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Kes Temple Hymns-1-4

Commentary by DrK.Loganathan

Hinduism is  essentially a Temple Culture and hence an Agamic Culture. Unless we understand the inner impulses surrounding the continuos building  of Temples and the practice of the rituals there,  and how they lead the individuals into metaphysical horizons, we cannot understand the essence of Hindu Life. It is Hinduism as Temple Culture that is available in practice and has spread across the globe and continuous to do so even today. And it is very ancient the roots of which do not seem to be traceable.  Perhaps it grew naturally from primitive animism reshaped and developed through metaphysical reflections and which appears to continue till today.  However we now have a large number of Sumerian Texts , which I take them to be texts in Archaic Tamil to get an understanding of it at least during the time stretch bertween 1500 B.C and 4000 B.C.

With this view in mind I venture now to provide the Kes Temple Hymns of EnHudu Anna ( ~2200 B.C. )that is replete with information on  Hindu  Culture in those ancient  days , following the transliterations and translations of Gene B. Gragg here (included in the "The Collection of the Sumerian Temple Hymns" by Ake W. Sjoberg and E. Bergmann S.J.  Locust Valley, New York, 1969)

The text contains altogether only 132 lines divided into eight songs. This appears to be, according Gregg,  " one of the best preserved literary texts that we possess from the Old Babylonian period." Regarding the essential contents he says as follows.

e -1 (1-21) :The election of Kes out of all  other lands by Enlil. Enlil's praise of Kes, as reworded and recorded by Nisaba.

e-2( 22-44) :The good temple is like the moon against the sky. It contains the life-sources of Sumer. The cosmic dimensions of the temple. It fills the world.

e-3 (45-57) : Metaphorical description of the temple an-se and ki-se -- "above and below," at the top and at bottom

e- 4 ((58-73) :The inner complexity of the temple. The temple consumes vast quantities of oxen and sheep, also of materials such as wood. The temple is likened to the trees used in its construction and adornment.

e-5 ( 74-86): The divine personages of the Kes temple: Ninhursag, Nintu, Sulpa'e, Assir, Urumas

e-6( 87-102) :A description of the parts of the temple: its exterior appearance, its inerior, its back, its gate, door, cella(?), gigunu, wall.

e-7 (103-125) : The personal of the temple. A description of their various functions during a dedication of the temple.

e-8(126-132): Conclusion: Approach the temple!

In the following presentation I would include  tentative Tamil reconstructions along with linguisctic and other kinds of discussions.

Loga



The First Hymn

1. ege-nun-e ege-nun-e e-ta nam-ta-ab-e (The exalted prince, the exalted prince came out of the temple)

*Ta. eengki nunnee eengki nunnee ilttu nanti av ee ( The exalted and lofty , the exalted and lofty crawled out of the temple)

  (eengki > eeNi : very high and great. nun-e Ta. nunne , nuni: the apex, very high and lofty;
nam-ta Ta. nantu : to crawl See. Ta. nattai: snail. Also Malay : nanti: to stop;   e Ta. il : house Ta. koo-il: the house of god: temple;  e Ta. ee, eeku: to go ahead, proceed etc)

2. (d)en-lil ege-nun-e e-ta nam-ta ab-e ( Enlil, the exalted prince, came out of the temple)

*Ta. eeNliil eengki nunnee ilttu nanti av ee ( "   )

3.  ege-nun-e nam-lugal-la e-ta nam-ta-ab-e ( The exalted prince came out of the temple in kingship)

*Ta. eengi nunnee  uLukaLLanam  ilttu nanti av ee ( The exalted and lofty, with kingship (over everything?) crawled out of the temple)

( nam-lu-gal-la > Ta. uLukaLLanam : the "nam" is a noun formative that is retained as "am")

4. (d)en-lil kur-kur-ra igi mi- ni in-il-il-i ( Enlil directed his gaze upon the lands)

*Ta. eeNliil kunRa-kunRa imai  iyal-iyal-i minee ( Enlil directed his eyes repeatedly over the lands)

(mi-ni Ta. minee : third person invocative pronoun;  kur Ta. kunru : hill; kuuRu: a stae, country etc; noun duplication indicate plurality; il T. iyal" to move  Ta/ezu: to raise; verb duplication here perhaps indicate repetition)

5. (d) en-lil-ra kur ni-ba mu-na-il-il-i  ( To Enlil the land lifted itself)

 *Ta. eeNliil(n)Ra kuuRu niiba ezuezu-i-muna ( To Enlil  the country raised itself on its own)

( ni Ta. nii: second pronoun  person  but perhapsoriginally just "self")
 

6. an-ub-da-limmu (d)en-lil-ra (gis) kiri-gin mu-na-sa (The four corners of heaven became green for Enlil like an orchard)

*Ta. vaanuppida viLimmu  ENliil(n)Ra kiri-ngin  muna cii-a ( To the upper limits of the sky, like a luxuriant hill , becuase of ENliil , will flourish)

( limmu Ta. viLimbu: the limits, the edges;  sa = si-a Ta. cii-a :  to flourish)

7. kes sag-il mu-na-ni-in-gal (Kes lifted its head for him)

*Ta. keeci saangki ezu moonnanin kaal ( Kes did the head raising as if  for him)

8 kes kur-kur-ra sag-ga il-bi (When Kes lifted its head among all the lands)

9. (d) en-lil-le kes ja-mi am-ma -ab-be ( Enlil spoke the praises of Kes)

*Ta. keeci kunRa-kunRa saangka uzubi ( When Kes was lifting its head (or rising up) )

*Ta. ENliil-lee keeci caamiyamma abaiyee ( Enlil announced the divine greatness of Keeci)

( za-mi = ja-mi Ta. caami : divine, lofty etc; ab-be Ta. abaiyee< Ta, aa: to open the mouth; avai : assembly)

10. (d) nisaba nu-ka-as-bi-um  (Nisaba was its princely ? arbiter..)

