Make your own free website on Tripod.com
 

Kes Temple Hymns 5-8



Kes Temple Hymns  The Fifth Hymn

74 e pirig u-tu sa-bi ur-sag su-du ( Temple borne by a lion, whose interior the hero has emblished)

*Ta. il piri ootu caaybi oorsaan cuudu ( Temple guarded by the Tiger and inside which the Hero attains)
( pirig Ta. pili, puli : tiger ( piri>pili, puli: the stripped creature), su-du Ta. cuudu: to wear as the crown etc; u-tu Ta. ootu, oombu : to guard)

75. e kes pirig u-tu sa-bi ur-sag su-du ( Kes temple, borne by a lion, whose interior the hero has emblished)
*Ta. il Keeci pili ootu caaybi oorsaan cuudu( Keeci temple guarded by the Tiger and inside which the Hero attains)

76. sa-bi ur-sag-ur-sag-e-ne si-mu-un-nin si-sa  ( Into its interior the heroes go straight-way)
*Ta. caaybi oorsaan-oorsaan-y-inee  cii munnin ceycel ( Into its interior the heroes go straight -way)

77. nin-hur-sag-ga usum-gal-am sa im-mi-in-tus ( Ninhursag, like a great dragon, sits (in its) interior)
*Ta. Nin kuRcaangka ucumgaL aam, caay immin-tunjcu  (The Lady of the Mounatain Peak, like a great Snake, lies inside)
(usum-gal Ta. ucumgaL : the great creature that hisses; tus Ta. tucu,  tunjcu: to lie down, sleep etc)

78. (d) nin-tu-ra ama-gal-la tu-tu mu-un-ga-ga ( Nintu, the great mother, has brought about its birth)
* Ta. Nintuu(n)Ra ammaakaLLa tuti munkaal-kaal ( Nintuu, the great Mother , has established her praises (or functions))
( tu-tu Ta. tuti : to praise. Also toottiram (>Sk. stotra)

79. sul-pa-e-a ensi-ke nam-en mu-un-ab-e (?) ( Sulpae, the ruler ........lordship)
*Ta. cuulpaal eeya eeNcikkee eeNnam mun abaiyee ( To Sulpaea, the ruler, rulership she has announced)
( sul -pa-e-a Ta. cuul-paal-ee-a : the trident with radiating light; en Ta. eeN (veeN> veeL) : ruler ; ensi Ta. eeNcii (ci=ji)
ab-e Ta. abaiyee:  announced)

80. as-sir ur-sag mezem mu-un-ku-e ( Assir, the hero consumes ...)
* Ta. acuur oorsaan misam munkuuyee ( Acuur, the hero consumes flesh)
( as-sir Ta. acuur: the very brave; mezem Ta. misam: flesh as in maa-misam: the flesh of the animals)

81.  (d) uru-mas nimgir-gal-eden-na mu-un-da-an-ti(?) (Urumas, the great herald of the plains .....)
*Ta.  uurumaa nimkirikaL eetinna muntaan-til ( Urumaa, of the great highpeaks of the outskirts brings about living well)
( uru-mas Ta. uurumaan, uurumaadu : the bull or stag  that moves fast?  nimkir-gal  Ta. nim-kiri-kaL; nim: to stand erect and high and hence steep, gir Ta. kiri: hills ; gal Ta.  kaL :perhaps here the plural marker; eden Ta. eetil: the outskirts, plains? ; ti Ta. til: to live as in va-ti (> Sk.sti as in a-sti, na-asti etc)

82. e lulim gu-e am-ma-gur-re (At the temple stags  are gathered in herds?)
* Ta. il aaLulim (?)  kuuvve aamma kuuRee ( At the temple the cows(?) cry out )
( lulim : Malay : lembu : cattle, probably lulim: cows? gu-e Ta. kuuv, akavu ; to call; gur-re Ta. kuuRu: to tell, relate etc)

83-85 : refrain.
86 e 5-kam-ma am
*ta. il 5-kamma aam
 

An Analysis of the Fifth Hymn

Most of the NonVedic Hindu religions are of the Agamic or Tantric variety centering on Temple worship. While in historical times we tend to classify them into Saivism Vaishnavism Saktaism  and so forth and quite often see anatogonisms  towards each other,  such a strict differentiation of the religious practices  seem to be quite absent in Sumerian Agamism. All these cultic practices are found together and probably practiced by all without any antagonistic feelings.

The fifth hymn discloses a situation of Snake worship that also shows the beginnings of Tantric rituals and also the tradition associated with worship of  Atisesan , well entrenched practice  in Vaishanavism . However all these are noted within what can be called Early Saivism.

The Tiger and Saivism

Throughout the history of Saivism, both in the North and South we hear of Siva wearing the skin of tiger and sitting on the  Tiger  skin during the meditative practices i.e. when Civa becomes the Mahayogi. In this hymn we find allusions to Tiger , the pirig  but more as  a guardian spirit of the temple.

