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DELUGE in SUMERIAN and DRAVIDIAN

Dear Friends,

There are two themes that are available in Classical Tamil literature that appear to be historical memories that link the Tamils with the Sumerians. The first is  an account of the deluge which is  also found in many other cultures. The Old Testament account of it is certainly adaptations of the original in Sumerian and something that has become central in Judaism and Christianity (along with numerous ideas of Agamism)

The second is the note on THREE academies in which the Kadaic Cankam, the last one  is located in Tamil Nadu , the second in KapadaPuram and the first in Kumari Nadu and which may actually be Sumeru which was also called Kumeru. This account remains peculiarly Tamil

Towards establishing this historical linkage, now I provide the account of deluge in  Sumerian as given by C.J Gadd in his Reading book on Sumerian (pp 131)

I shall also provide  the relevant Tamil sources to establish the connections.

In the text below I have added Tamil reconstruct ions along with some comments where necessary to elucidate further that Sumerian is Archaic Tamil.

Loga


The Deluge in Sumerian and Tamil

1. u(d)-ba( At that time)    zi-u(d)-sud-du (Ziusuddu)  lugal-am( being king)    AN.SAG-gu(r)-gur ( a mighty ....)

 *Ta. uubba jiiuucuudra uLukaL aam, AN.SAG-koora-koora  (At that time Ziusudra was a mighty king of .....)

( u Ta. uu: a deitic meaning 'yonder" . Ta. uubba> appoo: at that time; zi-u(d)-sud-da , zi-u-sud-ra Ta. jiiva cuuttiran: he who lives long; sudra Ta. cuuttiram:  distant, long  etc)
 

2. mu-un-di(m)-dim (made)        ......nam-bur-na (in humility)     ka-si-si-gi (abasing (himself)

    *Ta. mun idum-idum                ...........puurnanam            kaay ciircingi ( He made many prayers in his fortress )

(nam-bur-na Ta. puurnanam, puram etc: the circular enclosure and the fortress . See Malay: bulat; the round, bulan: the moon, something round.?(> Sk puram). Alîo Ta. puurNam: completeness, round  (>Sk. puurNa); ka Ta. vaay; mouth ; si-si-gi Ta. ciir cingki: singing devotional songs?)

3. ni-te-ga .....( reverent [he was]         .......u(d)-su-es-e .(The evening)      sag-us (slowly)     gub-ba(settling down)

    *Ta. nooy teeka                                     uti cuunicee           cannicu  kuppa   (There was fear as the sun slowly disappeared (and darkness approached))

(ni Ta. nooy: fear te-ga Ta. teekam: body; su Ta. cuun: emptiness, nothingness, disppearing? sag-us Ta. canna : slowly)

4. ......... ma-mu-nu-me-a ( a dream that was not)      e-de (coming forth)     gu-[mu-un-de].... (spo[ke to him]........

           *Ta.mammu naa meyya               eytee        kuuv munidee  ( A dream and hence something non real came over and (someone in it ) spoke to him)

(ma-mu Ta. mammar: a state lacking in consciousnees; me Ta. mey: true; e-de Ta. eytee: approached; gu Ta. kuuv: to utter, call etc)

5. mu-an-ki-bi-ta (the name of heaven and earth)     pa(d)-pad-de... (invoking)

    *Ta. moo vaankiizbitta  paad-paadee    ( He who  stays  one with the heavens and the sky,  declared)

mu Ta. moo: personal  pronoun first as well as second, in general simply a person;  mu-an-ki-bi-ta:  the person in the heavens and the earth , probably the Purusha; pad Ta. paadu; to sing, say , declare etc)

6. ki-ur-su (For the city)    dingir-ri-e-ne (the gods)     gis-sig ............( a brick wall? [had made]

    kiiz uurukku              tingirinnee             kisu cenki     ( For the city the deities  uttered the the advise?.)

 (-su Ta. -ku : the case marker meaniung towards; dingir > dimmer : Ta. Teyvam; gis Ta. kiitam: advise (> Sk gita)  )

7. zi-u-sud-du (Ziusuddu)    da-bi (by its side)     gub-ba(standing)  ---------[heard this:---] gis-zi-da (By the wall)

    *Ta ciivacuuttira  idaibi   kuppa, ...... kiiccu citta ..    ( Ziusudra    was there standing and heard this clearly..)