11. inim-bi-ta sa-gin im-da-an-sur ( With its words she wove it intricately like a net)
 

*Ta. 10. Nisaba nuul kaappiyam ( Nisaba was composer of the text )

*Ta. 11. enambittu caal-ngin ii-im iduvan suRRu ( with words she weaved it like a net)

(nu-kas-bi-um Ta. nuul paappiyam ; Ta:  nuul: text ; sur Ta. cuRRu  : to spin, weave etc)

12. dub-ba sar-sar su-se al-ga-ga ( Written on tablets it was held in (her) hands)

*Ta. tubbu   saaRRu-saaRRu  cuur-ceey val kaalkaal ( The tablets announcing (it all) was held in her hands firmly)

(al Ta, val: firmly, here an adverb; sar Ta. caaRRu : to announce)

13. e mus-kalam-ma gu-hus-aratta ( "Temple , foundation of the country, fierce ox of Artatta)

*Ta. il mutu-kalamma koo ushNa Arattaa ( Temple , the foundation of the country, the angry bull of Arattaa)

( hus Ta. ushNa : hot , Ta. ugra: fierce;  gu  Ta. koo: cow, cattle (> Sk gava?) ;   mus  Ta. mutal: the foundation, the primordial cause  etc)

14. e-kes mus-kalam-ma  gu-hus-aratta ( Kes temple , foundation of the country, fierce ox of Aratta)

*Ta. il keeci mutu-kalamma koo ushNa Aratta ( The Keeci Temple, the foundation of the country, the angry bull of Aratta)

15. hur-sag -da-mu-a an-da gu-la-a ( Growing up like a mountain, embracing the sky)

*Ta. uyarcaangi-odu mUuva vaan-odu kulAua ( Growing up like a mountain peak, conversing with (those) in the sky)

(hur Ta. uyar: high ; mu Ta. mUu: to 'move' forward ; gu-la-a Ta. kulaavu: to interact or converse intimately)

16. e-kur-da-mu-a kur-ra sag-il-bi  (Growing up like Ekur when it lifts its head in the land)

*Ta. il kunRu-odu mUuva kunRa sangki ezubi ( Growing up like hill temple when lifting up the head in the country)

17. abzu-gin  ri-a  hur-sag-bi sig-sig-ga  (Springing up like the Abzu, making mountain green)

*Ta.  appu ngin iria uyar sangki-bi singka singka ( Taking  the form of waters so that even the mountain peaks are fertile)

(abzu Ta. appu : water  sig Ta. singka> cemma : fertile; ri-a Ta. iru: to be, to establish itslef etc)

18. kes-gin  rib-ba lu si-in-ga-tum-mu  (One great as Kes ---- has any man been  (this) worthy?

*Ta.  keeci-ngin iribba aaLu  icingka toommu? ( One as great as Kes,  has anyone  grown up?)

( tum Ta. tuppu : strength;  Ta. tuppu : to spit out ;Ta. toonRu : to appear See Malay : tumboh: to grow)

19. ur-sag-bi as-sir-gin rib-ba ama si-in-ga-u-tu ( One as great as its hero Assir -- has any mother ever borne him?)

*Ta. oorsaangki-bi aciir-ngin iribba ammaa icingka utu ( One as great as its hero Aciir, has any mother given birth to?)

(ur-sag Ta. Or saan ; oru: imconparable' utu Ta. utu: to emerge ; Ta. uti: to drop or cause to drop)

20. nin-bi (d) nin-tu-gin rib-ba -ra a-ba-a igi mu-ni-in-du  ( One great as its lady Nintu -- who has ever seen him! ?)

*Ta. Ninbi  Nintuu-ngin iribba(n)Ra yaaba aa imai munnin idu ( Like its Lady, the Pure Lady, really the great -- has anyone ever seen that kind greatness?

( nin-tu Ta. tuu: pure; a-ba Ta. yaaba(n) : who; a Ta. aa: that)

21. e 1 kam-ma ( The first 'temple')

*Ta. il 1-kaamma ( The first Temple Hymn?)

(Note: an analytical commentary will follow next)

Commentary on the First Song

Enhudu Anna , the daughter of Sargon the Great is certainly philosophically the most profound to have come the third millennium  world. And we cannot understand her metaphysical reaches in this first verse about Enlil unless we also take cognisance of what she says about An (Ta. aaN) and  Inanna (Ta. iin annai) elsewhere.

Below are the relevant  lines from exordium to Innana, also authored by her:

14. an-ne me-si-ma (Endowed with me's by An)     nin ur-ra u-a (lady mounted on a beast)

*Ta. aaNNee mey cii-imma  Nin  uuru-a oo-v-a ( The lady riding the lion? , given powers by AN)

15.inim-ku-an-na-ta  ( at the holy coomand of  An)    inim-du-du (who makes decisions)

*Ta. enem koo aaNNatta enem tuutu ( Who speaks only at the Holy command of AN)

This same  An occurs in Cangkam PatiRRuppattu as "aaN" (now retained in common usage as aaNdavan , aaNdakai etc)

"...

aaN talai vazangkum kaan uNangku kadumeRi
munaiykan  perumpaazaaka manniya ( PatiRRip pattu : 3rd patikam)

Here  aaN , the foremost (talai) is said pervade the very difficult and the burning hot desert path and hence Uruttira Civan

However the following lines indicate the identification of An with Vishnu.

tuLangkudi vizuttinaI tirutti muracukondu
aaNkadan iRutta nin puuNkiLar viyanmaarbu ( Patirrup pattu: 4th Patikam)

Here "aaN kadan "  i.e the divine obligations is mentioned as for Thirumaal, the one with a wide chest full ornaments etc.

Thus the use of An (Ta. aaN) was current during the Cangkam period and identified with Rudra or Vishnu depending on the context

However Enlil here is more appropriately the latter day Purusha of Purusha Suktam and the Thirumaal of Cangkam classics understood perhaps as the manifestational form of An ( Ta. aaN) the Absolutely Trancendent who discloses Himself in various forms , a notion available to this day in Saivism in the concept Civan vs Cataacivan

This is quite clear from the various kinds of superlative spatial metaphors that are brought in to articulate the vastness of the spread of Enlil. Thus in the first line itself we have  'ege' (Ta. eeNgki> eeNi)  He who extends up and above and reaches  the nun-e , the Ta. nuni: the very top.

1. ege-nun-e ege-nun-e e-ta nam-ta-ab-e (The exalted prince, the exalted prince came out of the temple)

Another spatial metaphor which may also disclose their understanding of the cosmos is " an-up-da-limmu" that I have taken as Ta. vaan-uppida-viLimbu, the very edge of the upper limits of the sky.

6. an-ub-da-limmu (d)en-lil-ra (gis) kiri-gin mu-na-sa (The four corners of heaven became green for Enlil like an orchard)

Thus Enlil, as understood by Enhudu Anna is the manisfestational presence of An, the Absolute Being who in His phenomenal presence covers the entire world

Prosperity and Divine Presence
 

One of the most interesting philosophical views that is expressed in this verse should not go unnoticed: it is as the GRACE of Enlil that there is prosperity and luxuriance:

6. an-ub-da-limmu (d)en-lil-ra (gis) kiri-gin mu-na-sa (The four corners of heaven became green for Enlil like an orchard)

*Ta. vaanuppida viLimmu  ENliil(n)Ra kiri-ngin  muna cii-a ( To the upper limits of the sky, like a luxuriant hill , because of ENliil , will flourish)
 

The " kiri" is the hill as in Niila-giri etc, perhaps a hill full of vegetation .  (Ta.kiirai:  the greens)

The alternative reading for "si" are "si-ri" and hence the 'sri" of Sk. and "tiru" of Ta. The overall meaning is that, it is due to the presence of Enlil that every nook and corner of this vast universe prospers like the luxuriant hills

The Temple and Universal Prosperity
 

Another notion that emerges here is that the presence of a temple and its prosperity  is representative or indicative of the general  prosperity of the nation.   For we have already seen from one of Gudea's cylinder's related to temple building that it is a divinely inspired activity and hence there cannot be a temple without being willed by BEING.  The presence of a temple for Enlil is indicative of the presence of Enlil especially there , for while  Enlil is the manifest universe, He can conceal or disclose  his archetypal presence  (  e-ta nam-ta-ab-e : crawls out from the Temple) and He emerging from the Temple and into the world is actually manifesting Himself in the land and thereby bringing about prosperity.