75. e kes pirig u-tu sa-bi ur-sag su-du ( Kes temple, borne by a lion, whose interior the hero has embellished)
*Ta. il Keeci pili ootu caaybi oorsaan cuudu( Keeci temple guarded by the Tiger and inside which the Hero attains)
76. sa-bi ur-sag-ur-sag-e-ne si-mu-un-nin si-sa  ( Into its interior the heroes go straight-way)
*Ta. caaybi oorsaan-oorsaan-y-inee  cii munnin ceycel ( Into its interior the heroes go straight -way)

The word 'pirig' though translated as 'lion' but appropriately should be taken "tiger' as the word 'pirig" is etymologically related to Ta. piri, vari etc  i.e  being striped. We have also the Su.  'tab-pirig-tur"  meaning the leopard and retained in Tamil as "ciRu-taip-puli", the small tiger that attacks.
The word "u-tu" in addition to being  taken as "ootu" here to guard, can also be taken as "utu, uti" meaning to arise. It may be possible that the inner sanctuaries were protected by living tigers inside the inner chambers and hence only the brave ones would venture into it. This ancient practice might have become mythologised and retained in the iconography as  the garment Civa wears, and the skin on which he sits. Later it might have given arise to some speculative stories, some mythical fabrications for accounting for this symbolism.
May be in those days it was believed that  only the brave who would kill a tiger and skin it, would receive the blessings of Civa. This may also may symbolically mean : only those who are metaphysically courageous and KILL the beastly within them can receive the blessings of Civa.

The Beginnings of KundaliNi Yoga

However what is of  absorbing interest is the presence of Snake worship as part of the practice of Keeci Temple and a practice which is alive to this day as integral part of popular Hinduism.

77. nin-hur-sag-ga usum-gal-am sa im-mi-in-tus ( Ninhursag, like a great dragon, sits (in its) interior)
*Ta. Nin kuRcaangka ucumgaL aam, caay immin-tunjcu  (The Lady of the Mountain Peak, like a great Snake, lies inside)
(usum-gal Ta. ucumgaL : the great creature that hisses; tus Ta. tucu,  tunjcu: to lie down, sleep etc.)
78. (d) nin-tu-ra ama-gal-la tu-tu mu-un-ga-ga ( Nintu, the great mother, has brought about its birth)
* Ta. Nintuu(n)Ra ammaakaLLa tuti munkaal-kaal ( Nintuu, the great Mother , has established her praises (or functions))
( tu-tu Ta. tuti : to praise. Also toottiram (>Sk. stotra)

The 'usumgal" is certainly" a large snake" where the onomatopoetic 'usum' is retained in Tamil as 'udumbu" the iguana of kind, a large of reptile . The "gal" meaning 'big' shows that the snake being mentioned is probably the Atiseesan, the Primordial Child ( of NinTu?, the bed of Thirumaal, that on which he sleeps during moments of transductive perceptions, the aRituyil as mentioned in Paripaadal of the Cankam epoch. The word 'tus" also significant for it signifies that of lying down and sleeping and hence in all likelihood this 'usum-gal" is Atisesan, the PampaNai , the snake bed of Thirumaal., the Coiled Power  on which he sleeps in order to enjoy transductive perceptions that demand enormous amount of psychic energy.

What makes us connect this with  Tantric practices and KundaliNi  Yoga is that there is mention that it is Uma, the daughter of Hills , the Nin hur-sag who takes this form and lies inside the interior of the temple  as a large snake that are accessed only by  the heroic individuals.
What links this with Saktaism is that this presentation of Nin-hur-sag and her form as the Atisesam is something that comes as the blessings of Nintu, the Supreme Mother perhaps also Nin-a, the Great mother.

KundaliNi Sakthi.

The snake is the form of KundaliNi, and any individual blessed with this KundaliNi, the Coiled Power becomes an individual of extraordinary strength, a superman of a kind. This notion is also available in the following lines.

79. sul-pa-e-a ensi-ke nam-en mu-un-ab-e (?) ( Sulpae, the ruler ........lordship)
*Ta. cuulpaal eeya eeNcikkee eeNnam mun abaiyee ( To Sulpaea, the ruler, rulership she has announced)
( sul -pa-e-a Ta. cuul-paal-ee-a : the trident with radiating light; en Ta. eeN (veeN> veeL) : ruler ; ensi Ta. eeNcii (ci=ji) ab-e Ta. abaiyee:  announced)

It is the MOTHER who provides the enormous strength that would make a person the Sul-pa-e-a, the holder of trident of brilliant light , or one like the rising sun. The symbol of the rising sun , was an important symbol for the Sumerian kings as it was also for early Saivism. Thus we  have  names  like Utu-e-gal, the great rising sun, the name of the great warrior who defeated the Sabarians, the hill tribes from the North  and established the Third Ur Dynasty. The MOTHER announces who would be the Ensi,  the King by determining who would receive the KuNdaliNi, the tremendous libidinal energy that would make a person capable of extraordinary accomplishments.

The Ritual Meat Eating

It also appears that ritual meat eating was part of the rituals associated with the warriors of extraordinary physical vigilance.

80. as-sir ursag mezem mu-un-ku-e ( Assir, the hero consumes ...)
* Ta. acuur oorsaan misam munkuuyee ( Acuur, the hero consumes flesh)
( as-sir Ta. acuur: the very brave; mezem Ta. misam: flesh as in maa-misam: the flesh of the animals)

Here the term "as-sir ur-sag" must be taken as 'acuur oorsaan' i.e the extraordinarily strong heroes or warriors  and the ritual meat eating was in practice within the temple for such persons.This may account for the fact that among some Siddhas who practice KuNdaliNi Yoga, meat eating and wine drinking are incorporated as integral to their rituals. The linkage of KuNdaliNi with the Grace of the Woman, may also underlie some Tantric practices such as the Pariyanga Yoga where sexual copulation is assumed as an easy way  of getting the KuNdaliNi Sakthi, the libidinal energy that provides the Psychic Energy that helps one become indomitable and extraordinary .


