of mine. I have already studied and ascertained the IDENTITY of the language and in my notes I describe the IlakkaNam that I have noted as those which contributed to my IDENTIFICATION of the language as Archaic Tamil. Anyone who wants to agree or disagree with me, have to study these texts and I can only help in providing the IlakkaNam I have seen. Each has to study carefully to ascertain the same either using the features I Have described or independently. There is nothing PROVING here but only helping out.


This is the validifying feature of Hermeneutic Sciences. Any one who does not make a serious study of the actual texts neither can agree nor disagree.


Now the following lines in addition to serving linguistic demands also disclose philosophical features which continue to this day as part of Dravidian Hinduism and which are NOT available in the Semitic faiths as far as I can see.




I have been pointing out the various kinds of cultural continuities that exist between the Sumerians and the Indians particularly the Dravidians. In this now I want to describe the possible Sumerian origins of the notions of Purusharttas, that in CaGkam literature was known as ARam (dharma) PoruL (economic wealth) and Inbam (happiness). To these three, from about the Bakti period the notion of Viidu or Moksa was added.


The following lines from Suruppaks Neri (which is also mentioned, I think, in Rig Veda) are very significant in connection with this. If this view is acceptable then it would follow that what we call Hinduism today is in fact the continuation of the Sumerian and hence essentially Dravidian.


The most important line in connection with this is the following where the very significant phrase me namnun-na = Ta. mey nunnanam occurs.


The meanings of nirgaL and nig tuk-tuk are quite clear as the root words still survive in Tamil. The nir exists in Tamil as neer (straight) and niir (the proper). Thus the meaning of this is the great (kaL) righteousness and hence what is known now as aRam (the Way) in Tamil and Dharma in Sk.


The phrase nig tuk-tuk i.e. Ta. niga tuukku tuukku, literally carrying or accumulating things or merchandise, makes the meaning quite clear - it is the accumulation of wealth. The word nig occurs in the CaGkam word of nikamam, the shopping center or storehouse. Thus clearly it stands for the later PoruL or Sk artta, properties.


Now against this we have to see the meaning of which can be taken as Ta. kaba. kaL i.e. great heart. This can be either inner strength or joyous heart. If the latter meaning is applicable then, we can see here the beginnings of the concept of Inbam, the Sk kaama.


209. nig tuk-tuk me nam.nun-na ( Authority and possession, strength and aristocracy)


Ta. niirkaL nika tuukutuukku kaavalkaL mey nunnanam ( Standing in righteousness, accumulating wealth and inner strength are the fine and lofty powers( to acquire).



Now some lines in this collection seems to give support for the interpretation of as happiness especially domestic happiness and hence kaama.


Domestic happiness was valued very highly as the following lines would indicate: nig e du-du-u-dam ( Love maintains a family)


Ta. saa.kaaGka nika il toduutam ()





sa.hul.gig nig e gul-gul-lu-dam ( Hatred destroys a family)


Ta. saa.ol.kaikka nika il kolkolutam ( )


Love (> saa.kaama) builds and maintains family while hatred (sa.hul.gig < saa.ol.kaikku) destroys it. These observations make it abundantly clear that domestic happiness was vary valued by Suruppak and hence the heart that rejoices in domestic happiness, the kaama may in fact be the, Ta. kaba.kaL, the great heart.


Now of utmost importance is that these three are called me nam-nun-na i.e. Ta. mey nunnanam where all the root words are still in use in Tamil. The nun-na is the Ta. nuniya; the ones at the very top or Ta. nuNNa; the very fine and subtle. The me is the Ta. mey, meey, moy etc and which means power, truth etc. Thus mey nunnanam are the truths or powers but which are rare and at the very peak and hence desirable as the IDEALS


Thus living according to the RIGHT principles in moral judgments, acquiring wealth and enjoying domestic happiness with LOVE maintaining it were recognized as the BASIC DESRIES of man, the basic impulses that found human existence as such







an.edin-na (kus) ummu he-en-da-dar ( Let the water skin split on the plain)


Ta. aN.eetinna (kushu)ummu iiNdu teri ( In the wide expanse of the plain let the water skin split open)


an.edin-na : Ta. eetil : the outskirts, place outside the local area. See Ta. eetil aaLan : the man from the outskirts. The -a here is the genitive case marker, Ta. - a. We have to see the meaning of an consistent with this. There are many possibilities: Ta. aan, vaan ( sky), aN : place as in av-aN ( there) iv.aN ) here etc. So it appears that here is the Ta. aN. Thus aN.eetinna: in the place in the outskirt or the plain as here.


ummu=summu : Ta. ummu, cummu : to collect together ?


kus: Ta. koosam, Sk koosha : loud noise. Perhaps meaning secondary to the primary meaning of a skin drum.


he-en-da: Ta. iiNdu : then, an adverb of condition? See. iiNdu vantaal : if he then comes


dar Ta. teri to split open, break to pieces.


207. nig e du-du-u-dam ( Love maintains a family)


Ta. saa.kaaGka nika il toduutam () : Ta. kaaGkai : heat, kaaGkam> kaamam : love. The sa which is retained in Sk may have the meaning of feelings or emotions. the feelimng of love. It may be related Ta. saal : good qualities.


du-du-u-dam : Ta. todu.uu.tam : Ta. todu: to raise, build , create etc. The tam is a noun formative retained better in Sk. The -uu- is a sound filler.





sa.hul.gig nig e gul-gul-lu-dam ( Hatred destroys a family)


Ta. saa.ol.kaikka nika il kolkolutam ( )


sa.hul.gig : Ta. ol : evil; See Ta. ollaar ; the enemies.


Ta. kai: bitter in taste, something revolting, undesirable etc.


gul-gul-lu-dam : Ta. kolkolutam. Ta. kol: to kill, destroy; Ta. kulai, kaLai: to disperse


209. nig tuk-tuk me nam.nun-na ( Authority and possession, strength and aristocracy)


Ta. niirkaL nika tuukutuukku kaavalkaL mey nunnanam ( Standing in righteousness, accumulating wealth and inner strength are the fine and lofty powers( to acquire) : Ta. niirkaL: Ta. niir, neer : straight, right, nondevious


tuk.tuk : Ta. tuukuuku ; Ta. tuukku: to carry. Nig tuk.tuk: to carry things, merchandise and hence derivatively accumulate wealth. : Ta. kabam.kal : strong and stone-like heart. The word kabam exists only in derivative sense of the fluid in the chest. Perhaps the original meaning is chest that fits here. Also see Ta. kavuL : the armpits


me nam-nun-na Ta. mey nunnanam: lofty powers, ideals, truths?


nun-na :Ta. nunna(m) : that which fine and lofty; See Ta. nuni : at the very top


210. gu he-en-ne-ni-gal ( You should submit to the authority)


Ta. niirgaLanRa kuuv inneeni kaal ()


gu : Ta. kuuv: to cry, call out, sing etc. From this we have the meaning of throat or neck as here.


he-en-na-ni, he-en-na : Ta. innee, inneeni : immediately; an adverb of time




a.tuku ni-zu he-en-na-si-la ( You should humiliate yourself to the might man)


Ta. aa.toku nii-ju eeNNa sii alai ( You should be stand away from the powerful people)


a.toku : Ta. aaltoku: those who have gathered aal or power


si-la : Ta. cey alai : should waver i.e. shold be frightened




dumu-mu he-en-ne-si-gal-le ( My son, you should be (on guard) against the evil men(?)


Ta. tamu.moo uLuol.kaLanRa iiNNe sii kaallee


Si-gal-le Ta. cey kaavalla? : establish security measures?




Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-5


Dear Friends


I provide now the the 5th sample of Sumerian sentences from En Hudu Anna;'s Sirbiyam ( c. 2200 BC) you also see here the beginnings of what later came to be as NamavaLi. There is the phrase 'he zu am' which later might have become the mantra 'suvaakaa'






Exaltatations of In-Anna Song 15 : 15


122. he-su-he-za-a nanna li-bi-in-du-ga za-a-akam bi-in-du-ga

That one has not recited as "Known! Be it Known!" of Nanna , that one has recited as a "Tis Thine!"

ɡ Ģ ¢ , ¢


123. an-gim mah-a-za he-zu-am

That you are lofty as Heaven-- be it known!

š !


124 ki-gim dagal-la-za he-zu-am

That you are broad as the earth -- be it known!


125. ki-bala-gul-gul-lu-za he-zu-am

That you devastate the rebellious land- be it know !



125a kur-ra gu-de-za he-zu-am

That you roar at the land - be it known!

¢ !


126 sag-gis-ra-ra-za he-zu-am

That you smite the heads- be it known!

ɢ¢ ââ !


127 ur-gim adda ku-za he-zu-am

That you devour cadavers like a dog -- be it known!

â !


128 igi-hus- a-za he-zu-am

That you glance is terrible - be it known!



129 igi-hus-bi il-il(i)-za he-zu-am

That you lift your terrible glance -- be it known!

Ģ !


130 igi-gun-gun-na-za he-zu-am

That your glance s flashing -- be it known!



131. en-na-nu-se-ga-za he-zu-am

That you are ill-disposed towards the .....-- be it known



132. u-ma gub-gub-bu-za he-zu-am

That you attain victory -- be it known!



133. nanna li-bi-in-du-ga za-a-kam bi-in-du-ga

That one has not recited (this) of Nanna, that one has recited it as "Tis thine!"--

ɡ Ģ ¢ ¢


134 nin-mu ib-gu-ul-en asa mah-me-en

(That) Oh my lady, has made you great, you alone are exalted



135. nin-ki-aga-an-na-me-en mir-mir-zu ga-am-du

Oh my lady veloved of An, I have verily recited your fury!


Ȣ Notes


122 he-zu> > ? . Ta. eecu, eettu : to hail


123 an-gim> . š > šɢ: š ; an-gim> vaan-ngin : l;ike the sky. Gin. Gim> a particla of comparison. It exists anow as 'in'


he-zu-am> : () Ǣš; : ; > : ͼ ø, Ǣš; --: Ǣ Ȣ , ̦á ; -> ; am> : :


he-zu-am > Ta. ee cuu aam : let this(ii> ee) be known ( zu=suu> suu-t-tiram) zu=suu> suur. sudar: to shine forth.


124. dagal-la> , , > :

dagal-la> takalla> tavala> tava " braod , big, large etc. The '-a' here is perhaps the "-ai" as in uukkalai etc.


125.a kur-ra> -: ڨ , "" ; gu-de> : "" Ш Ţ


kur-ra > Ta. kunRa . Here '-a' is the Sixth case marker '-a' i.e the locative case marker. gu-de= gu-e-de> kuuyidee/ Here '-e-de" is the aux. verb 'idu' that exists even now as in pooy-v-idu, undu-idu etc.


126. sag-gis> > ɢ: "" Ţ ; ra-ra> â â


sag-gis> saageesu: perhaps here 'isu' is a lost plural marker retained as nuetral singular as in vanticcu, pooccu etc.


ra-ra> aRu aRu. Frequently the intial vowel before 'r' and 'l' are left out in writing but sometimes supplied. See 'eri" and 'ri"


127. ur> â: ; adda> : ; ξ: ; ku> , :


ur> Ta. oori: the wolf adda> Ta. adda: that which has been killed. Perhaps the root is Ta. adi: beat and 'adda' is the nominal participial form


ku> Ta, kuuz: porridge, food.