That the presence of a temple is actually the presence of the divine forces is also  disclosed as the prosperity is said to be according to the   WORDS of the gods, they must favour it , praise it and  here especially Enlil. Enlil praises the temple and Nisaba , the Nuul Kaaspiyam, the weavor of texts like a net  writes it down on a tablet and holds it  there in her hands for all to see.

Unless the temple is favoured by the gods, it will not the Mus-kalam-ma ( Ta. mutal kalamma) the foundation of the nation, that will make the nation gorw in economic prosperity by itself growing and reaching the very sky:
 

15. hur-sag -da-mu-a an-da gu-la-a ( Growing up like a mountain, embracing the sky)

*Ta. uyarcaangi-odu mUuva vaan-odu kulAua ( Growing up like a mountain peak, conversing with (those) in the sky)

(hur Ta. uyar: high ; mu Ta. mUu: to 'move' forward ; gu-la-a Ta. kulaavu: to interact or converse intimately)

The Social Production of the Great Ones

Another interesting view of Enhudu aNNa is that  which she expresses in her refrain :

18. kes-gin  rib-ba lu si-in-ga-tum-mu  (One great as Kes ---- has any man been  (this) worthy?

*Ta.  keeci-ngin iribba aaLu  icingka toommu? ( One as great as Kes,  has anyone  grown up?)

( tum Ta. tuppu : strength;  Ta. tuppu : to spit out ;Ta. toonRu : to appear See Malay : tumboh: to grow)

19. ur-sag-bi as-sir-gin rib-ba ama si-in-ga-u-tu ( One as great as its hero Assir -- has any mother ever borne him?)

*Ta. oorsaangki-bi aciir-ngin iribba ammaa icingka utu ( One as great as its hero Aciir, has any mother given birth to?)

(ur-sag Ta. Or saan ; oru: imconparable' utu Ta. utu: to emerge ; Ta. uti: to drop or cause to drop)

20. nin-bi (d) nin-tu-gin rib-ba -ra a-ba-a igi mu-ni-in-du  ( One great as its lady Nintu -- who has ever seen him! ?)

*Ta. Ninbi  Nintuu-ngin iribba(n)Ra yaaba aa imai munnin idu ( Like its Lady, the Pure Lady, really the great -- has anyone ever seen that kind greatness?
 

There seems to be linkage here between the growth of the Kes temple and men becoming ur-sag, the incomparably great ones  and ladies becoming Nintu , the Pure Ones . Thus it appears that it those days itself the developmental processes are concetupliased differently for males and females: while men become  heroic individuals on being blessed by the divine, the females become more and more PURE.

The term "as-sir" can also be taken as 'full of siir " i.e divine  greatness as 'accuur"  full of 'cuur', bravery.The ur-sag (< oorsaan) is an "as-sir", one full of divine beauty "ac-cuur"

The temple as the social institution and also  as  a gift of BEING  is that which  makes both the men and women great and this too as part of the prosperity of the nation. n individual becomes great only as member of the nation and not in islolation and  that only if favoured by the Gods  who reside in the temples.

The Second Hymn
 

22. e-du ki-du-ga du-a ( Good temple, built on good place)

*Ta. il tuu kiiztungka eduva ( Pure temple , raised on sacred grounds)

( du-a Ta. edu: to raise up, to built etc, du-ga Ta. tungka: great , divine etc, du Ta. tuu: pure)

23. e-kes ki-du-ga du-a ( Kes temple built on a good place)

*Ta. il  Keeci  kiiztungka eduva ( Kes temple, raised on sacred grounds)

( kes Ta. keeci: mountain top, peak? ; perhaps" il keeci": a temple on the hill top)

24. ma-gur-nun-gin an-na diri-ga ( Like the princely magur-boat, floating in the sky)

*Ta. maa kuurnunna-ngin vaanna tirika ( Like a boat very tall and high, roaming the sky )

( ma. Ta. maa :  a tree; perhaps goes back to the time when boats were just logs; diri Ta. tiri: to roam about; gur Ta. kuur : sharp and very extended, nun-na Ta. nunna: highly fine and refined; Ta. nuni: the top extremity)

25. ma-gur-ku-gin  ka-si-ri-am (?) ( Like a pure Magur boat, provided with  a ............ gate)

*Ta. maa kuurkoo-ngin kaay coriyaam ( Like a divine great boat, spilling radiant  light)

(ka Ta. kaay: to heat up, si-ri-am Ta. cuur-aam? )

26. ma-an-na-gin mus-kur-kur-ra (Like the boat of heaven, foundation of all the lands)

*Ta. maa vaanna-ngin mutu kunRakunRa ( Like the heavenly boat, foundation (the foremost)  of all lands)

27. u-ban-da-gin pes-ta sur-sur-ra  (Cabin of the banda-boat which shines from the beaches)

*Ta. uu paaNdam-ngin paak-ta  cuur-cuur-ra ( Like those goods  glistening on the beaches)

( u Ta. u, uu : a deitic; pes Ta. paak(-kam): the beachfront; sur Ta. cuur: to glisten)

28. e gu-gin ur-sa ninda-gin gu-nun-di ( Temple ,  roaring like an ox, bellowing like a breed bull)

*Ta. il koo-ngin uracu nanti-gin kuuvnun-idu ( Temple loud like a bull , bellowing like a breed bull)

( gu Ta. koo: bull, cow etc; ur-sa Ta. uracu,  urattu : to speak loudly; ninda Ta. nanti : the virile bull, the symbol of Civa; gu Ta. kuuv: to call, bellow etc)

29. e sa-bi-ta lipis-kalam-ma (Temple, in whose interior is the vital centre of the country)

*Ta. il caaybittta ilibi kalamma ( Temple, on whose lower ground/ interior  is written the fate of the country?)