 Kes Temple Hymns :The Sixth Hymn

                   87. e utu-gin ki-gal-la gub-ba ( Temple like the sun standing
                   over the foundation)

                   *Ta. il utungin kiizkaalla kappaa ( Temple like the sun rising
                   and spreading in the East ?)

                   (kiiz-kaal=  kiiz-a-ku: kizakku: East?, Note gal-la > kalam"
                   land, country etc.?; utu Ta. uti: to arise, utayam :dawn; gub-ba
                   Ta. kubbu, kuvi :to put together, to put standing erect etc. Also
                   Ta. kappu : to branch off, to spread)

                   88. am -babbar-gin eden su-ga  ( Like white bulls standing about
                   on the plains)

                   *Ta. amaa paarppar-ngin eetil cuuzka ( Like the white wild cows
                   crowding  the plains)

                   am Ta. amaa: wild cow ; babbar Ta. paarppar: white? ; eden Ta.
                   eetil: outskirts, su-ga Ta. cuuzka: to crowd, assemble
                   etc.)

                   89 e nun-e ki-gar-ra tigi-da ar-ra (Temple founded by the prince
                   who with the tympanum in praise?....)

                   *Ta. il nunnee kiiz-kaara tikiuda aara ( Temple lowered down by
                   heavenly, sung to the accompaniment of tiki)

                   ( nun-ne Ta. nunnee: the lofty, heavenly etc.; nuni: the top
                   extremity; tigi Ta. tiki:  a sound in  the enunciation of
                   rhythms;
                    ar-ra Ta. aara> vaaram: to sing, vari: songs etc.; Also Ta.
                   aaravaaram ; loud and boisterous noise)

                   90. e sa-bi-ta lipis-bi kalam-ma ( Temple at whose interior is
                   the vital censer of the country)

                   *Ta. il caaybitta ilibibi kalamma ( Temple at whose interior is
                   the written fate of the country)

                   ( sa Ta. caay, caayvu: the depressed part; lipis Ta. ilibi:
                   written fate? kalam Ta. kalam: land, country etc.)

                   91. a-ga-bi-ta zi ki-en-gi-ra ( At whose back is the life of
                   Sumer)

                   *Ta. angkabitta jii  kiiz eengki(n)Ra ( At whose limbs is the
                   life of Sumer ( the foremost country))

                   92. ka-bi-ta  pirig su-ba na-a (At whose gate is a lion lying on
                   its paws)

                   * Ta. kaabitta pili cuba aNaiya ( At whose gate the tiger sleeps
                   happily)

                   (ka Ta. kaa: mouth as in Kaa-viri: the branching mouth , the name
                   of the river cauvery; also  see Su. ka-ta-e-a : to speak,
                   Ta. katai: to converse, tell stories etc.; ka-vi: poetry;
                   kaa-viyam: epic tales etc.; su-ba Ta. cubam : safety, happily;
                   na-a Ta.
                   aNaiya : to sleep)

                   93. ka-bi-ta un-gal inim-gar-ra (At whose gate is the ruler who
                   decides cases)

                   *Ta. kaabitta oongkaL enam kaaru-a ( At whose gate the great one
                   announces words (decisions))

                    (inim Ta. en : to tell, en-am : that which is uttered etc. and
                   hence the words; gar-ra Ta. karai: to announce loudly)

                   94.  e ig-bi-ta kur-gal gaba nu-gi-gi (Temple at whose door is
                   the "great mountain" without adversary)

                   *Ta. il ingibitta kunRukaL pakai naa-miiLmiiL ( Temple at whose
                   door is great hill, the enemies cannot cross)

                   ig, igi : eyes Ta. imai: eyes; gaba > baga Ta. pakai: the
                   enemies;   gi-gi= mi-mi Ta. miiLmiiL: to cross over, to overcome
                   Ta. miiRu: to exceed)

                   95. (gis) sag-kul -ta am-gal-la du-a ( At whose bolt is a great
                   unblemished bull )

                   *Ta. (kisu) saankollutta  amaakaaLai eduva ( At whose weapon for
                   executing people, the emblem?) of the great bull is
                   carved(?))

                   96.  ga-nun ga-ra-bi an-ub ki-ub ( Whose (well-) founded cella?
                   is a corner of heaven, a corner of earth)

                    *Ta. kaaN-uL karaibi vaan-uppu kiiz-uppu ( The banks of the land
                   inside has the sky and earth as the  limits?)

                   97. gi-gun-na-bi la-ha-ma ki-us-sa ( Whose giganu the Lahama
                   support)

                   *Ta. mi kuNabi lakamaa kiiz oocca ( Whose dark aspect the Lahama
                   drives away from the place?)

                   98. bad-nun-na-bi es-uri ka-kes-da (whose princely wall ......
                   the shrines of ur---)

                   *Ta. paadi nunnabi iisu uuru kalkaddu ( The high wall of the
                   shrine of Ur are built with stones.)

                   (bad Ta. paadi: fort;  es Ta. iisu, iisan: the Great God,
                   ka-kes-da . Ta. kal-kddu ; kal: stones, kaddu : to build)

                   99-101: refrain

                   102 e 6 kam-ma am (The sixth temple )

                   *Ta. il 6 kamma aam) (The sixth temple hymn)


Analysis of the Sixth Hymn

For any historian interested in the growth of the legal system of mankind this hymn of En Hudu Anna, the resplendent star of the heavens, the daughter of Sargon the great,  must be of supreme interest. For here we have the birth of the courts where judgments are made and punishments are given all in the name of God and within the precincts of the temple. We also see  a mixture of magic and the proper beginnings of legal justice with elements that are still current all over the world , of course with some innovations,  a process that already began in SumeroTamil times itself as shown by the Codes of Hammurabi who, interestingly enough wrote in SumeroTamil and though a Semite functioned like a Tamil in upholding and promoting Sumerian along with Akkadian.