128. igi-hus-a> ( >) : "" ¢


igi-hus-a > Ta, imai ushNa : burning eyes: Notice the adjectival formant '-a' in hus-a and which is common to C.Tamil and Sk.



129. il-ili> Ģ: ,


il-ili > Ta. iyal-iyali or ezu-ezu-i. Here '-i' may be pronominal marker like in ji-ji-i : they toil



130. gun-gun-na> ̽ : : ͼ. Ȣ '̽' ¡ ġ


gun-gun-na> Ta. kuN-kuNa or kan-kanna : kan. kanal : heat. to heat up , to blaze etc.


131: se-ga> , : Ƣ; en-na-nu = en-na-lu> , :


se-ga> Ta. siikku, sekku : to destry. en-en-nu = en-na=lu : Ta. iina (u) Lu" lowly people.


132. u-ma> : "" ; " " ġ.


u-ma> ? gub-gub-bu> > ţâ Ţ


u-ma> Ta. uumma : the place above? Lofty?



133 za-a-kam> : ; "" ¢ ġ


za-a=ka> Ta. jii-akam : inside you or with you



134. ib-gu-ul-en :ib> Ţ: Ч ý (causative infix) Ţ: " -Ţ etc: gu-ul-en> : ú â , ? ib> > : Ĩ


ib> vi: the causative infix as in koddu-vi etc. It can also be the pronoun 'iv' that may mean 'this world'



135. mir-mir> > > ââ. 'â ɡ" ξ Ƣ ġ.


mir-mir> Ta. maar.maar > maari.maari: rains and storms.



Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-6


As evidences to show that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil, the following lines from Sulgi Hymn B are given. Sulgi is the most famous King of the Third Ur Dynasty and who lived around to the close of the 3rd Millennium BC. With him come to close the productive period of Sumeria literature (c.2000 BC) after which it slowly declined in Sumeria but survived as the language of culture and religion till around 500 BC. Perhaps it was during this period i.e. after 2000 BC the SumeroTamils migrated to many parts of the world and where the bulk of them must have returned to the S.India perhaps the country of their origins in the deep past and with which there was always trade links through the sea route.


These lines are remarkable for containing the extremely impressive and majestic sirbiam mutaribiyam zamibiim and so forth and which can easily pass for Classical Tamil words.


Sulgi Hymn B ( Mutariibiyam)

1. lugal-e mu-ni nig-du-se (The king's name, according to what is becoming)

Ta. uLukaLLee moo-ni niiNdusee

    ٸ  Χ

2. u-su-du inim pa-e ag-de (In order to bring (it) into light , for distant days, by means of the word... )

Ta. u-suudu enem paaye aakkidee


3. Sul-gi lugal Uri-ma-ke (Sulgi's, he king of Ur)

Ta. Sulgi UlukaL uurimmakee

    , ٸ â째

4. a-na za-mi-bi-im kalag-ga-na sir-bi-im (This is the song of his power, this is the hymn of his valor)

Ta. aanna saamiibiyam kaaLaGannaa sirbiyam


5. gal-an-zu nig sag-bi-se e-a-na mu-da-ri-bi-im (Of the wise, in all things foremost, this is the lasting record )

Ta. kalan-suu niga saanbisee eeya

    - Ӿã

6. sa-bal-bal-a egir-u-da inim su a-bal-e-de (In oder to pass down word to the generations of the future )

Ta. saanpaalpaala etiruda enem col iitee


7. kala-ga dumu Nin-sun-ka-ra (For the valiant, the Son of Ninsun )

Ta. kaaLakan tamu Ninsankara


8. gestu egir-ra-bi igi-se mu-un-na-tum ( He (the singer), the deep of wisdom brought for him to the fore )

Ta. kestu egiRrabi imi-see munna tooum


9. a lu-sir-ra di-se mu-un-e (The art of the singer utters unto a declaration )

Ta. aa uLusiira tisee


10. dim-ma nig sag-ga sa-ta DU-a ni-bi i-il-e (And ardently extols in whatever fine thoughts that surge from the heart )

Ta. timma niga saagka saaytta DU-a niibi ii.iyallee

      DU- §

Ȣ. (Lexical Notes)


mu> : , Ҹ ; nig-du> ? mu-na> naamam : .

mu-na> naamam : name fme etc.


u-su-du> : ; > '; > , : , . ޾ ɡ𼡸 , --, --â

inim> - > : ;

u-sudu : the prefix u may be a verbalizer meaning to attain etc. There are Tamil parallels as u-d-kaar( sit down) uc-cari: pronounce, utter.

Inum, enem : words, utterances. The verbal roo is en to say, utter, recite etc. The am appears to be a Noun formative just as in Tamil .See oodu - ooddam ( to run , the running)

pa- e ag-de> 츢: Ħġ  

Here the suffix -e coorseponds to the Ta. accusative case marker ai. Perhaps Su. the TeeRra eekaaram was known as ee while the accusative case maker as the short e and which is available even in col.Tamil . See naaye adi : hit the dog.

Ag-de= aakli-idu-ee> aakkidee : to make. The idu is the Aux verb Ta, idu and ee the TeeRaa eekaaram, the enclitc of emphasis.

4.. a-na> -; : 'za-mi-bi-im> " о; kalag-ga-na> ǡ " Ţ¢ ɸ?; sir-bi-im> : š

a-na: aanna or aal nna: the pronoun he or his power

za-mi-bi-im : zami. Ta,. saami: the term of address of god and saintly persons. The bi-im is Ta, p-piyam as Tolkaap-piyam , a noun formative in relation to texts.

Ka-la-ga > Ta. kaaLakan : one who is strong like a bull. Ta. kalai: bull as well as a brave and powerful person.

Sir-bi-im> Ta, siirbiyam; Ta. siir: sings of praise, to praise as siir aaddal

5. gal-an-zu> -  sag-bi> > : ; e-a-na> : Ǣ ; mu-da-ri-bi-im> Ӿã= -â- -: Ш â ġ .

Gal-an > Ta. kalan ,kalam : something very precious. Words of wisdom are also called thus. See arum-kalam-ceppu> aruGkalac ceepu

Sag-bi> saan-bi Ta. senbi> sembi ; great and foremost.

e-a-na> eeyanna: those which have emerged (ee>Ta. eeku, ee)

mu-da-ri-bi-am> mutu-ari-biyam : that which destroys getting old

6. sa-bal-bal-a> -> â; egir-u-da>  ? : ; -? su-a-bal> -. ?

sa-bal-bal-a > saan paal-paalla> saa paarampariya : people of future generations; bal-a> to cross over; Ta.paala> paara. Paraa-paara> paarampariyam: tradition

7. kala-ga> Ǹ? ĸ? du-mu> : ; Nin-sun-ka-ra>  -->  -? Ƣ , â.

Nin-sun-ka-ra> Nin Sankara: Ta. saGkaran : Siva the desroyer

8. gestu> > > >: :

gestu< ( gis-tu? ) the recitations( tu,du ,dug) of sacred verses(gis, ges), Derivatively divine knowledge. a-gestu-a> akasttiyan, akattiyam: the sage of divine wisdom

9. lu-sir-ra> -> á: ο; di-se>  > : ġ

lu-sir-ra> siira-lu > siiraaL : the one who sings, the singer

di-se? tisee> tisai: diretions

10. dim-ma> ;  nig sag-ga> : ; ni-bi> : ¡; i-il-e> §, ?

dim-ma> Ta. timma: firmly nig > Ta. nika, mika: greatly. Sag-ga> saaGka: lofty . eminent, high and respaetable.

Ni-bi: Ta, nii: sec,person pronoun

i-il-e> Ta. ii iyalee or ii ezuvee. The ii could the pronoun i, ii this, those

Ӿ âǢ Ţ Ƣ ɢ¡ ȡ ɢ. Ƣ Ȣ ȡ. Ţ Ƹ ġ 񸢧ȡ. "" '" "Ӿã"   "-"  Ţ ո. "" ȡ ͧŢ "š,š" Ģ "Ƣ" , "" ȡ Ƣ 츽 ȡ Ţ. "- " ȡ ƨ¡ , Ƣ¢   ȡ. ' " ȡ 󾾡 Ȣȡ.

  "" . (lugal Uri-ma-ke).  ɨ Ƣǡ и. ƢǢ  Ŀ "" . "-" " " ġ. ͧ Ƣ Ǣ Ƣ򧾡 ʧȢ¾ ġ.

ɡ ȡ ⢠Ȣ . ( kala-ga dumu Nin-sun-ka-ra). '" "" â, Ĩ Ȣ. ġ Ȣ "ɢ" ¢ Ȣ . Nin  sun-kar-a  â   ȡ. .  츢 Ȩŧ ȢŨ . ¢ š 'sun-kar-i" â Ȩ ȡ. ţ Ǣ Ħ Ȩ վ

οǡ Ĩ Ũ ú 즸 , 츢 ɸ âЦ Ȣ ɡ վ. "â" Ģ ȡ. (sa-bal-bal-a egir-u-da inim su a-bal-e-de).


Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-7

Historically one of the most interesting text is that of the following lines where practices current to this day are mentioned. Here we have the evidences of school for children , certainly the most outstanding contribution of SumeroTamils for world culture for it an institution that has become a mark of civilized society. Along with this we have also many references to higher academic centers making the notion of Tamil Academy a reality and not just a fiction of a fertile mind. The story of the THREE academies is the closest we have of this historical memory. Soon I shall be publishing a paper showing that whatever the pre-history, the First CaGkam was functioning most probably in Eridu, the City of Fire and where the temple was devoted to EnSi(>EnKi) one of the ancient names for Siva and where was also gestin-anna, all fitting quite well with the legendary account of Nakkiirar in the commentary to the CaGkam classic IRaiyanaar AkapporuL and numerous other texts such as Cilampu and so forth.

Below you will also find the worship of Nishada or Saraswati, a practice that exists to this day in the Tamil schools.