( sa Ta.caay:  the lower ground, the incline;  also the inside as Ta. taay: the womb hence the mother? lipis Ta. ilibi: the writings; kalam Ta. kalam; the land, country etc)

30 a-ga-bi-ta zi-ki-en-gi-ra (In whose back is the life of Sumer)

*Ta. angkabitta jii kiiz eeNgki(n)Ra ( On its limbs is the life of the foremost country (=Sumer))

(a-ga Ta. angkam: the limbs ; zi=ji Ta. cii-  jii- : the life)

31.e eb-gal an-ne us-a ( Temple , great shrine, reaching the sky)

* Ta. il eekaL vaannee uraca ( Temple, lofty and great , touching the sky)

( eb-gal Ta. eekaL: lofty and great ; Ta. kaL: great; us-a Ta. uracu : to touch , rub etc)

32. e zi-da-gal an-ne us-a ( Great, true temple, reaching the sky)

*Ta. il cattakaL vaannee uraca ( Temple really and  truely touching the sky)

( zi-da= ji-da Ta. catta ; Ta. cat: true, absolute (Sk sadyam)

33. e men-gal an-na us-sa ( Temple, great crown, reaching the sky)

* Ta. il min-kaL vaannee uraca ( Temple, great star , touching the sky)

( men-gal Ta. minkaL : great star Ta. min, miin : the star)

34. e tir-an-na an-ne us-sa  ( Temple, rainbow , reaching the sky)

*Ta. il taar vaanna vaannee uraca ( Temple, rainbow, touching the sky)

( tir-an-na Ta. taar, taarai : streaking light, stripes ; note Ta. tiraNaa tuuma akni: rainbows, clouds and fire?)

35.e mus-bi an-sa-ga la-a ( Temple whose  platform is suspended from heaven's midst)

*Ta.  il mut(al)bi  vaan cakam alaiya ( Temple whose foundation covers both the world and the heavens)

( sa-ga Ta. cakam: the world ; la-a Ta. alay: to spread out?)

36. te-me -bi abzu-a si-ga (Whose foundation fills the abzu)

*Ta. tiNmai-bi  appuva ciilka ( Whose foundation or pillars fill the ocean?)

(te-me Ta. tiNmai, Ta. tiN: strong and firm : Ta. tuuN: the pillars; abzu Ta. appu : water as one of the basic elements; si Ta. ciil: to fill-up, to become full and round)

37. gizzu -bi kur-kur du-la ( Whose shadow covers all lands)

*Ta. kiiccu-bi kunRakunRa toolla ( Whose sounds  covers all the lands)

( gizzu Ta. kiiccu : shrill sounds; du-la Ta. toolla : to cover up Ta. tool: skin)

38. e an-ne ki-gar-ra en-lil-le za-mi du-ga ( Temple founded by An, praised by Enlil)

* Ta. il aaNNee kiizkaar-ra eeNliilee caami tuukka ( Temple lowered by aaN, praised by Enlil)

( an Ta. aaN: the God; ki-gar-ra Ta. kiiz kaar-a : established below; za-mi= ja=mi Ta. caami : to praise as divine; du-ga ta. tuukku: to sing)

39. ama nin-tu-ra es-bar-kin du-ga (Given an oracle by mother Nintu)

*Ta. ammaa Nintuu(n)Ra icaiparikaaN tuukka ( The Mother Nintu, the Pure sings the song of prophecy)

(Ta. es-bar-kin Ta. icaiparikaaN : the song of pari type on seeing the (future) perhaps the paripaadal type of songs)

40. e-kes gurun-na sig-ga ( Kes temple, green in its fruit)

*Ta. il keeci kuruntu-na cokka ( The Kes temple, beautiful with fresh blossoms)

( gurun Ta. kuruntu: fresh shoots; sig-ga Ta. cokka: beautiful)

Lines 41-43 refrain , same as 18-20

44 e 2-kam-ma am  ( The second temple)

* Ta. il 2-kamma aam ( The second temple hymn)
 
 

An Analysis of the Second Hymn
 

This second hymn of Endu Anna contains many very important information about the historical origins  of Dravidian religion  in general Saivism in particular   that would serve to dispell  the Indo Aryan Myth  and Vedic  origins of  Hinduism. It would appear that the Dravidian folks  developed their   own religions along with the temple building activity and this may hold for the whole of India where Hinduism finds expressions in Temple building activities and where we find Saivism Saktaism and Viashanavism etc along with them

The Bull of Civa
 

We have seen that temples are peculiar in that they are not like the houses  wharves canals forts palaces and so forth that are built by man for his own personal needs. The temples are inspired by the Gods and shaped also by them unconsciously and somtimes disclosing this in  dreams. Here  it is noted that the Kes Temple is fact  LOWERED down into the world by An.
 

38. e an-ne ki-gar-ra en-lil-le za-mi du-ga ( Temple founded by An, praised by Enlil)

* Ta. il aaNNee kiizkaar-ra eeNliilee caami tuukka ( Temple lowered by aaN, praised by Enlil)

( an Ta. aaN: the God; ki-gar-ra Ta. kiiz kaar-a : established below; za-mi= ja=mi Ta. caami : to praise as divine; du-ga ta. tuukku: to sing)

The phrase "ki-gar-ra"  translated as as "founded" is better and more accurately understood as  i " lowered down " just as scriptural texts are "lowered down" by BEING. (ki Ta. kiiz: lower ground)

The term An here is the same Ta. aaN, that we have already seen and it  occurs in Cangkam classics and which term is retained even today as "aaNdavan" ' aaNtakai" etc where it means purely BEING or simply Godhead and who allows himself to be understood as Civa or Vishnu etc under different contexts.
 

And in the mataphorical or figurative way of saying something about the temple,  the important term Ninda (Ta. nanti) occurs as follows:

28. e gu-gin ur-sa ninda-gin gu-nun-di ( Temple ,  roaring like an ox, bellowing like a breed bull)

*Ta. il koo-ngin uracu nanti-gin kuuvnun-idu ( Temple loud like a bull , bellowing like a breed bull)

( gu Ta. koo: bull, cow etc; ur-sa Ta. uracu,  urattu : to speak loudly; ninda Ta. nanti : the virile bull, the symbol of Civa; gu Ta. kuuv: to call, bellow etc)

The words gu (Ta. koo)  and  Ninda (Ta. nanti)   are quite unmistakabe; in both semantics and morphology. The Nanti is the breed bull , hence supremely the virile, the symbol of  masculine strength. And this suggest that either at that time if not a bit later it became  the SYMBOL of Civa, the Vidalai VeLLeeRu that which in Hindu iconography remaiins peculiarly  that of Civa, his Vahana, the metaphysical vehicle. In the Teevaram   hymns we frequantly hear of Civa riding the bull along with Uma, His equal half. Civa is Kameesvaran, the bestower of youthful virility and because of that eternal youthfulness by providing the  Kundalini in the form of sexual libido.
 

The Practice of giving Oracles
 

Another practice that gets mentioned and which lasts to this day particularly in the village culture is that of giving oracles, prophetic pronouncements  regarding the future.
 