Temple as Court

The temple was the high  court and probably the King was also the chief judge very much like it was during the Cangkam epoch and perhaps also much later.

This information is available in the following lines:

  93. ka-bi-ta un-gal inim-gar-ra (At whose gate is the ruler who decides cases)
*Ta. kaabitta oongkaL enam kaaru-a ( At whose gate the great one announces words (decisions))
    inim Ta. en : to tell, en-am : that which is uttered etc.  hence the words; gar-ra Ta. karai: to announce loudly)

The word " ka" means the mouth and has become the Ta. vaay but however is still retained  as frozen forms  in such terms as Kaa-viri, the name of the famous river and putting aside the numerous puranic fictions ( which only shows that the word "kaa" has already become obsolete) means " the estuary with a wide mouth",  Ta. katai (< Su. ka-te-e-a: coming from the mouth i.e. telling etc.).  The temple had a gate and at the gate was located the Court with the chief judge named " un-gal" a beautiful Tamil word , oongkaL, the great one. This word is similar to "ursan" meaning the warrior which exists in Malay till today as "orang" meaning simply 'people", "a person" etc. The "gate" is also called in Tamil vaay as in vaay-il etc.

The phrase "inim-gar-ra" is best taken as Ta. enam karaiya : announcing loudly. The 'inim"  as the noun is obsolete (as far as I know) but not the verbal root "en" which is retained as " en" "enka"  "ena" "enRu" etc. Thus en-am> inim means that which  is uttered and hence the words.

The " ongkaL" or perhaps "ungkaL" which is still available as a term of honorific address of the second person , may NOT be the king but rather someone appointed specially for this purpose, a matter that needs to be  investigated further as there are  hundreds of documents related to the court proceedings of the times  with all kinds of cases with  investigations conducted and in which the evidences given by the witnesses are taken into account. In the NeRi of Suruppak ( 2600 B.C)  we have advise not to tell lies as a witness  along with admonitions as to  what will follow if one does that.

Beheading With the Sword and the Islamic Hudud Laws
 

The documents related to  the court cases detail out many different types of punishments but in this text there is an obvious reference  to beheading of the criminals  with a sword.

 95. (gis) sag-kul -ta am-gal-la du-a ( At whose bolt is a great unblemished bull )

  *Ta. (kisu) saankollutta  amaakaaLai eduva ( At whose weapon for  executing people, the emblem?) of the great bull is
  carved(?))

The translation of "sag-kul" as 'bolt"  is obviously mistaken and the real meaning is a weapon for killing ( kul, Ta. kol)  people (sag, Ta. caan) and hence probably a large sword with a single stroke of which the head is cut off as they do with the goats even now in some temples. But what is fascinating is that this sword is made sacred by engraving on it the emblem of aaN or Civa, the Bull, the "am-babbar"  which is quite significant. For it shows that the execution is NOT something done by   someone -- the executioner or even the 'ungal" the chief judge but rather by An, by God. The execution, when effected was done in the name of God , as an expression of God's will and NOT that of man.

This shows that the Temple was trusted as the place where justice can be obtained and because God lived in the Temple and court judgments at the Gate of the temple is the judgment of God Himself.

This habit of beheading with the sword may be linked with that still  available in Arabia and other islamic countries where there is  beheading of the criminals in the public square, a barbaric practice no doubt  but somehow still surviving by being absorbed into a  religion and hence  made holy and hence something that does not allow easy displacement.

However we notice the linkage between temple  and the court house  that we see here is still available all over the world in  making the witness swear in the name of Bible , Alcoran , Bagavat Gita etc.

Why the Bull is White?
 

There is  fascinating psychology of colors that plays  an important role in the meaning conveyed in the iconography of Dravidian gods  or  archetypes.  Laksmi sits on the Red Lotus while KaLaivaaNi, the Sumerian Saraswati or Nisaba on a white lotus. While the ascetic Civa is red , the lord of worldly pleasures Thirurumaal is  either black or blue. Civa is also GOLDEN to indicate he is the source of Civanantham , the Bliss of True Metaphysical Understanding that does not diminish in its efficacy at all  and in this unlike the worldly pleasures and hence the gold of undiminishing luster.

Against this we have to see the meaning of the following lines.

87. e utu-gin ki-gal-la gub-ba ( Temple like the sun standing over the foundation)

*Ta. il utungin kiizkaalla kappaa ( Temple like the sun rising  and spreading in the East ?)

                   (kiiz-kaal=  kiiz-a-ku: kizakku: East?, Note gal-la > kalam"
                   land, country etc.?; utu Ta. uti: to arise, utayam :dawn; gub-ba
                   Ta. kubbu, kuvi :to put together, to put standing erect etc. Also
                   Ta. kappu : to branch off, to spread)

 88. am -babbar-gin eden su-ga  ( Like white bulls standing about on the plains)

 *Ta. amaa paarppar-ngin eetil cuuzka ( Like the white wild cows crowding  the plains)

                   am Ta. amaa: wild cow ; babbar Ta. paarppar: white? ; eden Ta.
                   eetil: outskirts, su-ga Ta. cuuzka: to crowd, assemble
                   etc.)
 