Text : Sulgis Mutariibiyam ( Hymn B)

11. lugal-e lugal-a-ri-a nin-e-tu-ud-me-en (I, the king of royal descent, whom a princess bore )

Ta. UlukaLee uLukaL aariya Ninee todda maan

    ٸ ٸ â

12 Sul-gi-me-en dumu-gi sa-zi-ta nam-dug-tar-ra-me-en (I, Sulgi, the legitimate prince, was allotted  a good destiny, right )from the faithful heart )

Ta. Sulgi maan tamuji saayjitta nAam tuGka taaramaan


13. tur-ra-mu-de e-dub-ba-a-a-am (Since my (very) youth I belonged to the edubba )

Ta. tur-a mutee iltubbaiya aa aam

    - ӧ

14. dub ki-en-gi -ki-uri-ka nam-dub-sar-ra mi-ni-zu ((And) on the tablets of Sumer and Akkad I learnt I learned the art of the scribe )

Tub.u KieeGki kii uuraka tub.usaaRRanam suumini

    ⸠  ڿ  ɢ

15. nam-tur-ra ga-e gin-nam im nu-mu-sar (Of the young, none could write tablets like me)

turanam gaayee aGinnam iiyam naa moo saaR.u


16. nam-dub-sar-ra ki nam-ku-zu-ba lu im-mi-DU.DU (People frequented the place of learning (to acquire) the scribal art )

Ta. tub.usaaRRanam kii naGku suuba uLu DU.DUimmin

    Һڿ  DU.DU

17. zi-zi-i ga-ga sid-nig-sid-de / zag im-mi-til-til (And striving and toiling went through their course in all the science of numbers )

Ta. jii-ji-I kaalkaal cittu nika cittee / saaka tiir.tiir.yimmin

    ŢƢŢƣ    ¢

18 dinger Nidaba sig-ga Nidaba-ke ((as for me) goddess Nidaba, fair faced Nidaba )

Ta. tiGkiL Nidabaa sokka Nidabaakkee

    , 째

19. gestu-gizzal-la su dagal-la ma-ni-in-dug (With a generous hand, provided me with intelligence and wisdom )

Ta. kestu kiiccal suu takala tuukkmannin


20 dub-sar ig-tag-a nig-e nu-dab-be-me-en (Whatever the teacher brought forward, I let nothing go by )

Ta. tub.u.saaRRu iGitaakka nikavee naa tabbuman



11. lu-gal-a-ri-a> ٸ â: â ; > : ; :  .> ; > : â. â : â ռɡ . tu--da> :

lu-gal ari-a> uLukaL aariya: the aariya king. Aar> aal : powerful, energetic. See aal.aal> aaRRal: power,capacity. Also aar> aaram: the sun. The Ariyan is one who has the SUN shining within and because of which very brave and courageous.

Tu-da> todda : who given birth to, shaped etc.

, š츢

12. nam-dug-tar-ra-me-en> ÿ ; ÿ> : , ħ

13. tur-ra-mu-de> - ӧ: > ; : ; e-dub-ba> : Ҹǡ Ǣ θ ؾ ȡ Ǣ; e-dub-ba-a a-am: a: , ̾, Ǣ

tur> Ta. tur: small and metaphorically something despicable. See Ta. turumbu: something small and lean.

E-dub-ba-a : il tubbaiya: Here the -a is clearly the locative case marker as it was in CaGkam Tamil

Mu-de> Ta. mutee, mutalee: adverb of time

14. nam-dub-sar-ra: ڿ: 츨 š . > â: Ţ , â

nam-dub-sar-ra> Ta. tubbu-saaRRu-nam : the art of reading the tablets. SaaRRu: to announce, to tell, relate etc. saaRRan> saattan. Sastry: the teacher, scholar

15. nam-tur-ra> ÿ: 򧾡

nam-tur-ra> Ta.turanam: those who are small or young

16 nam-ku-zu-ba> : ħ

nam-ku-zu-ba: Ta, naGky suuba: in order to learn well. The verbal suffix -ba is an indicator of purpose

17. sid-niga-sid-de> () : ġ ; nig> , ; '" , ȡ ; > Ţ: Ţ: Ȣ

sid> *id> vid> Vittai: knolwdge , unserstanding. Sid-niga-sid: knowledge great knowledge

18. dingir Nidaba> : š; sig-ga> > : Ƹ

dingir Nidaba> Ta. TiGkaL Nidabai, the Goddess of Leraning. Ni-shaba: the Lady of Vac, the Sabtam)

sig-ga> sogga> Ta cokka: beautiful, captivating

19.gestu-gizzal-la> : Ģ Ȣ; > : Ţ


20: ig-tag-a> > = : Ȣ : ; > :  ǡ Ȣ; perceptual understanding; nu-dab-be-me-en: : Ţ

igi> iGi, ibi> Ta. imai: eyes. Tag-a : Ta. taaka : that which attacks or reaches. See porutu aksa> pirattiyaksa: perception, the seeing

na-dab-bu-me-en> naa tabbu man: did not escape. Here we have the earliest mention of Utti that by the Marbaiyal came to be recognized at least 32 of them

Some Additional Comments

âǡ  ǡ š ¢ â󾢨 ,  ȡθǡ þ 츨 â áŢ ɦ ţ  Ţ Ţ׸ 츢. " â"   Ȣ  , ȡ Ȩ Ȣ Ũ¢ "" Ш Ǣš.  "lugal a-ri-a" "ٸ " ¡, "ٸ" '' о. ¡   ɾ , Ȣ . "â" , ͧŢ  "" Ǣ  Ǣ ¢.  ġ- Ҹ ţþ   Ш Ȩħ ҸШ츢ȡ  ŧ . áŨ" â " " " ¢츧, "â  " . "â" ¢.

79. dhammapiiti sukham seti vippasannena cetasaa
    ariyappavedite dhammee sadaa ramati paNdito

    ͸   Ţ
    â ž á ʧ

He who drinks in the law lives happily with a serene mind.
The wise man ever rejoices in the law made known by the elect (or the Aryas)

( Eng Trans by Dr. S.  Radhakrishnan)

ĸǡŢ ¢ ž ¢ θ Ӿ ȡ즸 Ţ ĸ  Ţ¾. Ǣ   , Ч Ӿ Ħġ Ţ¾ ýŢ . Ũ Ƣ¡ ýġ. Ħ 󾧾 "Ţ" ȡ ɡ  Ţ. Ȣ Ȣոȡ.

"" ̨ " ̾" â   ¢. "e-dub-ba" " " , "ʸ " 򾨸 Ǣ . " sid-nig-sid" . ¢ "" " Ţ" ¢ Ȣ Ǣ "Ţ " Ţ. ž ¢ 󾧾 . ȡ żƢ . 'zag" "" . .

- ɢ ġ. -  - ¢ ġ.

Ţ  , ɡ , ǡ " ¢" է 򧾡  š¢  ը š ž. " gestu gizzal" " " , Ģ о,  󨾸 š и!  о " ھ" š , Ģ 츢ȡ .

ġ 츾 , Ģ "' š¡ "ig-tag-a" ȡ . " " " "  "ȢŢ " Ш. ɡ ŧ ¡¢ â ¢ " "  . Ǩ¢   Ǣ 츢 Ƣ Ǣθ.



Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-8

Dear Friends,

You might have noticed that S.N.Kramer in his book The Sumerians, portions of which I am publishing now in Tamil Net and Meykandar mentions a great king of the past --  Utuhegal,  the founder of the Third Ur dynasty , the last dynasty of Sumerian Tamils who ruled Sumer. This dynasty includes  Urnammu and the great Sulgi who was not only just a great warrior but also a mighty scholar and philosopher, almost like the Philosopher-King of Plato. There are many striking parallels between this Ur dynasty and that of the Vira Cholas from the 9th to the 14th cent. who ruled the Tamil country and whose greatest King was Rararaja Chola. It will be very instructive to study the personality of this Chola and that of Sulgi and wherein we can see a lot of parallels. Both of them were not only great warriors but also very devout .  It is well known that Rajaraja was a great Saivite who  built the great Temple of Tanjore which remains to this day as a great Pryramidal Structure singing his glory. While Sulgi in addition to building temples or renovating them also wrote many 'hymns' outstanding for their literary qualities . Rajaraja though did not write literary pieces but  wrote in stones TEMPLES as texts that are lasting to this day telling their own stories for those who can interpret and understand.

I am  providing the following text of Utuhegal, taken from C.J Gadd's  " Sumerian: A Reading Book" (pp65-66) with Tamil renderings  and with my own analytical studies and philological comments and where I offer my own interpretations.  The text is quite long with 63 lines and so I would publish it several installments.


TEXT: Utuhegal

1. *en-lil gu-ti-um-(KI) ( Enlil- Gutium)      mus-gir-har-sag-ga ( the stinging serpent of the hills)

2. lu (who (was)     a-nam-gal-dingi-ri-e-ne ( the enemy of the gods)

3. lu ( who)  nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra(var. sumer-ra) ( the sovereignty of Sumer)  kur-su   (to the mountains)    ba-tum-a(had carried off)

4. ki-en-gi-ra( and Sumer)  nig-a-erim (with enmity)  ne-in-si-a (had filed----)

5. dam-tuk ( (for)  from him that had a wife)      dam-ni ( his wife)  ba-an-da-kar-ra (had been reft away)

1. ģ   ں

2. â¢

3. ͧ ٸ ڧ

4. ͧ â ¢




mus-gir-har-sag-ga= muus-gir-hut-sag-ga > muusu kiir uyar saaGka: the reptile of hill peaks that stings. Muusu> Ta. muuccu: beaked creatures, creatures with protruding faces. See Ta. muukku: nose, Mukam: face. Cf Malay; musang ; a kaind of small dear. Malay: musoh: enemy


a-nam-gal-dingiri-e-ne: anniyamkaL tingirinam: great (kaL) strangers to ( anniyam) to the gods ( dingir-inam). DiGkir> dimmer> diwer> teyvar, teevar. Ena> inam : person plural markar; Ta. ianam: a collectivity which also implies higher quality.


nam-lugal> lugal.nam: here nam is a noun formative and that means essence . It is retained in Tamil as nayam nalam etc. It occurs as nan-nayam in Tol as that which is sought in careful objective studies of the natural- n_an_yayap poruLkooL It is possible that it is this word that become sanskritized and distorted as naiyaayika.

Ki-en-gi : Ta, kiiz EN-ki : the foremost and lofty (eeN) nation or land( ki> Ta. ku,kiiz). However it appears that it was also called Sumer-a and Kaur and which corresponds well with Tamil kumari and its variant Kauri.


nig-a erim : nig-a> Ta. mik-a ; greatly , very intensely. Erim: Ta, eri: fire, heat, anger. Erimu> erim: intense anger. All terms for fire seems to be also for anger. See muni: to burn, to hate with intense anger, urudu;:(flame colored), uruttu : to oppress, uruttiran: the destroyer.

  ne-in-si-a : Ta. nooy sii-in-a : sii: to fill or to give . sii> ii : to give. Ne> nooy: pains, diseases. The -in- appears to be a tense marker See Ta. ini : now, iniyee : from now onwards inRu : today


dam-tuk> Ta. tam-toku: to have acquired (toku) a woman. This means a woman who was n=made a wife through marriage. Thus tuk> toku means also to marry

dam-ni: Ta. tam-nii : here the ni is almost the same as Malay nya a possessive case marker as buku-nya (his book). The na- here could be a contraction of ni-a where the -a is the actual possessive case marker and ni a personal rpnoun that exists even now in Tamil as nii: second person singular.

ba-an-da-kar-ra (had been reft away)> Ta. paNNidu.karai or pantu karai where pantu can be taken as a variant of padu: to suffer.

Kar-ra: Ta. karai ; to remove, draw out etc . Ta. karattal: to milk out, to hide or conceal.