39. ama nin-tu-ra es-bar-kin du-ga (Given an oracle by mother Nintu)

*Ta. ammaa Nintuu(n)Ra icaiparikaaN tuukka ( The Mother Nintu, the Pure sings the song of prophecy)

(Ta. es-bar-kin Ta. icaiparikaaN : the song of pari type on seeing the (future) perhaps the paripaadal type of songs)

The crucial term "es-bar-kin" must be icai-pari-kaaN, relating (pari) icai (through singing) what is seen through the third eye (kaaN). Such prophetic tasks are also ascribed to Nintu which can either the Pure Woman (Ta. tuu: pure) or the woman of oracles (Ta. tuu(k): to sing)

This practice may be linked with the widespread habit of ordinary people consulting the Caamiyaadi, the pujari getting into a trance and telling, without he knowing what is telling, about matters that remains  unconscious  including matters pertaining to the future. This  may also be linked with the degenerate ritual of reading the cotidam about the future that is read out by a priest  on the New Year  days in the temples.

We may note here that the Paripaadal type of literature of the Cangkam epoch which are mostly religious may have their origins in such practices.

The Naval Industry
 

The various descriptions of the temple architecture and the anlogies that are brought in also disclose many details about the Naval industry of those times.

In Su. "ma" means boat and this  word is retained in Ta. as "maa" as well as " maram" meaning tree, logs etc. In the word"kattumaran", still in use,  the boat where floating logs are strung together,  we may an idea of the very ancient  history of boat building. However we  also have  "ma-gur" as well as "ma-gur-nun-a" probably very large multitiered ocean-going vessels.

24. ma-gur-nun-gin an-na diri-ga ( Like the princely magur-boat, floating in the sky)

*Ta. maa kuurnunna-ngin vaanna tirika ( Like a boat very tall and high, roaming the sky )

( ma. Ta. maa :  a tree; perhaps goes back to the time when boats were just logs; diri Ta. tiri: to roam about; gur Ta. kuur : sharp and very extended, nun-na Ta. nunna: highly fine and refined; Ta. nuni: the top extremity)

25. ma-gur-ku-gin  ka-si-ri-am (?) ( Like a pure Magur boat, provided with  a ............ gate)

*Ta. maa kuurkoo-ngin kaay coriyaam ( Like a divine great boat, spilling radiant  light)

(ka Ta. kaay: to heat up, si-ri-am Ta. cuur-aam? )

The magur-nun-a is compared to the temple the size of which is given in the following hymn, about 60 feet in height  with a square base also 60 feeet in width and hence the pyramid-like Ziggurat. This  shows that the boat must have been the ocean going vessels importing and exporting goods to distant lands of Magan Melluha and so forth. Hence it also follows that there must have been very advanced Naval industry,  large dockyards and many people specialising in such import-export trades.

It appears that the term Vaishya may be afterall   Dravidian, people who lived on the beaches and did the import-export trade.

Pes- and Vaisya
 

In connection with this issue the following line is quite relevant.

27. u-ban-da-gin pes-ta sur-sur-ra  (Cabin of the banda-boat which shines from the beaches)

*Ta. uu paaNdam-ngin paak-ta  cuur-cuur-ra ( Like those goods  glistening on the beaches)

The "pes" which means the beach might  have given rise to 'pes-si-a' and which could have become "vaishya"   (Ta. vaisikan, vaisiyan). The word 'ban-da" Ta. paNdam that means trade goods also reinforces this idea. The word 'pes" might have also become Ta. paakkam, the downtown area . And this may explain why the chettties in Tamil Nadu , the trading caste also call themsleves the Nagarattaar, people of the city etc.

This may be relating the linkage between the temple and the economic prosperity of the nation. The temple might have palyed an importnat role in trade and hence in the economic wellbeing of the people.  But we shall take up this issue later.


Kes Temple Hymns : The Third Hymn.
 
 

45. an-se 60x10 gana ki-se 60+60+60+60+60  gana ( temple , 600 iku at its top, 300 iku at its bottom)

*Ta. vaanceey 600 kaaNa kiizceey 300 kaaNa

( gana Ta. kaaNa> kaNNu? . 'kaNNu" means bamboo knots;  may be a measure something like 'muzam", the length of the forehand. Also Ta. kanam: heavy)

46 e an-se 10 gana ki-se 5 gana ( Temple 10 iku at its top, 5 iku at its bottom)

*Ta.  il vaanceey 10 kaaNa kiizceey 5 kaaNa

47. e an-se alim ki-se lu-lim (temple . at its top a bison, at its bottom a stag)

*Ta. el vaanceey aalim(?) kiizceey ezulim(?)

( Dr,. etymology for a-lim uncertain. But note Malay Lembu : cattle in general. May be a-lim : bull and lu-lim: cow)

48. e an-se seg-bar ki-se dara-mas ( Temple, at its top a wild ram, at its bottom a deer)

*Ta. il vaanceey cemmaRi kiizceey taaraimaan (Temple , at its top  a sheep, at its bottom deer)

( seg-bar> sembar> Ta. cemmaRi: sheep;  mas Ta. maa : animals; maan: deer; maadu : cow; dara Ta. taarai: stripes, streaks)

49. e an-se seg-bar-dar-a ki-se dara-mas sa-ga ( Temple, at its top a many coloured wild ram, at its bottom a beautiful deer)

* Ta. il vanceey cemmaRi taarai kiizceey taaraimaan cokka ( Temple, at its top many coloured sheep, at its bottom a beautiful deer)

( dar-a Ta. taarakai: stars; sa-ga Ta. cokka: beautiful ; Also Ta. cakan, caki: companion; friendly?

50. e an-se utu-gin e-a ki-se iti-gin bara-ga ( Temple, at its top rising like the sun, at its bottom setting like the moon)

*Ta. il vaanceey utu-ngin ee-y-a , kiizceey intu-ngin piRangku-a ( Temple, at its top radiant  like the sun, at its bottom glowing  like the moon)

( bara-ga Ta. piRangku: to shine, glisten , glow etc.  Also Ta. pari: o shine forth, see pariti:   the sun.   iti Ta. intu: moon. Also Ta. itam: pleasant)

51. e an-se utug-sul ki-se tun-am  ( Temple, at its top a heroic mace?, at its bottom an axe)

*Ta. el vaanceey udukku cuul kiizceey tuuN aam ( Temple at its top a trident with the drum, kiizceey really the pillar /lingam)

( utug Ta. udukku: double faced hand drum; sul Ta. cuula, cuulam: the spear. tun Ta. tuuN: piLLar; also the pillar -like civalingm? Also note Ta. tuN : to cut asunder)

52. an-se kur-ra-am  ki-se idim-ma-am ( Temple , at its to a mountain, at its bottom a spring)

*Ta. vaanceey kunRu aam, kiizceey iidimma aam ( Temple , at its top a mountain, at its bottom a spring)

( idim-ma Ta. iidu> oodu, oodai : a small river with flowing waters.)