The Temple spreads light like the rising sun in the East. And also it stands there as a pure white bulsl that roa the plains. Here the choice of the metaphor of the rising sun and the white bull are significant in terms of MESSAGE of PURITY  that is communicated by  them. The White Bull is not only symbol of masculine fertility but also that of PURITY and  because of which it sends rays confidence among the people. There was TRUST in the veracity of Civa who lowered the temple and stands witness to all , executing judgments though the mouth of the "ungal", the chief judge. It was obviously believed that because of the PURITY of An, JUSTICE will be available  for whatever emerges from someone PURE at heart cannot be wrong, cannot  be unjust etc. and who  can purer than An, the Maha Deva?

Primitive Psychiatry and RamayaNa
 

This hymn also enables us to understand why very early the Dravidian Culture became psychological in essence and something that is retained to this day  in the very ancient  Siddha traditions about which there are texts in Sumerian as well (that I will take up  for detailed studies later). We also  see a linkage between these practices and the Shamanism of the Far Eastern cultures.

97. gi-gun-na-bi la-ha-ma ki-us-sa ( Whose giganu the Lahama
                   support)
*Ta. mi kuNabi lakamaa kiiz oocca ( Whose dark aspect the Lahama drives away from the place?)

The important word "gi-gun-na" which can also be read as "mi-gun-na" is best translated as Ta. mai-kuNam,  the dark kuNas or the evil and devilish  behavioral propensities. We see here the beginnings of guna theory of Samkhya where the same concept is rendered as Tamasa KuNa which also means the dark gunas as opposed to the Satvika and Rajasa. The term us-sa is Ta. ooccu, to drive away and which is retained as 'uccadanam ',  exorcism in Siddha psychiatry,  one of eight putties that are related to eight sitties, psychic powers. "ki-us-sa"  then can be taken as " driving underground" or "driving into outer space"   and hence exorcise etc.

This makes the Lahama an exorcist, a hangover from the primitive medicine man, and within historical  times among the Tamils some Siddhas were like this  and there  are many texts like Nanthiicar Njaanam and so forth  to substantiate this.

Now the name Lahama is strikingly  close to Rama. We also have Dinger Lama, the deity that inhabits the weapons  and ensures victory for the blessed.  In view of this we propose two things as matters for further investigations  for unraveling the mysteries surrounding the deep past of Indian Civilization.

1. The Lamaism that is alive till today in the form of Tibetan Buddhism where the priests are called Lama and the head called Dalai Lama ( Ta. talai: head),   may be a survival of this very ancient exorcist priesthood and which was available as part of the temple culture and as kind of primitive psychiatry or psychotherapy. ( This is available even now. In some temples in Penang I have observed this personally)

2. The epic RamayaNa may actually be a Lahamayana or Lamayana where a Lama is symbolized as the Hero , Rama, who exorcises the devilish gunas of an individual  symbolized as RavaNa, who out of the Kiz KuNa or Tamasa KuNa overlooks moral principles and abducts another person's wife and so forth

The nuclear idea is already available in this articulation of what exorcism is   and in later times it might have become elaborated and blown up into epic proportions.

It is NOT surprising then that RamayaNa has taken deep roots in SEAsian regions and the Far East where Shamanism was the main culture millenniums ago and where to this day  it survives as underground activities despite Islam, Buddhism etc.


Kes Temple Hymns :The Seventh Hymn

103 e-ku KU-bi e-nun ( The Holy temple, whose ...... is the princely temple)

*Ta. ilkoo KU-bi il nunnee ( The house of God, whose ..... is the shrine  of excellence)

( e-ku > il koo . Ta. koo-il> kooyil, koovil ; nun-e Ta. nunnee : lofty and hence excellent)

104. e-kes-ku KU-bi e-nun) (The holy Kes temple, whose .... is the princely temple)

* Ta. il keeci KU-bi il nun  (The holy Keeci temple (inside which?) a shrine of excellence)

105. e en-bi (d) a-nun-na-mes ( The temple , whose lords are the Anunna-gods)

*Ta. il ENbi  vaanunnaa meeyiccu ( The temple whose ruler are the heavenly beings)

( en Ta. eeN> veeN> veeL: lord, ruler etc. . veeL> veeLir: the kings of the ancient Tamil kingdoms.  a-nun-na> Ta. vaan-nunna: the beings concealed in the skies and hence the heavenly beings, the gods who are there with the invisible mantra-bodies; me-s, me-es Ta. -icu, iccu  etc. Now a singular  marker of the non person  gender as vanticcu , pooniccu etc. Also for the feminine  gender)

106. nu-es-bi giri-la e-an-na-me-es  ( Whose nu-es priest are the sacrificers ? of Eanna)

* Ta. nuul-icaibi kirialai el annai meeyaccu ( Those who recite verses go around the temple for the Mother )

( nu-es Ta. nuul-icai: reciting verses  Ta. nuul: a text, nuval: to utter ; giri Ta. kiri: that which are extended and hence the legs here. la Ta. alai: to roam about.  an-na Ta. annai: Mother Goddess)

107. e-e lugal-bur-ra am-mi-gub ( The lugalburra- priest stepped up to the temple)

*Ta. illee  uLugaL puram aammee kubbu ( Inside the temple the chief of the enclosure always sits )

( bur-ra Ta. puram: fortress, citadel, an closure etc.  gub Ta. kuppu, kappu , kuntu  etc. : to squat)

108. en-du sa ese-la am-mi-in-la ( The good en-priest ... held the lead-rope? suspended)

*Ta. Veentu saan  icai-azai azaimin aam ( The great one , the person sings the songs of calls, is there calling)

( es, ese Ta. icai: music, song etc. la Ta. azai: to invite, call etc. ; en-du Ta. veeNtu: the Great one, the king etc.)