6.  dumu-tuk( and from him that  had a child)   du-mu-ni (his child)  ba-an-da-kar-ra (had been reft away---)

7. nig-a-erim ( and enmity)  nig-a-zi ( and  wickedness)  kalam-ma (in the land)

8. mi-ni-in-gar-ra ( he had set)  ; *en-lil-lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge ( Enlil, the king of the lands)

9. mu-bi  ( his name ) ha-lam-e-de ( to destroy)  * utu-he-gal (Utu-hegal)

10. nitah-kal-ga (the mighty man)  lugal-unu-(KI)-ga (the King of Erech)

6. Ӧ ӫ

7. â Ƣ

8. ɢ. ģ ٸ 째

9. (?)   в

10. : ٸ ۸


6. see above


nig-a-zi : wickedness ; nig-a-zi> Ta. nika-aLhi> mika aLhi; to be very destructive. The azi ( where z is actually retroflex l i.e Lh 0 is probably a derivative of j. aji> azi ( aLhi)

kalam-ma>Ta. kaLam-ma : in the land. This is one of the wards that has come down to us wel preserved in both in meaning and phonetic shape. Here the -a is the locative case marker which is also frequent in CaGkam Tamil


mi-ni-in-gar-ra ( he had set) : Ta. kaalla minin : here the min-in is a third person pronominal infix that exists in CaGkam Tamil as min, minnee, mana etc. ga-ra> kaalla: to establish, set up.

en-lil-lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge : Ta. eeNliil uLukaL kunRa-kunRakkee : Here the case marker ku with the eekaaram ku-ee The ku as noted by Tol is genitive case maker but applicable in CaGkam times only among human beings: arasanukke teevi etc.


ha-lam-e-de ( to destroy) : Ta. kulam idu> kulaittidu ? Also al (to not to be) allam, alam: being absent . alam> halam. The e-de is quite clearly the aux, verb idu which si of very wide occurrence in SumeroTamil

10. nitah-kal-ga (the mighty man)  > Ta. naata kaaLaka;

Naatan : the male, the metaphysical principle underlying masculinity in general. Kal-ga= kal-la-ga> Ta. kaaLakam, kaaLai: the brave young bull.

(to continue) 1


Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-9

Here we have a very interesting expression which a Compound Word very characteristic of Agglutinative languages viz lugal-an-ub-da-limmu-ba ( the king of the four regions) said of Enlil, who was later known as Purusha Vishnu and so forth. The roots of theis compound are : an( vaan:sky), ub( Ta. up- umpar: aboce) da ( Ta.idam: place) limmu( viLimmu: the edge, the limits and ba ( Ta. pa : he, they). All therse independent words are glued together as above to generate a CW that functions grammatically as single word.

More such grammatical features in the lines below:


11. lugal-an-ub-da-limmu-ba ( the king of the four regions)  lugal-dug-ga-na ( the king whose word)

12. nu-gi-gi-da ( is not gainsaid) ;  *en-lil,  (Enlil)  lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge (the king of the lands)

13. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( gave (him) mission).  * inanna-nin-a-bi ( (To ) Inanna, his lady)  mu-na-an-gin (he went)

14. sub ( a prayer)  mu-na-tum (he brought)  : nin-mu ug-me ('My lady, lioness of battle)

15. ku(r)-kur-da( who on the mountains)  du-du (art fair)  * en-lil-li (Enlil)

16. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra ( the soveriegnty of Sumer)  su-ba (into its hand)  gi-gi-de (to restore)

17. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( has given (me) mission);  a-tah-mu (my support)  he-mu ( Be thou)

11. uLukaL vaan-up.u-ida vilimmu-ba uLugaL tuukkana

ٸ š â ŢǢ ٸ

12. naa miiLmiiLida Enliil uLukaL kunRa-kunRakkee

Ǣ; ģ ٸ 째

13. aalbi muntaan aakk.u In-anna Nin-a-bi munnanGiiN

; ɡ

14. ceppu tuumunna Ninmoo ukku meyya


15. kuNru-kunRida tuuttu EnLiilai

Ȣ ģ

16. uLukaL.nam SumerinRa suurba miiLmiiLidee

ͧ ٸ Ǣ

17. aalbi muntaan aakk.u aatavu muu eemmu

muntaan ;

Briefly stated the first 17 lines contain the information that the  war Utuhegal waged was a war of independence, the recovery of the sovereignty of Sumer now taken away from them by the hill tribes, the Gutians. And interestingly it is not a war waged by an individual but rather by Enlil, who later in the Dravidian history became the Purusha and later still Vishnu, the Manifest BEING who discloses only part of Himself and keeps many other parts concealed. Thus it is a war of CULTURE against Unculture, the war of Devas against Asuras as all the righteous wars are. And having realized  this Utuhegal invokes the assistance of Inanna, the KoRRavai, the Goddess of War and who smites the enemies in the battle field, and this Utuhegal is surprisingly close to the Great Cholas Pandiyas and Ceras of Tamil country who always  claimed that they are victorious in the battles they waged  only because they had the Great Woman-Powers  , the Powers of Earth  and Heavens as their consorts.

Let us continue.

Lexical notes:

11. lugal-an-ub-da-limmu-ba ( the king of the four regions)  Ta. ulukaL aan-up-da viLimmuba

an-ub-da> vaan-umparida: the sky (aan, vaan) and the regions above ( upper-ida) to the limits (vilimmu). The -ba stands as genitive indicator as the -ai in Ta. uukkalai etc

lugal-dug-ga-na ( the king whose word) : uluGal tuukku-ana: Ta. tukku: utterance. A-a: his ( ta. aan-a > avan-a )

12. nu-gi-gi-da ( is not gainsaid) > Ta. naa miiL-miiL-idu : Ta. mii, miiL : to exceed . Hence no one exceeding EnlIl as the King of the lands)

*en-lil,  (Enlil)  lugal-ku(r)-kur-ra-ge (the king of the lands) > Ta. uLukaL kunRa-kunRakkee : the case marker ge/kee is the Tamil ku-ee and where ku the fourth case marker can also function as geniive.

13. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( gave (him) mission) > Ta. aabi muntaan aakku: a,aa here is the cuddu a,aa. aabi-(an)> avan.

Mu-da-an> Ta. muntaan: to put forward, to bring about. A verbal participial ( vinai eccam) that completes with the finite verb ag> Ta. aakku: make . This muntaan exists as muntu, munti etc.

inanna-nin-a-bi ( (To ) Inanna, his lady)  > iin-anna Nin a-bi: a-bi=a-ni: a-nin > avanin

mu-na-an-gin (he went) > niiL-munnan : Here while an is third person pronominal infix, the mun may be past tense marker.

14. sub ( a prayer)  > Ta. ceppu: to utter, say

mu-na-tum (he brought)  > munna tUum : to bring out to the front. See tubbu: to split out, tummu: to cough out, tuuvu: to scatter, tuumbu: to extent in front. Malay: tumboh: to grow and hence the vegetations

nin-mu ug-me ('My lady, lioness of battle) . Ta. ukku: to destroy. Also Su. ug.nim: the soldiers, warriors( those who kill and destroy)

15. ku(r)-kur-da( who on the mountains)  du-du (art fair)  * en-lil-li (Enlil)

du-du< dug-dug> Ta. tuti: to praise , tuutu: to tell. Many words like toottiram are derived from this but better preserved in Sk.

16. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra ( the soveriegnty of Sumer)  su-ba (into its hand) 

gi-gi-de (to restore) > Ta. : to return Ta. miil: toreturn

17. a-bi-mu-da-an-ag ( has given (me) mission);  a> Ta. aal :power, aaL: sovereighnty, the right to rule

a-tah-mu (my support)  > Ta. aa-tavu> aataravu: the giving of (tau, taravu) of strength (aal)

he-mu ( Be thou): emmu: to me

Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-10

Dear Friends

In rendering the meanings in relation to Tamil , I have kept to the original sense as far as possible except when there is a better alternative. Now in case you overlook it, I want to draw attention to the following where the structure of the VP, mu-dug resembles so much the Malay VP me-(m)-V>

mu-dug= mu-n-dug> mun.tuukku : Here the mun seems to be a prefix indicating the past tences. In ta. the mun as an independent word means in froint, before, earlier . Mun-kaalam means the earlier times, mun-oor means the ancients etc. Perhaps this contrasts with Su, bi, bi-in i.e Ta. pin meaning later, afterwards etc. Pinnoor means those who come after pr later. The bi/vi is perhaps is the particle of future tense as in kodup-pee-n taru-vee-n etc. In Malay we have me and ber as verbal prefixes but without serving as tenses. They may indicate transitive and intransitive distinctions. saya menutis surat ( I write a letter); Saya ber-diri ( I stood up)

Also in line 32 below we have said about Gilgames :dumu-nin-sun-na-ge  (the son of Nin-sun) : Ta. tamu Ninsun-na-ke . Sulgi also claims to be tamu Ninsun-kar-ra. Obviously the Nin-sun-na and Nin-sunkar-ra is Ta, SaGkari, the Goddess Durga, also the deity of the Vira Cholas. Utuhegal links himself up with the legendary Gigamaes, the Hero of the famous epic.

This seems to link up with the Cholas who also worshiped Durga or Sankari


18 ti-ri-ga-a-an ( Tirigan)  lugal-gu-ti-um (KI)( the king of Gutium)

19 inim-bi ( this word)  [mu-dug/] (has spoken)  lu nu-mu-si-e (" No man is come out (against me)"

20 idigna (The Tigris)   gu-a-a-ba ((and) the shores of the sea)  ne-in-dib (he has barred)

21. sig-su-ki-en-gi-ra ( unto the lower parts of Sumer)   gan (the fields)   ne-kesda (he has barred)

22. igi-nim-su ( unto the upper parts)  gir (the way)   ne-kesda (he has barred)

23. kaskal -kalam-ma-ge (the roads of the country)  u-gid-da  ( long grass)  ne-in-mu (have grown)


18. Tirigaan uLukaL kootiyam

â ٸ

19. enambi muntuukku aaLu naa munsiiyee

[ ]:

20. Idigna kuuval aappa nee adaipp-in


21. siGki sumeeranRa kaaN nee kasda


22. imai nimseey kiir nee kasda

23. katikaal kalamakkee uu niidda niiN mun

째 ¢


Lexical Notes:

18. none

19. 19 inim-bi ( this word)  [mu-dug/] (has spoken)  lu nu-mu-si-e (" No man is come out (against me)"

inim-bi ( this word)  [mu-dug/] (has spoken)  Ta. en: to say, en-am: what is said , the words. The am is still a noun formative in Tamil kutttam, addam , vaddam etc.

mu-dug= mu-n-dug> mun.tuukku : Here the mun seems to be a prefix indicating the past tences. In ta. the mun as an independent word means in froint, before, earlier . Mun-kaalam means the earlier times, mun-oor means the ancients etc. Perhaps this contrasts with Su, bi, bi-in i.e Ta. pin meaning later, afterwards etc. Pinnoor means those who come after pr later. The bi/vi is perhaps is the particle of future tense as in kodup-pee-n taru-vee-n etc. In Malay we have me and ber as verbal prefixes but without serving as tenses. They may indicate transitive and intransitive distinctions. saya menutis surat ( I write a letter); Saya ber-diri ( I stood up)

mu-si-e: Ta. munsiiyee : stand infront ( mun) shining as there(sii). The ee is the Prinillai eekaaram, an enclitic of focus.