( da Ta. idam : place; gis Ta. kiiccu: noise, sound; zi-da Ta. citta:   truly; also kiiCcu satta:   loud noise)

8.  a-gub-bu-mu (at my left side)     gub-ba (stand) ..............   gis-zi-da (by the wall)  dug (a word)

    *Ta. val kuppu moo kubba ....... kiiccu catta   tuukku  ( While I was trying to sit properly , heard  a loud    song/ word)

9.     ga-ra-ab-du(g)-dug (will I speak to thee) ........... na-ri-ga-mu  (My pure one)

           *Ta. ngaa(n)Ra av tuukku tukku ....... neRi ngaan moo (  To you I will say ... and this is the  advise I give to you..)

( dug Ta. tuukku : to say, sing etc; na-ri. Ta. neRi : advise   , ethical instructions)

10. gestu-[tuk-a-mu] ( my wise one)     su-me-a (by our hand)     a-ma-ru .............

    * Ta. kestu tuukku moo        cuul meya amaru ( What I tell you is this: there will be a flood enveloping everything)

gestu Ta; akastu, akattu: knowledge, understanding;  su Ta. cuuz: to envelope; a-ma-ru Ta. amuri : waters)

11. numun-nam-galu ( the seed of mankind) ha-lam-e-de (to destroy)............. di-til-la ( is the judgement)

    *Ta. numuL kaallunam    alamidee       ... viti tiira ( To destroy everythin living .. is the final judgement)

(numun Ta. numuL, muLai: that which sprouts;  nam-galu Ta. kaal: to stay, to stand; kaallunam: that which are;   ha-lam Ta. alam: to destroy as in alam-koolam etc; di Ta. viti: judgement : til-la Ta. tiira: final)

12.   dug-pu-uh-ru-[um-dingir-ri-e-ne-ka] (the word of the assembly [of the gods]

*Ta. tukku porUum tingirinee akam ( taken in the assembly of the gods)

pu-uh-ru-um Ta. porUum: to contact , combat, discuss etc;  (a) -ka Ta. akam: inside)
 

13. du(g)-dug-ga  an [en-lil-la] ..........(the command of Anu and Enlil ..........)

     *Ta. tuuk-tuukka aaN eeNliilla ........... (These are the words of An and Enlil....)

( dug Ta. tuukku: to sing, and genitive case marker "-a " in Enlil-la makes it the words of An and Enlil)
 

14. im-hul-im-hul (the storm winds)     ni-gu(r)-gur-gal (with exceeding terror)     du-a-bi (all of them)

    *Ta. iyam kol iyam kol  nii koora koora kaal eduvabi      ( When the killing winds with exceeding strength arise ........)
(
im Ta. iyam: that which moves, iyal: to move; hul Ta. kol: to kill; ni Ta. nii: very high; also Ta. nooy: fear striking, frightening  ; gur Ta. koora: terrible; gal Ta. kaal; to establish ; gal-du-abi ; Ta. kaalidubi: when it arises )

15. ur-bi ( together)    i-sug-gi-es (raced along)    a-ma-ru (the deluge)     u-ka-kab-dug-ga( the mighty tempest?)

     Ta. oorbi          ii sungisu amaru ukka kavvu tukka   ( When it comes together with heavy downpour, the people were   enveloped with miseries)

(ur Ta.oor: together; sug-gi Malay: sungai:  river  , sug-gi-es> kungisu> Ta. kangkai ; the Ganges   ; amaru Ta. amuri: waters,  u-ka Ta. okkal: people, relatives; kab Ta. kavvu: to bite, to envelope; dug-ga Ta. tukkam: miseries , sadness)

16. ba-na-da-ab-ur-ur (raged with them)

  * Ta. paNNidu av ur ur.  (The  people cried? or caused the people to weep?)