53. e an-se (an-ki-a)  3 kam(-ma)-bi na-nam ( Temple at its top it is indeed hree fold?)

*Ta. il vaankiiz-a 3 kaammabi nanam ( Temple from the top to the bottom indeed with 3 tiers?)

(na-nam Ta. nanam, nalam: really indeed)

54-56: refrain

57 e 3 kama-ma am

*Ta. il 3 kaamma aam
 
 

An Analysis of the Third Hymn : Keeci as Civa
 

This hymn which appears to be concerned with the physical description of the temple architecture provides also ample evidences to show that Kes Tempe is actually Keeci Kooyil where Keeci appears to be  one of the ancient names  for  Civa, and perhaps also Vishnu as  the Keesa-van .  But here the bull and so forth indicate that Keeci was in fact Civa.

The term "keeci' which occurs in Ta. as Nilakeeci etc appears to be related to Ta. keecam : the hair. And hence 'kes' as Ta. keeci may be a description of Civa who is iconographically portrayed as with  hair either spreading out during the dance or knotted into a tuft while in Yogic posture.

Perhaps this is also related to the Kaaci Visvanath temple in the Gangetic Valley.  Kaaci remains sacred to the Tamils in deep South to this day and they have also built Ten Kaaci, the Souther Kaaci  and call the Kaaci in Varanasi as Vada kaaci, the Northern Kaaci

Perhaps in the deep past  a stream of  Archaic Tamil speaking Sumerians  ventured into the Gangetic Plains and settled there and built the Kasi Temple and later drifted to the South, the  East and so forth. This may account for the strong presence of Dravidian elements  in Bengal and pockets of Dravidian speakers as far off as  Nepal . This may also explain the pencant of the ancient   Ceras to conquer the Himalayas and unify the North and South and bring the whole of India under  a single umbrella , also the dream  of Asoka and so many others. The desire to get stones from the Himalayas to built a temple of KaNNagi may hark back to a past where it was habitual to built statues from stones of the sacred Himalayas where was the Kailash

The Symbols of Civa

The iconographic identity of Civa given in the following lines seem to be quite unmistakable:

51. e an-se utug-sul ki-se tun-am  ( Temple, at its top a heroic mace?, at its bottom an axe)

*Ta. el vaanceey udukku cuul kiizceey tuuN aam ( Temple at its top a trident with the drum, kiizceey really the pillar /lingam)

( utug Ta. udukku: double faced hand drum; sul Ta. cuula, cuulam: the spear. tun Ta. tuuN: piLLar; also the pillar -like civalingm? Also note Ta. tuN : to cut asunder)

52. an-se kur-ra-am  ki-se idim-ma-am ( Temple , at its to a mountain, at its bottom a spring)

*Ta. vaanceey kunRu aam, kiizceey iidimma aam ( Temple , at its top a mountain, at its bottom a spring)

( idim-ma Ta. iidu> oodu, oodai : a small river with flowing waters.)
 

The utug-sul is very certainly the "udukku-cuul " the Tricuul with the hand drum,  an iconographic feature of Civa to this day , one of the forms he is worshiped in the North and South of India and elsewhere.  And this leads us to think that the 'tun' at the ground level of the temple is the Ta. tuuN but here   the Civalingam, where the term 'lingam' meaning 'symbol" is perhaps not native to Tamil, a word that perhaps displaced the original "tuuN" a word still in use (Ta. taaNu)  to describe the Civalingam.

Reinforcing this identification is that  of  'kur-ra' , Ta. kuNru and "idim-ma" the stream  ( *Ta. iidimma> oodai?) > This word is retained more as metaphor Ta. iidu :  a very extensive commentary, something that flows like a river?. The very extensive commentaries on  Nalaayira Divya Prabantams are called "iidu"  perhaps in this sense.

The KunRu, the Hill, is certainly relatable conceptually to  the " Kailash",  the abode of Civa, the "idim-ma" with the Ganga that flows always from His tuft. We note here  that the  word Ganga is relatable to Su.  seg-ga: heavy downpour and the Malay sungai : river. ( seg-ga, sungai> kengka > Ta kangkai)

The Ornamental Symbols.

The lines 48  to 50 contains references to the sun , moon, ram  and deer that are symbolic elements asscociated with Civa.

48. e an-se seg-bar ki-se dara-mas ( Temple, at its top a wild ram, at its bottom a deer)

*Ta. il vaanceey cemmaRi kiizceey taaraimaan (Temple , at its top  a sheep, at its bottom deer)

( seg-bar> sembar> Ta. cemmaRi: sheep;  mas Ta. maa : animals; maan: deer; maadu : cow; dara Ta. taarai: stripes, streaks)

49. e an-se seg-bar-dar-a ki-se dara-mas sa-ga ( Temple, at its top a many coloured wild ram, at its bottom a beautiful deer)

* Ta. il vanceey cemmaRi taarai kiizceey taaraimaan cokka ( Temple, at its top many coloured sheep, at its bottom a beautiful deer)

( dar-a Ta. taarakai: stars; sa-ga Ta. cokka: beautiful ; Also Ta. cakan, caki: companion; friendly?

50. e an-se utu-gin e-a ki-se iti-gin bara-ga ( Temple, at its top rising like the sun, at its bottom setting like the moon)

While I am not certain about the symbolic sigificance of the ram, the deer ,  the dara-mas , Ta., taarai maan, is certainly one of the  ornamental symbols  of Civa, that He holds on his left hand as the Somaskanta (?)  and perhaps as a symbol of fertility/physical strength  just as the bull, the Nanti, is symbol of  masculine virility.

The 'iti" , the moon , Ta. intu (>Sk indhu) is certainly the crescent moon that Civa wears of his tuft and because  of which he is known as  the Candrasekaran, the One wearing the crecent moon.

This word 'iti" is also relatable to "indi, inda " that occurs in Su. in the sense  of excellence(?) as " inda-sum" attaining excellence and which is also relatable to Malay : indah , the beautiful. I have discussed elsehere the possibility of the origins of Intu Camayam, Hindu religion from the notion of "inda-sum" , attaining beauty, nobility etc.

The association of  symbol of the Sun , the Utu with Civa is very ancient an extensive. Just as in Sumerian, in Tamil traditions too Civa has been identified as the Sun both the inner and outer, and Civattiyaanam practices begins with cuuriya namskaaram, obeyance to the Sun. Thirumular has an extensive description of these notions in terms aNda-aatittan , piNda-aatittan etc where 'aatittan' means the sun.

Symbols, Metaphors and Totems.
 