20 idigna (The Tigris)  

gu-a-a-ba ((and) the shores of the sea)  : Ta,. kuuval appu-a : kuuval : a deep well. Appu: water : a deep well of fresh waters?

ne-in-dib (he has barred) ; ne< iinee : he kesda> kasdda> kaddu: to bind, block, arrest etc.

21. sig-su-ki-en-gi-ra ( unto the lower parts of Sumer)

sig> sik-il ?

gan (the fields)   : Ta. kaaN,kaaNi, kaN: cultivated lands. KaaNi nilam: agricultural lanf=ds.

22. igi-nim-su ( unto the upper parts) 

nim> Ta. niiv-ar: to rise up; nil: to stand up. Niimma> nim: that which is tall.

gir (the way)  . Ta, kiiRu: to scratch a line, kiir: something that extends like a line.

23. kaskal -kalam-ma-ge (the roads of the country)  u-gid-da  ( long grass)  ne-in-mu (have grown)

kaskal> Ta, katikaal : kati: to move, gallop etc. kaal: something extended , kalam-ma: Ta, kalam : land, country. The -a here is genitive case marker.

u-gid-da  ( long grass)  ; Ta. uu niidda; Ta, uu: something that grows upwards. Gid-da> niidda: tall ,long etc. what is read as g can also be read as n . Probably the original sound is ng

ne-in-mu (have grown) > Ta. nii munin: has grown( mun. muLai) tall ( nii)


24. lugal ( The King) *en-lil-li  (whom Enlil )    a-si-ma (had endowed with might)

25 *inanna  sag-gi-pad-da (the chosen of the heart of Inanna)   *utu-he-gal ((even) Utuhegal)

26. nitah-kal-ga ( the mighty man)   unu-(Ki)-ta (from Erech)   mu-si-e (went forth)

27. e-iskur-ra( The temple of Ishkur)      gis-ne-du (he reached?)

28. dumu-uru-na-ge-ne ( (to) the men of his city)     gu-mu-ne-de-e (he cried0

29. gu-ti-um (KI) ( Gutium)  *en-lil-li ( Enlil)  ma-na-si (has delivered it (into my hands)

30 nin-mu (My lady)     *inanna (Inanna)  a-tah-mu-un ( is my support) . *dumu-zi (Tammuz)

31. ama-usumgal-an-na-ge The sovereign (?) of heaven)   nam-mu (my destiny)  ne-dug (has pronounced).

24. uLukaL eenliillee aal siiyimma

ٸ ģ

25. iin-anna saaGki paartta utu-eekaL

ɡ в

26. niitaah kaaLka uunuta munsiiyee


27. il iisakkunRa kiishnee edu

28. tamu uurunakiinee kuuv mun.iduvee

츢 ¢

29. Kootiyum eeNliille emmana sii


30. Ninmoo iin-anna aataavumun. tamuzi

ɡ Ӄ

31. amma usumkaL vaannakkee naayamoo nee tuukku


32. Gis Gilgames dumu Nin-sun-na-ke


33. maskim-su masiian, tamu uunuvaka

. Ÿ

34. tamu kulaabaka saangki uvall bankaar


35. uurunee aaLu aakagim ejkirnRanee paa av uusu(ooccu)

է ȧ 

36. kaakesda iGipaar-ra sii neesaa


Lexical Notes

24. lugal ( The King) *en-lil-li  (whom Enlil )   

a-si-ma (had endowed with might) ; Ta. aal siiyimma : has given ( sii> ii: ti give) Power( aal: power). This is one of the few passive constructions . Also occurs in Sirbiyam

25 *inanna  sag-gi-pad-da (the chosen of the heart of Inanna)   ; Ta. saaGki paartta or saaGki padda: the one seen by In-anna or the one who has felt the presence.


*utu-he-gal ((even) Utuhegal) . Ta. utu-ee-kaL : the great (kaL0 rising (ee) sun (utu)

26. nitah-kal-ga ( the mighty man)   . Ta, naata kaaLka> naata kaaLai : male bull, a metaphor for a mighty man.

unu-(Ki)-ta (from Erech)   mu-si-e (went forth)

mu-si-e= mus-i-e: Ta. muusiyee : muusu: to protrude, go forward, to fly around etc.

27. e-iskur-ra( The temple of Ishkur)     

gis-ne-du (he reached?) ; Ta. kiiccunee edu: raised his voice? Made speech?

28. dumu-uru-na-ge-ne ( (to) the men of his city)   Ta. tamu uuruna-ku-ina : the people belonging to the uuru, city. The ina <ne, ene is a particle of third person plural. 

gu-mu-ne-de-e (he cried0) Ta. kuuv mun.uduvee : said loudly . kuuv.idu: to call out

29. gu-ti-um (KI) ( Gutium)  *en-lil-li ( Enlil) 

ma-na-si (has delivered it (into my hands) . maa-na sii, emmana sii; sii> ii: to give, donate

30 nin-mu (My lady)     *inanna (Inanna) 

a-tah-mu-un ( is my support) . Ta. aal taavu man : a strong and firm giver(taavu) of support.(aal)

*dumu-zi (Tammuz)

31. ama-usumgal-an-na-ge The soverign (?) of heaven)   . Ta. amma usumkaL vaannakkee: The Lady of the large heavenly dragon . Here the reference is to Kundalini Sakti that comes in the shape of heavenly Dragon, the five hooded Sanke.

nam-mu (my destiny)  . Ta . nanmai : the good destiny

ne-dug (has pronounced). Ta, inee tuukku; she pronounced.

32. *gis-bil-ga-mes ( Gilgamesh)   

dumu-nin-sun-na-ge  (the son of Nin-sun) : Ta. tamu Ninsun-na-ke . Sulgi also claims to be tamu Ninsun-kar-ra. Obviously the Nin-sun-na and Nin-sunkar-ra is Ta, SaGkari, the Goddess Durga, also the deity of the Vira Cholas. Utuhegal links himself up with the legendary Gigamaes, the Hero of the famous epic.

33. maskim-su ( for the protector): ?

ma-an-si ( he has given me) .Ta. maan sii> (a)paan ii

dumu-unu-(KI)-ga (The sons of Erech)

34. dumu-kullab-(KI)-ka (The sons of Kullab) 

sag-hul-la (joy of heart)  Ta. saan uvalla : joy of heart or person

ba-an-gar (was caused (unto them) Ta. baN kaar: was established. Hee the baN appears to be an Aux, verb. Or it could aban kaar: he set up, did etc

35. uru-ni (His city)  

lu-as-gim ( as one man)  . Ta. as> eek.a or aati, ati : the most powerful

egir-ra-ni (behind him)  Ta, etirani: in front of him, as his future

ba-ab-us (pressed) : Ta. baa av ooccu : he proceeded

36. ka-kesda (upon) the King

ka-kesda: Ta. kaa kaadu: the people bound together, organized well into a group - the army

(   igi-bar-ra (glance of their eyes)   . Ta. imai paar-ra i.e imai Paarvai: the seeing (Paarvai) of the eyes( imai)

si-ne-sa (they kept straight). Ta. siineesa> siirnee saal : straight and proper. Ta, siirsaal: straight and proper.


Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-11

Before we go on and subject the text to a detailed linguistic and other kinds of analysis,, we should note some salient features of the text of the above lines  that are highly informative. Though Utuhegal was a mighty man ( nitah-kal-ga) it is stated that he is so not because of his own ego efforts but because of the love of the Gods especially the great Goddess Inanna, the later day KoRRavai and Durga . It is the endearing gaze of Inanna ( *inanna-ge sag-gi-pad-da)  which is another way of putting that it is only because of HER Grace that he is a great hero. And the war of liberation is entered into only because he was ALREADY given to understand that the victory is already his. And this is what he COMMUNICATES and boldly announces to all the people of Sumer, the  groups of young men in the various cities who now accept him as the divinely appointed SOLE leader . They all pressed ahead united under his sole LEADERSHIP with UNDIVIDED LOYALTY. (uru-ni lu-as-gim egir-ra ba-ab-us) . Here we must also mention that the phrase 'ka-kesda" (36) probably means a regiment, with kesda>  kaddu i.e. discipline for only then they can be single minded and have their eyes on nothing else but liberating their country from the barbaric Gutians ( igi-bar-ra si-ne-sa) that they can attain success.

We shall continue now

37. e-iskur-ka (When from the temple of Ishkur)     zi-ga-ni ( he had departed)   u(d)-limmu-kam-ma( on the fourth day)

38. nak-su (id) en-uri-gal-ka ( the ford(?) of the river En-urigal)   gis-ne-du (he reached(?))

39. u(d)-ia-kam-ma (on the fifth day )  bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  (the shirine of Ili-tabba)  gis-ne-du (he reached (?))

40 ur-*nin-a-zu ( Ur-Ninazu)  na-bi-*en-lil (and Nabi-Enlil)

41. sagubi-ti-ra-ga-a-an (the lieutenants of Tirigan)   ki-en-gi-su (unto Sumer)

42. kin-gi-a ( upon (the king's orders) )  im-gi-es (returned)

37. ȸ   ŢǢӸ

38. â 

39.   Ģ

40. Ģ

41. ø 

42. Ǣ

Note: In line 40 we have the occurence of what can turned out to be one of the most important discoveries viz. na-bi *En-lil. The whole sentence should be understood as " Uyar Nin aasu, nabi * eN lil" ( ģ)
Here it may possible the Great Goddess , the KoRRavai and Durga of the ancient Tamils for aasu means power here, another variant of aal from which we have aaRRal, is said the NABI of Enlil, the later day Purusha. The na-bi probably means " aNaibi" i.e she who embraces EnLil and hence makes him really powerful.

Is there any connection between this 'na-bi" and the islamic 'nabi" in the sense of 'messenger?

Lexical Notes:

37. e-iskur-ka (When from the temple of Ishkur)    

e-iskur-ka : Ta, il iisan-kunRu-aka: in the hill temple for iisan . The a-ka is the locative case marker Ta. akam that normally means inside as illakam - inside the house.

zi-ga-ni ( he had departed)   : Ta. celka- ni-e : he (ni-e) departed ( celka) . zi=ji=si> Ta. to go. The -ka could be the Ta. imperative marker ka as in varu-ka, cel-ka etc

u(d)-limmu-kam-ma( on the fourth day) : Ta. uti: the sun rise, Ta, uva: day. The ordinal marker akam-ma exists now as aam-ma as in mutalaamma, irandaamma etc. ilmmu> Ta. viLimmu; the edge, the limit. See Malay lima: five . Perhaps the counting was with the five fingers and the limit was reached with the fifth and hence the Limmu, the limit. It is not clear how it was transferred to the number four. Perhaps a square was used by the Sumerians and fourth side was seen as the limit, the viLimmu?

38. nak-su (id) en-uri-gal-ka ( the ford(?) of the river En-urigal) 

nak-su > Ta. naccu ? (poisonous) Ta. nasukku ( killing) ? Also nakku-su : that which can be drunk and hence clean waters?

Id> Ta. iddu, oodai : river.

En-uri-gal-ka> Ta. eeN uurikaL-akam : inside the great divine city ?

 gis-ne-du (he reached(?)) = gisin-edu > Ta. kiddin-idu ?