(ba-na-da Ta. paNNidu : to do; ab Ta. av: they ; ur Ta. urai: to say, cry? )

ud-imin-am (when it was seven days)    gig-imin-am (and seven nights)

 *Ta. uti imin aam  kangku imin aam  ( When it has raged for seven days and seven nights)

( ud Ta. uti: dawn;  utiyan: the sun; gig Ta. kangku: very dark ( gig-ga > kingka > kangku)

   17. a-ma-ru (that the deluge)     kalam-ma (in the land)     ba-ur-ra-ta (had raged)

  * Ta. amaru kalamma  paa-uRRata,  (   The deluge raged  over the land)

ma-gu(r)-gur( and the mighty ship)

* Ta. maa kuurkuurai ( the ships with roofs)

(  ma Ta.maa: tree; kur Ta. kuurai: roof)

18.  a-gal-la(over the great waters)   im-hul (the storm-wind)    bu(l)-bul-a-ta,     utu(( then ) the sun)

      *Ta. aal kaLLa       iyamkol pulpullata;  ( over the great waters attacked by the strong winds,), utu ( then the sun)

     (a Ta. aal; waters; gal-la  Ta.kaLLa : great, large; bul Ta. pul: to attack. See Ta. poru: to conjoin, attack)

19.  i-im-ma-ra-e (rose over it)     an-ki-a (in heaven and earth)     ud ga-ga (making light)

    *Ta. ii imma raavee . ( The sun came rising )  vaankiiza uti kaal kaal ( The sun was over the sky and the earth)

(ra . Telugu: raa: to come , Ta. uru: to show itself)

20. zi-u(d)-sud-du (Ziasuddu)    ma-gu(r)-gur (in the mighty ship)     ka-bur (an opening)     mu-un-da-bur(bored)

* Ta.  jiiucuuttira maa kuurkuurai kaaybuur muntapuri ( Jivasudra bored a round hole in his roofed ship)

( ka Ta. vaay: mouth; bur Ta. puur,puram: round, hence ka-bur: round hole; bur Ta. puri: to do, make)

  21. sul (the strong one)  utu ( the sun)     gis-sir-ni (his light)     sag-ma-gu(r)-gur-su (into the mighty ship)

            * Ta. cuul utu      kiicu cuurNi (The radiant sun , his rays of light  )           caan maa-kuur-kuurisu      (in order to brighten up the roofed ship)

sul Ta. cuur: radiant ; gis Ta. kicu: to branch off; sir-ni Ta. cuurNi: radiant  light ?     ; sag Ta. can ,  caan: to illuminate, brighten up)

22. ba-un-tu-ri-en (sent in)     zi-u(d)-sud-du( Ziu-suddu)    lugal-am (being king)

   *Ta.  paa untu eriyen ( forced itself inside and lighted up)  . Jivasudra uLukaL aam  ( Jivasudra , the King, )

23. igi-utu-su (before the sun)     ka-ki-su-ub-ba-tum( kissed the earth)     lugal-e( the king)

    * Ta. imai utucee            kaay kiiz capputam ( In front of the sun, kissed the earth with his mouth)  . uLukaLlee (The King)

24. gud (oxen)    im-ma-ab-gaz-e (sacrificed)    udu (sheep) im-ma-ab-sar-ri (he made abundant)

    * Ta. koodu imma av kaciyee , udu imma av ceeree ( brought down the cows and joined the goats with them)

( gud Ta. koodu, koo: cattle ;  gaz Ta. kaci ,or kazi: to let go, to allow to pass. udu Ta. udu: goats;  sar-ri Ta. ceeree: to join together)

Note: The text is concluded, analysis will follow

The theme of the Deluge is available in many cultures especially the Christian and Islam through the adaptations of it in the Old Testament accounts of it. There are also  many other concepts in Sumerian that have  gone into the Semitic faiths so much so that these Semitic faiths would appear to be adaptations of Agamism, the temple centered religion of the Sumerians. It would appear also  that the Tamil and hence Dravidian are  the natural and nonadaptive  developments of these ancient root notions and hence constituting a difference in the historical evolution of these ideas  in Semitic and Dravidian.  For example the concept of PraLaya or at least the picturing of it as a cosmic event of utter dissolution  where all oceans come together , may have its origins in this notion of Deluge which appears to be a historical event  that has left behind a permanent memory of it in many cultures.  This notion of PraLaya, in the sense it is available in the Tamil religious thinking is not available in the Semitic developments, a matter that needs to be investigated further.