109. a-tu sibir su bi-in -du ( The atu-priest held the staff)

*Ta. atu? civiRi cuurbiyin edu ( The eunuchs? hold the fans with their hands)

( a-tu Ta. atu: that ( the non person object)  sibir Ta. civiRi : the fans made of fine hair. Also see Ta. cavuri:  hair attachments)

110. tu-e a-ur-ra-a am-mi-tum ( The ... brought the gathered waters)

* Ta. tuuvee aal uuruva tuummin aam ( The sprinkler sprinkles running waters )

111. lal-e ki-ku-ga am-mi-in -tus ( The  ..... took his seat in the holy place)

* Ta. laaliyee  kiiz kooga tunjcuminin aam ( The one who sing the laali stays in the holy precincts itself)

112. enkum-e-ne ara ki am-ma-gal-le-es ( The enkum bowed down in prayer)

* Ta. eenkummu-y-inee aRai kiiz kaaliiccu aamma ( The dancers gathered in the lower grounds)

113. pa-ses--e-ne kus mu-un-sig-ge-ne ( The pases beat on the (drum-) skin )

*Ta. paa cissu-inee koosam mun siikkinee ( The youths  beat on the (drum-) skin)

( pa Ta. paa: persons,  -pa: the third person plural marker; ses Ta. cicu: child, ciiden : the  student < Sk sisya;  kus Ta. koocam: loud noise made as a group  sig-ge Ta. ciikku: to beat)

114. e-sub uru-sub-a  mu-ni-ib-be-e-ne (They recited the e-sub and uru-sub (verses)

* Ta il cuba uuru cuba munin immiyinee ( The recited the song for the security and welfare of the temple and the city)

(sub Ta. cubam: safety security and welfare; ib-be Ta. immee: to mutter , to hum)

115. si-am-ma-ke gum-ga mi-ni-ib-za ( The bull's horn kept sounding)

*Ta. cii amaake  gummaka iyamci minee( The bull's horn  kept sounding)

(si Ta. cii : the peak, something sharp? cimam: the hill top, peak ; am-ma Ta. amaa: wild cow; gum-ga Ta. kummu: to crowd around as a herd)

116. (gis) al-gar-sur-ra suh-sah mi-ni-ib-za ( The drum sticks kept beating)

*Ta. yaaz kaalcuRRuva cuucaa mini iyamciya ( The harp with  legs to stand made the sounds cuu-caah )

( al Ta. yaaz: harp gar-sur-ru Ta. kaal cuRRu : round legs? )

117. tigi nun-du-ge mu-un-du-a (  The " good prince" played the tympanum for them)

* Ta. tiki nun tungkee mun eduva ( They also played the tiki of fine and pleasant tones)

118. e al-du giri-zal-bi al-du ( The temple is built; its abundance is good!)

*Ta. il vaLattu  kiirai caalbi vaLattu ( The temple is prosperous, the harvest  is  plentiful)

119. e-kes al-du giri-zal-bi al-du ( The Kes temple is built; its abundance is good)

*Ta. il Keci vaLattu kiirai caalbi vaLattu ( The Keeci temple is prosperous, the harvest is plentiful)

120 nin-bi DIN-bi mu-un-tus ( Its lady has taken a seat in its ...)

*Ta. Ninbi DIN-bi mun tunjcu ( Its lady is resting inside....)

121. (d) nin-hur-sag-ga nin-bi DIN-bi-a mu-un-tus ( Ninhursag, its lady , has taken seat in its ...)

*Ta. Ninoorsaangka ninbi DIN-biya mun tunjcu ( The lady of the mountain peak, its lady  resides inside ....)

122-124 Refrain

125.  7 kam-ma aam (the seventh temple)

* Ta. 7 kaamma aam (This is  the seventh hymn)



An Analysis of the Seventh Hymn.

From the point of view of the History of Agamism , this hymn is of outstanding merits. It clearly paints a picture of the rituals that took place in the temples in the Third Millennium before Christ  and  an understanding of it shows how little these practices have changed over time .  Any one who visits a South Indian temple today and observes what people do there will be entirely at home with this temple practices that  EnHudu Anna describes so graphically and objectively. The similarities are very  striking and they go  to show that the Agamism of the Dravidian folks was already fully matured and has continued to survive till today without substantial  changes  throwing to vain pretenses  the Vedists claim that Vedas are the fountain  head of Hinduism including Agamism so much so that they dare to describe Hinduism nothing else except  a Vaitiika Dharma.  These ideas   appear now as  another expression of Aryan supremacy ,  a kind of racism in religious garb,  something the false Brahmans keep on harping more as expression of Egotistic pride than genuine religiosity or even objectivity in historical studies  all perhaps unable to take a secondary place in the evolution of Indian Civilization. This hymn more than any other exposes the Vedic Colonialism that has been imposed upon the Dravidian folks for millenniums and through this exposure  help them to free themselves from the yokes of Vedic slavery.

Another important  feature of Agamism, the intimate link it has with agriculture also emerges rather clearly here. It must be noted that this also links them with SEAsian regions and the Far East especially Japan where religious practices were strongly influenced by the development of  agriculture  made possible by the mastery of the rivers through the engineering arts of dam building etc.

The Rituals: mantra recital and circumbulation.