39. u(d)-ia-kam-ma (on the fifth day ) 

ia> Ta. ai: five. This still survives to this day.

bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  (the shirine of Ili-tabba) . Ta. pura(m) ili tappu il akam : in the temple of faultless space. Bar> Ta. paal: bright desert-like land. The ili is Ta. ili, il etc the particle of negation.. tab-ba : Ta, tappu: fault

gis-ne-du (he reached (?)) : see above.

40 ur-*nin-a-zu ( Ur-Ninazu)  : Personal name ? meaning uyar Ninnasu the Great Mother Goddess.

na-bi-*en-lil (and Nabi-Enlil) ; perhaps the messenger nabi of Enlil . Ta. navil: to tell, relate etc. Also na-bi> aNaibi : who embraces

41. sagubi-ti-ra-ga-a-an (the lieutenants of Tirigan)  : saan-uba-i : those who are by the side

ki-en-gi-su (unto Sumer) ; Kii eeN kii : the great city. The su could the Ta, ku, the locative case marker that exists ven now as in uurukku and as the ke in Maly as in ke kuala Lumpur: etc.

42. kin-gi-a ( upon (the king's orders) )  : Ta. kaaNgiya : upon seeing or in order to see. Kin> Ta. kaaN: to see

im-gi-es (returned) > Ta, im-miil-isu > miil-im-usu : returned.



Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-12

Dear Friends,

Slightly excited I paused for a while to think further. The word 'na-bi' that we have discovered occurring in line 40, constitutes to me something very interesting that may throw further light on the origins of the Semitic traditions in general and in particular the  Islamic tradition. On second thoughts the sense of 'messenger" is possible if we note that the 'a-zu' could be an ancient form of Ta. aasi: as in 'aasir vaatam" etc i.e. bestowing grace. Nin-a-zu  could be Nin-aasi: the Goddess of all blessings.  Thus "nabi" could be the Power from Enlil who announces or discloses a certain message,  here the return of the lieutenants of Trigaan to Sumer to inspect it on his orders. It is a divine disclosure, a telepathic communication , something that happens in transductive perceptions, a phenomenon akin to dreaming but now understood as lucid dreaming or something like that. This phenomenon and existence guided by such transductive perceptions was the rule in Sumeria, that by which they lived. All the Nabies in Islam or the prophets were also people of such gifts. They prophesized on the basis of such transductive perceptions. While Sumer we have the Female Power Ninazu doing this , in the Semitic tradition it is ascribed to Gibrail. It looks as though while the present world has gone internet, the ancients  had mantra-net with capacity to receive  messages from the Divine Powers once we get logged in . The  mighty warriors like Utuhegal, Urnammu, Sulgi and so forth and later the prophets were the people who could thus get logged in.

In addition to this we have also in support of this interpretation the word 'navil' meaning 'to tell" still in use in Tamil. Hence in this context 'nabi' is the Female Power a Goddess who communicates the WILL of EnLil. We should also recall that Inanna is also said to utter ( du-du) by which is meant acting according to words of An in the Sirbiyam of En Hudu Anna which later probably  gave rise to the notion of Prakiruti, i.e parakaruti, the Transcendental Power  that is active forever autonomously.

The ka-Muru and Mount Meru

Now some additional information are also available here. The Mount Meru, so famous in the Hindu mythologies might have actually been a Hill Temple dedicated to Isa and hence to Siva. This could actually be the famous Ziggurat of the Sumerians that stands quite majestically even today as one of the exemplars of the Afro-Asian pyramidal structures.

With these ideas as something to be thought of further , let us continue.

43. bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  ( When from the shrine of Ili-tabba)  zi-ga-ni (he had departed)

44. u(d)-as-kam-ma ( on the sixth day)  ka-muru-(KI)-ka (ver against Muru)   gis-ne-du (he reached)

45. *iskur-ra (Unto Iskur)  mu-na-an-gin (he went)   sub ( a prayer) mu-na-tum (he bought)

46.  *iskur (Oh Iskur!)  tukul  (the weapon) *en-lil-li ma-an-si (Enlil has given to me)

47. a-tah-mu (my support)   he-me( be thou)--------------

48. erim ( An army)  mu-na-sug (he led out)   *utu-he-gal (Utu-he-gal)

49. nitah-kal-ka (the might man)  UKU.GAN-im-mi-si (smote)

50. sagub-bi (those lieutinanats).  u(d)-ba (on that day)  ti-ri-ga-a-an (Titigan)

51. lugal-gu-ti-um-(KI) (King of gutium)  as-a-ni  (solitary)  gir-ba-da-an-kar(fled away)

43. Ģ

44. ի 

45. ɢ , ()

46. ! и ģ ()

47. : --------

48. â   в

49. : URU.GAN

50. â

51. ٸ

Lexical Notes:

43. bar-i-li-tab-ba-e-ka  ( When from the shrine of Ili-tabba) : Ta. para ili tabbu il-aka : from the lofty temple of no faults. Bar, bara: Ta.para: lofty. Su bara: on raised platform. See Ta. paraN: raised platform tab-ba: Ta . tappu: faults, wrongs. I-li> Ta. ili: a particle of negation, without. e-ka> Ta. il aka: fro the temple

zi-ga-ni (he had departed) : Ta. celka-nii : Here the nii occurs in the sense of he where the primordial meaning is person

44. u(d)-as-kam-ma ( on the sixth day) : already considered.

ka-muru-(KI)-ka (over against Muru) : kaN muru aka = kaN meeru aka : The inside land of Meeru? Could it be that the Muru here is actually the Mount Meru not a mythological thing as in the Indian mythologies but actually a hill-like Temple , the one without faults and really lofty?

gis-ne-du (he reached) = gisin-edu > Ta. kiddin-idu ?

45. *iskur-ra (Unto Iskur)  : Ta. iis. kunRa : the Hill of Isa - the Divine Hill?. Perhaps the Muru described as bar-ili-tabbu, is also iis-kunRu, i.e. the hill of Isan , one of the names of Siva.

mu-na-an-gin (he went) = mu-na-in-gin > Ta. munin.niiL : he departed or went. The -in in mun-in may a tense marker with mun perhaps here the adverbial forward thau the whole phrase meaning he went forward. Ta. mun: in front, forward etc.

sub ( a prayer) : Ta. seppu: to utter, say etc.

mu-na-tum (he bought) ; Ta munna tuuvum : to cast in front and hence to bring forth

46.*iskur (Oh Iskur!) 

tukul  (the weapon): Ta. tukaL : to powder, smash etc

*en-lil-li ma-an-si (Enlil has given to me) . Ta. Enliillee maan sii Ta. sii, ii : to give. Ma-an: Ta. em-aan : to me , This occur in Su,. as he-ma etc.

47. a-tah-mu (my support) : Ta. aa.taavu> aa.taravu: the giving (taa, taravu) of strength(aa, aal)

he-me( be thou): Ta. emme, emma: my , towards me.

48. erim ( An army)  . Ta : those who burn and destroy. Ta. eri: fire, to burn and scorch

mu-na-sug (he led out)  Ta. munna uukku :   led forward. Sug=suugu> Ta. uukku : to urge forward.

*utu-he-gal (Utu-he-gal)

49. nitah-kal-ka (the might man)  UKU.GAN-im-mi-si (smote)

50. sagub-bi (those lieutinants).  u(d)-ba (on that day)  ti-ri-ga-a-an (Titigan)

51. lugal-gu-ti-um-(KI) (King of gutium) 

as-a-ni  (solitary)  > Ta. asaa.nee : already obsolete in Tamil but retained in Rigkrit as asninee etc.

gir-ba-da-an-kar(fled away) ; Ta. kiir paddaan kaar > kaar.paddan kiir: with his legs( kiir) he became unavailable ( kaar paddaan )

Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-13

On reading this epigraph of the campaign of Utuhegal, one gets the impression that one is reading a mythological tale such as those in Ramayana, KanthapuraNam , Theevi Makaamityam etc where the Great Gods wage battles with the Asuras and save the world. Here the campaign is that of a man Utuhegal but he is just an  instrument in the hands of the great Gods EnLil , Inanna and so forth. When the evil forces take control over the good and breeds unculture and barbarism  the divine forces wake up  , take possession of a particular man and people and make them battle fiercely against the forces of evil. This may be true all the time but while the Sumerians knew and were conscious of it, and hence their heroes really humble,  we moderns have lost that capacity and hence also the humility. We think battles and wars are purely economical and remain  blind to the moral issues involved. I am mentioning this so that the deito-historicism of the ancient Sumerians and which was NOT  lost with all the great Kings of Tamil Nadu should  be something that we  recall and bring to bear upon the current issues as well. The major struggles in the world are basically ethical, wars of Dharma against Adharma.

With this we come to the final portion of this text.

52. ki-zi-ni ( (His stronghold)     ba-da-an-kar-ra (where he had fled)

53. dub-ru-um-(KI)-ma( in Dubrum)  ba-an-sag (he was welcomed)

54. lu-dub-ru-um-ma-ge( (but) the men of Dubrum)     *utu-he-gal ([seeing that] Utuhegal)

55. bar lugal ( the king)    *en-lil-li  (by Enlil)     a-si-ma (endowed with strength)

56. i-me-a ( was)    i-zu-a-ge-es (because they knew [this])

57. ti-ri-ga-a-an-ra ( to Tirigan)     su-nu-ni-ba (their hand gave not)

58. (lu)kin-gi-a-utu-he-gal (The messenger of Utuhegal)

59. ti-ri-ga-a-an( Tirigan)      u  (and)   dam-dumu-ni (his wife and children)

60. dub-ru-um-ma mu-ni-dib -------( in Dubrum captured)

61 *utu-he-gal mu-dur  (Utuhegal sat down).     gir-ni-su (At his feet)

62. mu-nad (he (Tirigan) lay;     gu-na Upon his neck)  giir-ne-gub (he set his foot)

63. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra (The sovereignty of Sumer)  su-ba ( into his hand)  im-mi-gi (he restored)

52. ŧ

53. ()

54. 째

55. ٸ Ģ ¢

56. .     째¢

57. â 

58. в

59. â ӧ

60.   ӧɫ----------------

61.  в . â

62. ; â

63. ٸ ͧ ݫ

The text is concluded. 

Lexical Notes:

52. ki-zi-ni ( (His stronghold) : Ta. kiizjiini: the place of life and hence the stronghold

ba-da-an-kar-ra (where he had fled) : Ta paddaan karai: enjoyed(paddaan) being unknown to others (karai). Here the paddaan is a passive marker like Ta. kollap paddaan : was killed etc. The kar-ra is related to Ta. karappu: being secretive, concealing oneself etc.

53. dub-ru-um-(KI)-ma( in Dubrum)  : Ta. Tuppu urUum-a :Here the -a is a locative case marker

ba-an-sag (he was welcomed) ; Ta. abaan saaGki : he was praised. The word sag taken as saaGki; can also mean received as the head, the leader

54. lu-dub-ru-um-ma-ge( (but) the men of Dubrum)   : Ta. uLu  tubrUummakkee : those who the people to city of Dubrum. Here we have double case markers - the a as the Locative and ke the geneitive which exists as Ta. ku, the fourth case marker.