With the view to draw the parallels between this Sumerian account and that available in Tamil,  and hence as evidences for  historical continuity, let us look at the essential features of it.

The Prophetic Visions
 

The Hero of the  Deluge tale  is Jiivasudra, which literally means the long lived and hence may be a name given to him because he survived  the Deluge.  In Akkadian it was translated as Napistu and which became the Noah of Old testament and the Nuh Nabi in the Islamic traditions. However it is clear that he was a King, a devout one who built  a temple  at that  and very pious and because of which he was FORETOLD of the impending disaster. There is reference to Dreamlike experience again , something we come across so frequently in Sumerian literature. The Sumerian culture appears to be a culture of Transductive Perceptions, which in later times was termed the Nutal Vizi Naaddam, the visions of the Third Eye located on the forehead , which is also the ilaadattaanam, the brain center of absolute illuminations.
 

2. mu-un-di(m)-dim (made)        ......nam-bur-na (in humility)     ka-si-si-gi (abasing (himself)

    *Ta. mun idum-idum                ...........puurnanam            kaay ciircingi ( He made many prayers in his fortress )

(nam-bur-na Ta. puurnanam, puram etc.: the circular enclosure and the fortress . See Malay: bulat; the round, bulan: the moon, something round.?(> Sk puram). Also Ta. puurNam: completeness, round  (>Sk. puurNa); ka Ta. vaay; mouth ; si-si-gi Ta. ciir cingki: singing devotional songs?)

4. ......... ma-mu-nu-me-a ( a dream that was not)      e-de (coming forth)     gu-[mu-un-de].... (spo[ke to him]........

           *Ta.mammu naa meyya               eytee        kuuv munidee  ( A dream and hence something non real came over and (someone in it ) spoke to him)

(ma-mu Ta. mammar: a state lacking in consciousness; me Ta. mey: true; e-de Ta. eytee: approached; gu Ta. kuuv: to utter, call etc.)

We note here that Ta. puram already occurs here in Su. in many senses. Puram as fortress is available in "lu-gal-bur-ra" in Kes Hymn and appears to be  native to Dravidian. We can relate it  to Malay bulat : round etc. The Ta. puram is the circular fortress and also later the fortified cities. "nam-bur-na" here must be Ta. puurNanam  i.e. completely, totally without any reservations etc. Hence it would appear that Jiivasudra was not  just devout but unreservedly  so and because of which the deities were pleased to appear in a dream-like  state and tell him loud and clear about the impending danger and what he should do to escape it.

The word Su. ma-mu corresponds pretty well to Ta. mammar and its variants Ta. mabbu etc. The mammar is a state lacking in vigilance , lacking in alertness and in Su. it was this term that was used to describe dreams. There is a text on dream interpretation called "Dumuzi's ma-mu" where Gestin Anna, his sister serves as the dream interpreter.

It should be noted that dreams and dream-like experiences in Sumerian culture was   Prophetic and in the temples there were priests, perhaps more women than men,  who would get  into a trance and blurt out the future for the people around. This art was called  "es-bar-kin" , i.e. icai- pari-kaaN, singing out in songs that which are seen as the future.

Now there is a peculiarity here that we should also note.

Why  does the document say  "ma-mu-nu-me-a" ( Ta. mammar naa meyya) and not simply "ma-mu" . Here we see an attempt to differentiate between the normal dreams and something else  which is something like dreams but not exactly and perhaps what are called now lucid dreams of kind, a dream-like experience one has but while being fully awake. In Tamil philosophical texts such visions were  called yookak kaadci, vinjnjaanak kaadci etc. and said to be available through yoga practices.

We should note here that in Semitic traditions people who were blessed with this kind of vision was called the prophet or messiah and they were also considered the messengers of God, also a notion available in Sumerian texts. Thus it would appear that the general prophetic traditions  had their origins in the widely prevalent transductive perceptions in Sumerian culture.