We have the very interesting expressions "nu-es" and "giri-la" which I have taken to be archaic forms of 'nuul-icai" probably the recitations of mantras or verses and "giri-alai" and hence "giri-valam" circumbulating,  practices that are found to this day in almost every temple.

106. nu-es-bi giri-la e-an-na-me-es  ( Whose nu-es priest are the sacrificers ? of Eanna)

* Ta. nuul-icaibi kirialai el annai meeyaccu ( Those who recite verses go around the temple for the Mother )

( nu-es Ta. nuul-icai: reciting verses  Ta. nuul: a text, nuval: to utter ; giri Ta. kiri: that which are extended and hence the legs here. la Ta. alai: to roam about.  an-na Ta. annai: Mother Goddess)

The mention of "e-ana-na" is also significant. There must have been a special shrine within the temple complex for Mother Goddess , the" il annai" and it may be possible that reciting mantras and circumbulating were practices associated with Mother Goddess in the beginning and later extended to all shrines.

The Call Songs
 

One of the practices retained to this day in Islam but replaced in Temples with the peels of large Bronze bells , as also in Christianity is mentioned in the line below.

108. en-du sa ese-la am-mi-in-la ( The good en-priest ... held the lead-rope? suspended)

*Ta. Veentu saan  icai-azai azaimin aam ( The great one , the person sings the songs of calls, is there calling)

( es, ese Ta. icai: music, song etc. la Ta. azai: to invite, call etc. ; en-du Ta. veeNtu: the Great one, the king etc.)

The" ese-la" is taken here as the archaic form of "icai-azai", the song of calls , something that is retained as avery important part of religious ritual in Islam and for which purpose the the tall minarets are erected. The term en-du has given the term Ta. veentu which is also as term for the king and for Indra. Thus the person responsible for the  call song, 'en-du sa(n)" was probably also the king or someone deputizing the King himself.

In the Tamil tradition this may be linked with  the tradition of 'akaval' a word which must have come from "kuuval" i.e. calling. There is mention of "akavan makaLir" in Cankam literature.

Group Dances and Music

There are many texts in Sumerian describing in great details the fine and sophisticated development of music both vocal and intsrumental all linked with Mantrayana. In this hymn we find a description of such matters as part of the temple rituals.

111. lal-e ki-ku-ga am-mi-in -tus ( The  ..... took his seat in the holy place)

* Ta. laaliyee  kiiz kooga tunjcuminin aam ( The one who sing the laali stays in the holy precincts itself)

112. enkum-e-ne ara ki am-ma-gal-le-es ( The enkum bowed down in prayer)

* Ta. eenkummu-y-inee aRai kiiz kaaliiccu aamma ( The dancers gathered in the lower grounds)

113. pa-ses--e-ne kus mu-un-sig-ge-ne ( The pases beat on the (drum-) skin )

*Ta. paa cissu-inee koosam mun siikkinee ( The youths  beat on the (drum-) skin)

114. e-sub uru-sub-a  mu-ni-ib-be-e-ne (They recited the e-sub and uru-sub (verses)

* Ta il cuba uuru cuba munin immiyinee ( The recited the song for the security and welfare of the temple and the city)

The "laali" a word retained in Sk is probably a song for putting the gods to sleep;  the enkumene, may the dancers who dance in group , perhaps the Kummi type perhaps in a special room. Another possible meaning for "en-kummu" is the practice of Yoga , the folding of the limbs and hence the withdrawal of the senses. May be this the real meaning as especial rooms , ara (Ta. aRai) are allotted for such people.

However the pa-ses-ene are obviously the young trainee priests , the sisyas of later times who perhaps sang songs loud and clear to the accompaniment of drum music.

What is also interesting is that there were different of songs or prayers, for the security and well-being of the temple and the nation. The 'e-sub" and "uru-sub-a' also discloses that the word 'cubam' is pure Tamil and hence a loan into Sk.

The Temple Rituals.

There is mention here of many rituals that are practiced even to this day and widely described in the Agama Sastras especially those related to temple rituals, the Paddaathies(?)
 

109. a-tu sibir su bi-in -du ( The atu-priest held the staff)

*Ta. atu? civiRi cuurbiyin edu ( The eunuchs? hold the fans with their hands)

( a-tu Ta. atu: that ( the non person object)  sibir Ta. civiRi : the fans made of fine hair. Also see Ta. cavuri:  hair attachments)

110. tu-e a-ur-ra-a am-mi-tum ( The ... brought the gathered waters)

* Ta. tuuvee aal uuruva tuummin aam ( The sprinkler sprinkles running waters )

116. (gis) al-gar-sur-ra suh-sah mi-ni-ib-za ( The drum sticks kept beating)

*Ta. yaaz kaalcuRRuva cuucaa mini iyamciya ( The harp with  legs to stand made the sounds cuu-caah )

( al Ta. yaaz: harp gar-sur-ru Ta. kaal cuRRu : round legs? )

117. tigi nun-du-ge mu-un-du-a (  The " good prince" played the tympanum for them)

* Ta. tiki nun tungkee mun eduva ( They also played the tiki of fine and pleasant tones)

The fanning with civiRi(>visiRi: fan), the sprinkling of pure waters,  blowing of horns "si-am-ma", the playing of instrumental music with the harp (yaaz) tigi  and so forth are even currently available.

 And as the other lines  would indicate the whole society participated in it and probably the whole celebration  led by the king, here the lugal-bur-ra, aaLukaL puram, the holder of the fort. Incidentally this line also shows that words like 'puram' 'puri' and so forth are Dravidian and hence a borrowed  word in Sk.