*utu-he-gal ([seeing that] Utuhegal)

55. bar lugal ( the king) : Ta. peer ulukaL : great(bar, peer) king (uLukaL)

  *en-lil-li  (by Enlil)    

a-si-ma (endowed with strength) Ta. aal siiyimma: given (sii> ii) strength ( aal ) by Enlil. This is also a passive construction. The same construction also occurs in Sirbiyam 14: an-ne me-si-ma : given power by An. The me(y) and aa(l) are comparable in meaning.

56. i-me-a ( was)   : Ta. ii meyya: this is the truth

i-zu-a-ge-es (because they knew [this]) ; Ta. ii cuuvake isu: this they knew. Here es, isu stands as person plural marker but which in later time degenerated into non-person singular marker as maadu vanti-c-cu etc.

57. ti-ri-ga-a-an-ra ( to Tirigan) : Ta, tirigaan-Ra : the Ra here and which is equivalent to da still is in use in some dialects. E.g avanRa viidu : his house etc.   

su-nu-ni-ba (their hand gave not) : Ta. suur naa niiLba : did extend their hands. The ba is third plural person marker well attested in CaGkam Tamil as en-ba, varu-ba etc.

58. (lu)kin-gi-a-utu-he-gal (The messenger of Utuhegal) : Ta. uLu kaaNkiya Utuhegal : the spy of Utuhegal; kaaNkiya: the one who sees

59. ti-ri-ga-a-an( Tirigan)      u  (and)   dam-dumu-ni (his wife and children) : Ta. Tirugaan um tam-tamu-ni : the u here is conjuctive particle from Ta, um with the same function is derived. The root is sum ( um: to unite with). This is also the root of Sk sa : sum> sam: sa

60. dub-ru-um-ma mu-ni-dib -------( in Dubrum captured) ; Ta. tubrUumma munee adaippu. The mu-ni appears to third person plural marker meaning they

61 *utu-he-gal mu-dur  (Utuhegal sat down) Ta. utueekaL muntuRai. Ta. tuRai> uRai : to rest, to live etc.

gir-ni-su (At his feet) ; Ta. kiir-nii-su : Ta,. kiir, ukir: feet, fingers

62. mu-nad (he (Tirigan) lay Ta. moo naadu : he sought   . Seeking the FEET and touching it constitutes submission. This habit still continues among the Tamils.  

gu-na (Upon his neck)  : Ta. kuuvana: upon his throat. The kuuv from the primary meaning to call, shout etc has come also the throat where the vocal cords are. Also see Ta. kavuL: the armpits.

gir-ne-gub (he set his foot) : kiirnee kuppu . he piled up his feet. Ta, kuvi: to pile up

63. nam-lugal-ki-en-gi-ra (The sovereignty of Sumer)  : Ta. uLukaL-nam kiiz eeNkinRa : the kingship of Sumer

su-ba ( into his hand) : Ta. suur-ba : into his hands. The ba here is third person singular

im-mi-gi (he restored). Ta. miiL.yimmi : returned.


Sumerian as Archaic Tamil-14

Dear Friends

With apologies for the length I am offering the ninth hymn of Kes Temple Hymn of Enhudu Anna certainly historically one of the most important , a hymn of only 14 lines but which shows that Dravidian culture was already well formed even by 2300 BC or so , the time this hymn was written. We can dismiss as utter nonsense the view of some that Tamil culture has Vedic roots where as a matter of it is the other way around. Vedism is an offshoot of Tamil culture just as much as Rigkrit and Sanskrit are transformations of Tamil and hence languages that do not have independent origins. It is the prevailing Aryanism that blinds the scholars towards this truth and I hope these texts that I am providing will serve to explode this well entrenched myth.

The culture TEMPLE that lasts to this also has important insights about Depth Psychology and I bring out these notions in the analysis of the hymn I have added.



Kes temple Hymns-9

Gregg , who has done this marvelous job of presenting the kes Temple Hymns, includes as an appendix this philosophically and historically very illuminating hymn with the note that this is included "between the third and fourth stropes of the main text".

I shall render it here as the 9th hymn.

1.  [e ..] ni-gal si-ri an-ne mu-mah sa (Temple .... inspiring great awe, called with a mighty name by An)

*Ta. [il...]niikaL ciri ANNee moo mah col ( Temple.. greatly awe inspiring, brilliant and called with a great name by AN Himself)

(  ni Ta. nii: to stand tall and great, see nimir nivar etc.; si-ri Ta. cii, ciir , Sk sri , mah Ta. maa, mahaa Sk. mahaa; sa Ta. col: to say, call)

2. [e...ku]r-gal (d)en-lil-le nam-man-ni gal tar-re ( Temple ... whose fate is grandly determined by the great mountain Enlil)

* [il... kun]Ru-kaL eenliillee  naamannee  kaal tarree ( Temple , standing like a great mountain, and whose fame is given to be there by Enlil Himself)

( nam-man Ta. naamam: fame (retained in Sk. naamam: name and fame); gal tar-re Ta. kaal taru-ee: giving there to be )

3. a-nun-gal (d) a-nun-ke-ne un galga sum-mu  (Temple of the Anunna-gods possessing great power, which gives wisdom to the people)

*Ta. aal nunkaal aanunnaki ina un kalka cummu ( Temple of the heavenly beings with great power and who help people attain uplifting education)

a-nun-gal Ta. aal nun kaL ; un Ta. un : uplifting  as in un-natam; galga Ta. kalvi : education. sum-mu Ta. ummu: to conjoin)

4. e ki-tus-ni-dub-bu dingir-gal-e-ne  (Temple  dwelling place of repose of the great gods)

*Ta. il kiiz tunjcu nii tuppu  tingkir kaLine ( Temple the place the great deities repose and dine greatly)

( tus Ta. tunjcu: to repose dub-bu Ta. tuppu: to eat, food)

5. e an-ki-bi-da gis-hur-bi i-hur me-sikil su-ba-e-[I?]  ( Temple , which sketches the outlines of heaven and earth ...... with the pure me)

*Ta. il vaankiizbiyida kicuvaribi iivari mey sukkila cubavee- [I?]

( an-ki Ta. vaan kiiz: the sky and the earth;  hur Ta. uru, vari , varai: to sketch, form etc.; me Ta. mey: truth or the real things, the realities; sikil  Ta. cukkilam: white, pure (Sk suklam)

6.e kalam ki-gar-ra zag-zag-ra us-sa (Temple , which founds the country, which supports the shrine)

*Ta. il kalam kiiz-kaara caaka-caakai(n)Ra ucciya ( Temple brought down to the earth and with branches shrines at the top)

kalam Ta. kalam: land; ki-ga-ra Ta. kiiz kaarra, kiiz kaalla; zag=jag Ta. caakai: branches; us-sa Ta. ucciya: at the top)

7. e kur-he-gal giri-zal u-zal-zal-le ( Temple, mountain of abundance which passes the days in delight)

*Ta. il kunRu eekaL  kirisaal uu caalcaalle ( Temple , mountain of abundance, with abundance of vegetation where the food crops grow luxuriantly)

(he-gal Ta. eekaL: lofty and great;  giri Ta. kiirai: vegetation esp. creepers?; zal Ta. caal : great as in caalbu; Also note Ta. calam: water )

8. e (d) nin-hur-sag-ga  zi-kalam ki-bi-se gar ( Temple of Ninhursag, which restores the life of the land)

*Ta. il Ninoorsaangka jii kalam kizbisee kaal ( Temple of Ninhursag,  which establishes the life of the nation)

9. e hur-sag-gal su-luh-ha tum-ma nig-nam-ma-ni i-kur (Temple , great mountain worthy of the purification rites, renewing? all things)

*Ta. il oorcaangi kaL cuulooka tumma niganamanee ii kuuRu ( Temple rising like a great mountain where all people together recite the verses loudly )

( su-luh-ha Ta, culookam: verses recited ( retained as Sk. sloka), tum Ta. tummu: to eject out; kur Ta. kuuRu : say , utter etc.)

10.  e e-ne-da-nu ka-as-bar nu -ga-ga ( Temple, without whom no court decisions are made)

*Ta. il eeneeyida  nuul kaacu paRai naa gaal gaal ( Temple without which decisions are not announced)

( e-ne Ta. iinee: deictic 'this';  nu Ta. nuul: text , written judgments? ka-as Ta. kattu: to shout? bar Ta. paRai: to announce?)

11. e[    d]u kalam-dagal su la-a ( Temple, good ..... carrying in its hands the wide country)

*Ta. il... uu kalam takal cuur alaiya ( Temple, great.... carrying on its hands the wide country)

( dagal Ta. takal> taval: very large; la Ta. alai or izai: to wear)

12. e  un-sar u-tu numun (gis) isimu TUK.TUK  ( Temple, which gives birth to countless peoples, seed which has sprouts)

*Ta.  il uuN  carva utu numuL iicimuu TUK.TUK ( Temple , which generates food for all with seeds that sprout.. )

( un- Ta. uN: food ; sar Ta. carva (retained in Sk. sarvam; u-tu Ta. uti: to arise, emerge ; numun Ta. muLai: sprout ; i Ta. ii: to give, Ta. iin: to give birth)

13. [e]lugal u-tu nam-kalam-ma tar-re ( Temple , which gives birth to kings, which determines the fate of the land)

* Ta. il uLukaL utu naam kalamma taaree ( Temple that shapes (good)  kings and gives well-being for the nation)

( nam Ta. nayam, nayam: good ; tar-re Ta. taru: to give)

14 [e] bara-bara-bi su-kin-dib-be aka-de  ( Temple, whose royal personages are to be revered--)

* Ta. il paraparabi cuukaan tippee akattee  (Temple , whose lasting for generations in good shape has strong interiors)

bara-bara Ta. paramparai, paarampariyam : lasting for generations; su-kin Ta. cukam; in good shape; dib-be Ta. tippee, tuppee: strongly)

15-17 : refrain

18 [  ] -kam-ma-am  ( the [...] th temple

* Ta. [....] kaamma aam ( The [..] temple hymn)

Analysis of the Ninth Hymn

We have seen Agamism, being temple centered is INDESTRUCTIBLE because it hinges on the reality of the mantra-world , the world that is always there   and which is populated by the archetypes, the Attikaayam of the Jains , the invisible realities, the gods, the celestial beings. Everything in the world can be destroyed but the mantra-world remains indestructible  just as the cyber world will be there even if the computers are destroyed. The mantra-world is the universe of BEING, the Paraparan, He who stands absolutely transcendent to even the mantra-world but stands within as the Dancer, the Pancakritiyan. the stage director of the various plays that we call the phenomenal world. This BEING was called An by the Sumerians , a name still retained in CaGkam Literature in terms of   aaN and retained to this day as the aaNdavan, aaNdakai etc.

The Temple as mantra-body

The Keeci temple and hence all temples are lowered by An and this notion  is repeated in several places in this collection of Hymns and the following line is one of them.