The knotted tuft,  the Kailash , the ever flowing waters , the Tirusul that comes with a beating hand-drum, the deer, the Lingam etc do not appear to be  totems if by that term is meant something from which one traces one's ancestry. They appear to be "metaphors" of a kind and hence something immensely SYMBOLIC, that which embodies as its meaning a deep metaphysical truth.

The Trisul with a beating drum can only be symbolic and NOT totemic. And it serves to signify the emergence  of light by piercing the oppressive darkness ( the Trisul) and allowing there to be  also the Logos, the primordial vibrations , the Utgita, that generates various kinds of languages  , the Cuukkumai, Mattimai, Paisyanti and finally the Vaikari, the audible speech. The everflowing river, the Ganga symbolically points out to the presence life-regenerating moist, that which puts an end to death-bringing and dessicating Fire.

The crescent moon stands for the' itam', that which pleases and hence aesthetic elements including love and romance, that with oozes the amuthu, ambroisia that gives the will to live further on through the provissions of pleasures in life.

The TuuN  always comes with aa-udaiyaar, that which contains the gap, the opening, the Yoni, the pedestal.  The Civalingam as this complex stands for the copresence of  Masculinity providing Naatam and Femininity providing Bindu. The concept of "naatam " occurs in Su. nitah, the male , dumu-nitah, the male child. The Bindu may be relatable to "bi-du" : to bring forth

While the Nanti, the breeding bull, the ram and deer are certainly animals but they do appear to be  totemic and are just as symbolic as the spear drum hill river etc. Initially they were perhaps metaphors and  later absorbed as symbolic elements. The temple was An,  he has come down is presenting Himself as the Temple, and because of which the temple is NOT just  an "il", a house but a "koo-il" the house of God. He is there with  the temple as his home,  and it is He who bellows as the Nanti, shows timidity and gentility as the taarai maan, the spotted deer etc.

All these are SYMBOLS arising from  deep metaphysical understanding of the essence of BEING and hence belong to the science of Hermeneutic Semiotics and not to the anthropology of totemic analysis.


Kes Temple Hymns :The Fourth

58. uru ga-am uru ga-am sa-bi a-ba mu-zu ( Indeed it is a city, indeed it is a city, who knows its interior?)

* Ta. uuru kaL-aam uuru kaL  -aam caaybi yaaba muncuu? ( Great city, indeed great city, who knows its depths?)

( ga Ta. kaL; great uru Ta. uuru: city; sa Ta. caay, caayvu : depression, zu Ta. cuuz: to think, col: to speak etc)

59. e-kes uru ga-am sa-bi a-ba mu-zu ( The Kes temple is indeed a city, who knows its interior?)

* il keeci uuru kaaL-aam caaybi yaaba muncuuz( The temple Keeci, a large city, who knows its depth?)
 

60. sa-bi ur-sag-ur-sag-e-ne si mu-un-si-sa-e-ne (Into its interior the heroes go straight -way)

* caaybi oorsaan-oorsaan-y- inam ciir mun-ceycel-y-inee (  Into its interior, the great persons  will go straight away  )

(ur Ta. oor, uru: great, unique, incomparable; e-ne Ta. inam : a group, a gathering; si Ta. ciir: straight , in well ordered manner as ciir-aaka etc.  si-sa Ta. ceycel : here si=cey: the aux. verb to do)

61. es-bar-kin du-ga su-gal mu-un-du-du ( They accomplish perfectly the oracles)

*Ta. icai-pari-kaaN tuukku cumkaL mun-idu-idu ( They accomplish greatly as sung in the oracles)

(su-gal: Ta. cumkaL:  attain greatness ; du-du Ta. idu-idu : do repeatedly, persistently)

62. e gu-du-du-dam gu am-ma-gur-re ( (At) the temple unblemished oxen are gathered in herds?)

*Ta. il koo-tuuttu-tam  kuuv kurai- amma ( At the temple the pure cows cry out ?)

( du-du Ta. tuu-tuu : very pure, also possible Ta. titti: spotted ;Malay : titik: dots, gu- gur-re Ta. kuuvkuuRu, kuuvkurai?:, kuuvkarai: make calls, cry out?)

63. e gu-sar-a al -ku-e  (The temple consumes many oxen)

( sar-a Ta. carvam: all (> Sk. sarva: all) ku Ta. kuuz: food Malay kuey: cakes)

*Ta. il koo carva val-kuuy-ee ( The temple consumes really many oxen)

64. e udu-sar-a-am al-ku-e  ( The temple consumes  many sheep)

*Ta. il udu-carvam  aam val kuuy-ee  ( The temple consumes really many goats)

( udu Ta. udu : goat)

65. eren x-ma-am gu-bi luh-luh-ha  (its cedars are -- their -- are purified)

*Ta. araN x-ma aam kuRu-bi uruku-urukka  ( the logs of trees cut are burnt )

( eren Ta. araN; a kind of tall and strong trees, Ta. aaraNyam: forest; gu-bi Ta. kuRai: that which are cut and hence logs ; luh-luh-ha Ta. uruku, urukku : to melt; originally perhaps to heat up strongly)

66. bara-bara-e-ne gu-ne am-ma-gal-le-ne ( Those who sit on the thrones bow thier necks)

*Ta. paraN-paraN-y-inee kavu-nee amma kaal-y-inee ( Those who sit on the daise, place their neck?. )

( gu Ta. kav- : the armpits, bara Ta. paraN: the dais : perhaps the palipiidam: the sacrificial platform; a;s Ta. kazi: to cut off)

67. (gis) taskarin -da men an-da gur-ru  ( A boxwood tree bearing its crown to the sky)

* Ta. takkarin-uda meen vaan-ida  kuuRu ( Like the top of the boxwood tree stretching into the sky being cut)

( men Ta. meel, meen : the top , high etc ' gur-ru Ta. kuuRu : to cut, split,reduce etc))

68. (gis) asal -gin an-da tal-tal sal-la  ( Like the poplar .... spreading out to the sky)

* Ta. aal-ngin vaan-ida taLtaL cella  ( Like the banyan tree spreading out into space pushing itself?

( asal Ta. aal; the Banyan tree? tal-tal ta. taL-taL: to push and push;  sal--la  Ta. cel : to go ahead , Malya: jalan: to walk)

69. hur-sag -da an-da sig-sig-ga ( Like the Mountain , green as the sky)

*Ta. oor-cenni-uda vaan-udu cokka-cokka  ( Beautiful with mountain peaks and sky )

70-72 : refrain

73. e 4 kam-ma aam

*Ta. il 4kaamma aam


Analysis of the Fourth Hymn.

Enhudu Anna, the brilliant star of the sky (that's what the name means) begins from this hymn onwards the description of the ritualistic practices in the major temples of the times and which are practiced to this day perhaps less pompously. I am referring to animal sacrifices , oxen and goats and perhaps also human,   which are becoming pushed down as barbaric practices  eliminated and replaced with  archanas only with flowers and pure waters.  I am mentioning human sacrifices with some doubts though historically it has been practiced, I think, all over India , and with epigraphical evidences for such practices during the period of Vira Cholas where some soldiers cut off their own head to ensure victory for their king.