107. e-e lugal-bur-ra am-mi-gub ( The lugalburra- priest stepped up to the temple)

*Ta. illee  uLugaL puram aammee kubbu ( Inside the temple the chief of the enclosure always sits )

( bur-ra Ta. puram: fortress, citadel, an closure etc.  gub Ta. kuppu, kappu , kuntu  etc. : to squat)

The Harvest Festival
 

The festival thus celebrated may actually be a harvest festival, a festival where the gods are thanked for the excellent harvest and economic abundance it occasions.  The following lines clearly indicate this.

119. e-kes al-du giri-zal-bi al-du ( The Kes temple is built; its abundance is good)

*Ta. il Keci vaLattu kiirai caalbi vaLattu ( The Keeci temple is prosperous, the harvest is plentiful)

The word "al-du' can also be 'vaazttu" meaning 'praise' . However the 'giri-zal' which may the archaic form 'kiri-cali" may mean the 'caakupadi' the harvest. The 'giri' may the archaic form of 'kiirai" green plants and from which might have arise 'giri' the hill, the location where vegetation is available in abundance. It appears that the celebrations are towards the prosperity of the temple and through that for good harvest.

It must been quite obvious that good harvest is the mainstay of the economic well-being of the nation and that this too is possible only as the blessings of the deities. Thus it is clear that the temple was built and given an extremely important place in life by people who were mainly agriculturists

I  have not brought out every hidden messages available in this hymn but I conclude this brief study postponing the rest to a latter time.

Loga


Kes Temple Hymns The Eighth Hymn

126. uru-se uru-se te-am-te ( To the city, to the city, man , approach!)

*Ta. uurucee uurucee teey aam teey! ( To the city, to the city, man , approach!)

(te  Ta. teey: to rub, to be in close proximity; uru Ta. uuru: city, town etc.)

127. e -kes uru-se te-am-te ( To the city Kes, man , approach!)

*Ta. il Keeci uurucee teey aam teey ( To the city where lies the Keeci Temple, man , approach!)

128. ur-sag as-sir lu te-am-te ( Its hero Assir, man, approach!)

*Ta. oorsaan acuur aaLu teey aam teey ( Towards its hero Acuur, man, approach!)

129. Nin-bi (d) nin-tu-ra te-am-te ( Its lady Nintu, man, approach!)

*Ta. Ninbi Nintuu(n)Ra teey aam teey ( Its deity, the Pure WOMAN, man , approach!)

130. kes-du-a (d) assir za-mi ( (Well-) constructed Kes, Assir, praise)

*Ta. Keeci eduva  acuur caami! ( Praise to Acuur, who built the Keeci Temple)

( za-mi= ja-mi Ta. caami : a term of address for deities and njaanies; za, Ta. ji-a> long live! )

131 kes-za-SAL-la-am (d) nin-tu-ra za-mi (Kes, Nintu, praise!)

* Ta. keeci-jiia-SAL-la aam Nintuu(n)Ra caami! ( Praise to the Pure WOMAN, the life  ...  of Keeci temple!)

132. e 8-kam-ma am ( The eight 'temple"

* ta. il 8 kamma aam I The eight temple hymn)


Analysis of the Eight Hymn

There is not much here that needs to be discussed extensively except to note that the theme of inviting people to the temple is also a theme in the Bakti verses in Tamil from Paripaadal days of the Cangkam epoch and many verses in Theevaram and Divviya Pirabantam have been composed precisely with this theme along with mentioning  the benefits that will accrue  to one should one  does that. The following verse of Appar can be quoted to substantiate  this point.

5658

urai talarntu udalaar nadungkaa munam
narai vidai yudainidam nallamee
paravumin paNimin paNivaarodee
viravumin viravaarai viduminee

Before your speech begins to falter and body begins to tremble
While I\nn good stead approach the BEING with the  white Bull
Praise Him, prostrate before Him, and in the company  of such people
Move about with them avoiding those who avoid (the temple) !

The idea of approaching the Temple and gaining the Darsana of the deities is what one OUGHT to do by way of living the AUTHENTIC life which also requires that one avoids the company of those who disbelieve such matters.

Now we can also see in this hymn what can be called Philosophical Paganism, an understanding of BEING  also as the so many archetypal forms in which HE  presents Himself. BEING is ONE and the way he presents Himself are countless, each presentational form, the archetypal form or the Muurttam, being a form in which He presents Himself and hence  also HIM though at the depths.

The An , Enlil As-sir Nintu and so forth are  deities to be worshipped with the equal reverence. They are all An, the aaNdavan, but presenting Himself in various forms , like a magician assuming different forms or an actor wearing different masks and hence only appearing as different but not really, He is the SAME person but in different dramatic characters.

We should  also note that 'as-sir" or Ta. acuur, may be another ancient name for Civa , the Keeci. For earlier in the first hymn we were told that it was An who lowered the Temple and which was praised by EnLil, the Thirumaal and recorde by Nisaba, the Sraswati, the nu-kas-biam, the secretary.  And here we have Assir being credited for the same which goes to show that as-sir is only another name for An. And if we take this acuur with 'cuur" as 'cuul" etc. , it follows that it is Civa, the hold of the Trident with beating hand drum, utug-sul ( = udukku cuul) also description  available in this corpus.

If this identification is acceptable then it would follow that Nintu, the Pure WOMAN is another name for Uma, the consort of Civa, Ninhursag, the woman of the Hills, Hemavati or Paarvati of present day Hinduism.

Loga



HOME