6.e kalam ki-gar-ra zag-zag-ra us-sa (Temple , which founds the country, which supports the shrine)

*Ta. il kalam kiiz-kaara caaka-caakai(n)Ra ucciya ( Temple brought down to the earth and with branch shrines at the top)

(kalam Ta. kalam: land; ki-ga-ra Ta. kiiz kaarra, kiiz kaalla; zag=jag Ta. caakai: branches; us-sa Ta. ucciya: at the top)

The phrase 'e kalam ki-gar-ra" is still recognizably good Tamil : il kalam kiiz -kaalla; temple brought down to the earth.
This notion is repeated in the Theevaram Corpus also and Cambantar talks of 'viNNizi kooyil" in one his pathikams on Sirkaazi,  the koyil that has come down from the heavens. \

Note: zag-zag-ra could be Ta, sakam-sakanRa: on the worlds of people

When Thirumular says that a temple is mantra-body, it is an elucidation of a meaning of what  a temple is,  implicit already in this understanding of what is a temple, what kind of reality it is. And it prospers only when it is  blessed by EnLil, or Thirumaal , BEING as He who is manifest and present as the World and hence the Lord of the manifest Universe, the Purusha with thousand faces and so forth.

1.  [e ..] ni-gal si-ri an-ne mu-mah sa (Temple .... inspiring great awe, called with a mighty name by An)

*Ta. [il...]niikaL ciri ANNee moo mah col ( Temple.. greatly awe inspiring, brilliant and called with a great name by AN Himself)

(  ni Ta. nii: to stand tall and great, see nimir nivar etc.; si-ri Ta. cii, ciir , Sk sri , mah Ta. maa, mahaa Sk. mahaa; sa Ta. col: to say, call)

2. [e...ku]r-gal (d)en-lil-le nam-man-ni gal tar-re ( Temple ... whose fate is grandly determined by the great mountain Enlil)

* [il... kun]Ru-kaL eenliillee  naamannee  kaal tarree ( Temple , standing like a great mountain, and whose fame is given to be there by Enlil Himself)

( nam-man Ta. naamam: fame (retained in Sk. naamam: name and fame); gal tar-re Ta. kaal taru-ee: giving there to be )

We see in these lines words like 'namman" "mah" and so forth which are retained better in Sk than in Tamil. The phrase 'gal tar-re' (Ta. kaal taaree) is also very important for it shows that the word Ta. tarumam ( Sk Dharma,  Pali. Dhamma), is  ancient Tamil and it means  "being given" , the given-ness of whatever man is. The 'kaal tarree" is given there to be  an element of reality, of there-being.

And this on further elucidation also means everything that is , including whatever goodness man enjoys is a Tarumam, a Dharma from the BEING, a blessing , an aruL of BEING.

Who Are the real Agents?

It is from the Sumerian  literature on Temple building  that it is known that ,  it is an activity which unlike others are effected by man but directed by the divine forces through dream-like states of transductive perceptions , the mamu of Gudya Cylinder. The divine  forces , always there, erupt into human consciousness , take over their psychic functioning ( related to the phenomena of possession) and dictates how the temple must be built and so forth. And from this emerges , when this aspect of being-there was recovered during the bakthi period,  the notion of "aadduvittaal aar oruvar aadaathaaree" so ably put by Appar and which delineates the essence of bakthi and humility it breeds: who can resist being played if played by BEING?

Such realities also gives arise to another philosophically important notion, also articulated by Appar: 'kaaNbaar aar kaNNutal kaaddaakkaalee" : who can see if not shown by BEING?,   the  notion that underlies the concept of TRUTH in Meykandar's Civanjanabotham. There is seeing only  because there is showing and when the seeing is such that,  that which shown is seen exactly as shown then the feeling that it is TRUTH is also feed into the understanding and in this way BEING takes man towards Absolute Understanding, the Civanjaanam.

Here we must note something important in connection with the birth of descriptive terms. Many concepts  may already be present IMPLICITLY or tacitly  at an earlier stage and only much later that such notions may appropriated linguistically and hence made an element of conscious prehension. And in this process words of an alien language may be used or even speakers of that language , after getting into the system , may through acts of reflection coin words in their language. This may be case with  Sanskrit ( though I don't think it is an alien language) where some new words might have been coined but articulating notions already implicit in the Agamism of Temple culture.  But such a phenomena cannot be used to make the people  who provided the original intuitions indebted to Sk and equating this with the Aryan and so forth turn it into a weapon of a war game in which racial superiority is proclaimed.

This hymn points out an interesting example.  There is a term 'e-ko" which is retained in Tamil as Koo-il to this day and for which Aryan parentage has not been claimed, as far as I know. But this is not the case with Yoga ( which I think is derived from Su. uz: to plough, to pierce)  . However in this hymn we have the use of the word en-kum-ene as in the following line

112. enkum-e-ne ara ki am-ma-gal-le-es ( The enkum bowed down in prayer)

The enkum-e-ne , on second thoughts may actually be Ta. eeNkamminee, those who practice SILENCE, kam enRu iruttal, requiring a special room , ara Ta. aRai for this . This shows that the practice of Dhyana , samaathi kuudal and so forth and hence Yoga as such was already there as a practice within a Temple and hence a kind of religious practice fostered within the temple. This makes us understand why temple activities are classified as Cariyai Kriyai Yokam and Njanam with a evolutionary order between them beginning with Cariyai, the ritualistic.

Now just because the word Yoga may be Sk, it does NOT follow that the whole discipline was that of Aryan folks and who intoduced it to the Dravidian folks after conquering them and driving them to the South and by way culturing them!

The Temple as Heaven on Earth

We have seen that the Temple is an unusual structure for it is not something that man erects for his needs but something that is  lowered by An himself as a way of being with the people. Thus the presence  of the temple shows that the God is with them regulating their earthly life, the political and economic, settling the disputes punishing the erring individuals and rewarding the non-erring and so forth. The court house was located at the gates of the temples.  God is NOT a white bearded grant Old Man somewhere in the sky but rather someone actively present in the world and regulating everything in life with His invisible presence. The temple is 'il-koo' or koo-il, the house of the God and therefore quite different from all else. And furthermore it is the place where the gods are present, a locale populated by the divine beings and thus the heaven brought to earth. This notion emerges in the following lines.

104. e-kes-ku KU-bi e-nun) (The holy Kes temple, whose .... is the princely temple)

* Ta. il keeci KU-bi il nun  (The holy Keeci temple (inside which?) a shrine of excellence)

105. e en-bi (d) a-nun-na-mes ( The temple , whose lords are the Anunna-gods)

*Ta. il ENbi  vaanunnaa meeyiccu ( The temple whose ruler are the heavenly beings)

( en Ta. eeN> veeN> veeL: lord, ruler etc. . veeL> veeLir: the kings of the ancient Tamil kingdoms.  a-nun-na> Ta. vaan-nunna: the beings concealed in the skies and hence the heavenly beings, the gods who are there with the invisible mantra-bodies; me-s, me-es Ta. -icu, iccu  etc. Now a singular  marker of the non person  gender as vanticcu , pooniccu etc. Also for the feminine  gender)

The heavenly beings are 'anun-na-ene' i.e. vaan nunna inam, mantrabodies remaining as the hidden realities in space and showing themselves as there in the temple. As Thirumular says because of this the temple is a mantra-body, the 'mantrat tirumeeni' as are also the heavenly beings, imperceptible to naked eyes but  very much available for vision when the Third Eye opens and transductive perceptions become possible.

It also shows that while for the njanies with the Third Open, the whole wide world becomes a Temple,  but for the ordinary individuals the Temple becomes the model and evidence of the reality of the heavenly world. And each time he enters it and participates fully in the rituals there , he gets transposed to the heavenly world and thereby purified.  The temple becomes the take-off point for an odyssey into the heavenly world.

The Temple and Economic Well Being

And because of this the very presence of the Temple and it being well maintained with festivals and so forth is also a way of getting the grace of the gods and attain the 'uru-sub-a' , the national well being which certainly includes economic well being and in those days measured in terms of good harvests.

7. e kur-he-gal giri-zal u-zal-zal-le ( Temple, mountain of abundance which passes the days in delight)

*Ta. il kunRu eekaL  kirisaal uu caalcaalle ( Temple , mountain of abundance, with abundance of vegetation where the food crops grow luxuriantly)

(he-gal Ta. eekaL: lofty and great;  giri Ta. kiirai: vegetation esp. creepers?; zal Ta. caal : great as in caalbu; Also note Ta. calam: water )

8. e (d) nin-hur-sag-ga  zi-kalam ki-bi-se gar ( Temple of Ninhursag, which restores the life of the land)

*Ta. il Ninoorsaangka jii kalam kizbisee kaal ( Temple of Ninhursag,  which establishes the life of the nation)

Me must notice here the WOMAN, the Ninhursag is being described as the Power that restores the life of the nation. The MOTHER or the WOMAN is the ground of regeneration, or renewal and by implication the MALE or FATHER the POWER that destroys and hence together , the Ammai-Appar the Source of destruction and regeneration, the Civa-cakthi. These lines also show that the understanding of BEING as such is essentially in the context of agrarian practices, that of harvesting , replanting and enjoying another good harvest and so forth and the continuation of life along these lines. The presence of the gods especially the WOMAN, the Ninhursag is that which makes the crops grow well and make the whole landscape luxuriant. The Earth is the  Woman for it is that which  allows the luxuriant growth of the vegetation and thereby make the hill 'giri-zal" , the mountain of abundance.

The Psychological Function of the Temple

The last few lines are quite interesting from another point of view.

12. e  un-sar u-tu numun (gis) isimu TUK.TUK  ( Temple, which gives birth to countless peoples, seed which has sprouts)

*Ta.  il uuN  carva utu numuL iicimuu TUK.TUK ( Temple , which generates food for all with seeds that sprout.. )

( un- Ta. uN: food ; sar Ta. carva (retained in Sk. sarvam; u-tu Ta. uti: to arise, emerge ; numun Ta. muLai: sprout ; i Ta. ii: to give, Ta. iin: to give birth)

13. [e]lugal u-tu nam-kalam-ma tar-re ( Temple , which gives birth to kings, which determines the fate of the land)

* Ta. il uLukaL utu naam kalamma taaree ( Temple that shapes (good)  kings and gives well-being for the nation)

( nam Ta. nayam, nayam: good ; tar-re Ta. taru: to give)

It is here that we locate the psychological function of the temples. The temple is not simply the location where the productive processes or the gods of these productive processes are located  --- it is also the place where great leaders are shaped and thereby good leadership is given to the nation. The Temple has  a therapeutic function, which we saw was mixed up exorcism of a kind, the function of the Lahamas but here it is mentioned that it not only cures the soul of the mental diseases but also creates outstanding leadership and thereby the nation being taken along the path of prosperity.

So here  is an interesting understanding of the  shape of good politics -- it hinges not on  institutions per se but rather on the quality of the leadership that comes to prevail. And this is NOT a matter of birth, is NOT something that one comes to have because of being born into a family but rather something accrues to one as the GIFT of the Gods , who inhabit the temples.

Now in view of this this it is NOT surprising that all great Tamil kings were great temple builders and this right from the Sumerian times. One becomes a great leader only because of the Grace of Gods and in recognition of this temples are erected as a way of expressing their gratitude.