The notion of sacrifice, and even literally sacrificing oneself may be  the beginning of the notion of Mukti, at first manifesting itself as getting rid of the body by actual sacrifice and later escaping its hold and the psychic attachment to it through penance of a severe kind and from which perhaps the yoga practices might have evolved. Or at least refined further from earlier less organized forms.

The mention of  animal sacrifices are clear, particularly that of goats.

63. e gu-sar-a al -ku-e  (The temple consumes many oxen)

( sar-a Ta. carvam: all (> Sk. sarva: all) ku Ta. kuuz: food Malay kuey: cakes)

*Ta. il koo carva val-kuuy-ee ( The temple consumes really many oxen)

64. e udu-sar-a-am al-ku-e  ( The temple consumes  many sheep)

*Ta. il udu-carvam  aam val kuuy-ee  ( The temple consumes really many goats)

( udu Ta. udu : goat)

The 'udu' here is definitely the Ta. udu: goats,  a term that has become also "aadu" (udu> aadu) and both of which are in use with "udu" having become a rare word.

The "gu' (< Su. gud ) is very likely the buffalo, the Makisha, the vehicle of the God of death , Yama. The bull  , the ninda (>Ta, nanti) and cow  was sacred to Sumerians, and therefore very unlikely they were sacrificed. But the buffalo, as harbinger of death and miseries could be sacrificed as a way of avoiding death, calamities etc. And this practice is still noticable in Bengal and Nepal, those countries where the very ancient Tantric practices are still very much alive.

The following line may indicate that sacrificed animals were cooked and eaten as it was till recently in the villages of India and as it is so in some temples in Malaysia to this day
 

luh-luh-ha : bright fire? burning? Ta. ulookam Sk. loham

65. eren x-ma-am gu-bi luh-luh-ha  (its cedars are -- their -- are purified)

*Ta. araN x-ma aam kuRu-bi uruku-urukka  ( the logs of trees cut are burnt )

( eren Ta. araN; a kind of tall and strong trees, Ta. aaraNyam: forest; gu-bi Ta. kuRai: that which are cut and hence logs ; luh-luh-ha Ta. uruku, urukku : to melt; originally perhaps to heat up strongly)

This line may mean that logs were cut and burnt and the sacrificed animals cooked . The line contains some interesting lexical terms of some historical interest.

The "eren" seems to be obviously related to Ta. araN, perhaps a very tall tree originally and later a fort made of logs of such trees. We have also the Sk.  aaraNya as in 'aaranyaka upanisad ' which is wholly SumeroTamil. Perhaps 'eren' ought to  be read as  "eeraN" i.e "eer-aN" meaning  'something reaching out towards the sky".

luh-luh-ha could be related to "uruk-urukka" initially to 'burn and burn"  and later to melt i.e. uruku, urukku etc. The term for metal "ulookam" (Sk loham) might be a derivative of this. Then terms such as   "urudu-luh-luh-ha" may mean the melted copper and hence  the purified copper, the copper metal extracted from the ore through melting.

Was there Human Sacrifice?

The lines  66-68 provide some information though the meanings are very confusing.

66. bara-bara-e-ne gu-ne am-ma-gal-le-ne ( Those who sit on the thrones bow their necks)

*Ta. paraN-paraN-y-inee kavu-nee amma kaal-y-inee ( Those who sit on the dais, place their neck?. )

( gu Ta. kav- : the armpits, bara Ta. paraN: the dais : perhaps the palipiidam: the sacrificial platform; as Ta. kazi: to cut off)

67. (gis) taskarin -da men an-da gur-ru  ( A boxwood tree bearing its crown to the sky)

* Ta. takkarin-uda meen vaan-ida  kuuRu ( Like the top of the boxwood tree stretching into the sky being cut)

( men Ta. meel, meen : the top , high etc. ' gur-ru Ta. kuuRu : to cut, split, reduce etc.))

68. (gis) asal -gin an-da tal-tal sal-la  ( Like the poplar .... spreading out to the sky)

* Ta. aal-ngin vaan-ida taLtaL cella  ( Like the banyan tree spreading out into space pushing itself?

( asal Ta. aal; the Banyan tree? tal-tal ta. taL-taL: to push and push;  sal--la  Ta. cel : to go ahead , Malay: jalan: to walk)

The crucial term is the " bara-bara-e-ne" which can be translated, over and above those given above,  as "paran-paran-inam" the foreigners , may the soldiers captured in battles. It can also be 'pari-pari-inam" the group of singers who sing the song of praise. Then "gu ...gal-la"  could mean 'recited loudly" etc. However "gu-ne am-ma gal-le-ne" is better understood as " kavinee aamma kaziyinee" they dropped or got rid of their neck!

I  leave this matter as it is and leave it  for  future research to resolve it.

The Birth of Ahimsa and Jainism
 

It is " himsa',  the animal and human tortures,  that when  proliferates can cause  the surfacing of the antithetical notion of ahimsa.  And so probably it is practice of animal sacrifices and possibly human sacrifices, perhaps the captured soldiers by the ursag, the warriors that could have given risen to notion of Ahimsa among these ursag and along with it vegetarianism, practices very much associated with Jainism in India the roots of which remain uncertain to this day. However we want to propose here that it is also an offshoot of the Agamism of the Sumerian that began as a distinct stream by emphasizing  ahimsa as their central practice and thereby humanizing the whole fabric of Indian Civilization.

We shall mention TWO factors now in favor of it. Jainism ( and later Buddhism) centers on Human Heroes, the Mahavira and which may be related to the especial privileges accorded to the 'ursag' in Sumeria as it is in this  verse. This "ursag" might have become "aaria" ( ursag> uran> aaran, aariyan . See udu> aadu) even in Sumerian times,  Sulgi calls himself "lugal ari-a nin-e tu-da me-en : King of royal descent , given birth to by Mother herself"

Initially this Arya Dharma could have evolved as revolutionary movement that sought to put  an end to animal (and human sacrifices) and in order to further it , the introduced  vegetarian diet.

The other is the linguistic evidence. There is a word in Sumerian  "arhus"" meaning 'a kind person". This word might be related to Ta. aarukatar  and  Sk. arhat, the Jains' "divine person" etc.  This word may also be related to Ta. aruL, meaning love, kindness , divine quality  etc., a notion that became very central in the Saivism of the Bakthi and  post Bakthi period and may be  a notion taken over from the Jains.

We should also note that Jainism was already among the Tamils from the earliest periods of the Cangam epoch and perhaps it was a branch religion of the Dravidan folks, just one among the many already there from ancient times.


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