And while the notion of prophets was the way the Semitic people understood the phenomena, the Tamils appear to have understood it differently. In the Tamil religious tradition they were  called the Siddhas and such capacities were said to be the Siddhies, capacities potentially possible for all. The Siddhas are credited with foretelling the future through direct visions into the future, the science of  Siddhar Aruudam.

In Patanjali Yoga Sutras and Tirumulars Tirumantiram  there are many discussions about such Siddhies which I hope to take up for detailed study later.
 

We have seen that the notion of transductive perception, so widely prevalent in Sumerian culture while it became the Vision of the Third Eye is Agamism and connected with Yoga and the tradition of Siddhas, in the Semitic it became the prophesies and hence the institution of prophets and messiahs. The word  "nabi", it should be noted here, occurs in Sumerian in the sense of 'messenger" and appears to be related to Ta. navil: to say, utter relate etc.

The Prophecy about the Deluge
 

The following lines indicate the context within which the Prophecy took place .

7. zi-u-sud-du (Ziusuddu)    da-bi (by its side)     gub-ba(standing)  ---------[heard this:---] gis-zi-da (By the wall)

    *Ta ciivacuuttira  idaibi   kuppa, ...... kiiccu citta ..    ( Ziusudra    was there standing and heard this clearly..)

( da Ta. idam : place; gis Ta. kiiccu: noise, sound; zi-da Ta. citta:   truly; also kiiCcu satta:   loud noise)

8.  a-gub-bu-mu (at my left side)     gub-ba (stand) ..............   gis-zi-da (by the wall)  dug (a word)

    *Ta. val kuppu moo kubba ....... kiiccu catta   tuukku  ( While I was trying to sit properly , heard  a loud    song/ word)

9.     ga-ra-ab-du(g)-dug (will I speak to thee) ........... na-ri-ga-mu  (My pure one)

           *Ta. ngaa(n)Ra av tuukku tukku ....... neRi ngaan moo (  To you I will say ... and this is the  advise I give to you..)

( dug Ta. tuukku : to say, sing etc; na-ri. Ta. neRi : advise   , ethical instructions)

Here we need to look again at the meaning of "gub-ba" that is perfectly good Tamil and which is still in use in terms of kuvi, kuppu, kuuppu etc. There is also another word 'kuntu" meaning "to sit or squat" that may be relevant. The line 8 may  mean that while he was sitting properly , then he heard a loud voice etc. Hence the phrase 'a-gub-bu-mu' may be a kind of Yogic Posture, an asana that was practiced to attain the siddhies and here listening to the disclosures or revelation. Perhaps the line of derivation is : gubba>kumma> kuntu : to squat.

Another fascinating word occurring in line 9 is 'nari" which is obviously the archaic form of Ta. neRi that is still in use more often with the adjective 'nanneRi" . It occurs in this sense also in the "Instructions of Suruppak"  where 'nari" is taken as 'instructions" . Thus it appears to be what later was called 'upatesam", an advise  an admonition etc. Thus the disclosure about the Deluge is in the form of an advise and given to Jiivasudra when he was into an asana, a proper Yogic posture,  hence in some kind of  yogic practice.

The next few lines give more details as to the REASONS of the Deluge, called here "amaru" simply waters or flood.

10. gestu-[tuk-a-mu] ( my wise one)     su-me-a (by our hand)     a-ma-ru .............

    * Ta. kestu tuukku moo        cuul meya amaru ( What I tell you is this: there will be a flood enveloping everything)

gestu Ta; akastu, akattu: knowledge, understanding;  su Ta. cuuz: to envelope; a-ma-ru Ta. amuri : waters)

11. numun-nam-galu ( the seed of mankind) ha-lam-e-de (to destroy)............. di-til-la ( is the judgement)

    *Ta. numuL kaallunam    alamidee       ... viti tiira ( To destroy everythin living .. is the final judgement)

(numun Ta. numuL, muLai: that which sprouts;  nam-galu Ta. kaal: to stay, to stand; kaallunam: that which are;   ha-lam Ta. aram: to destroy as 'ara-n" etc; di Ta. viti: judgement : til-la Ta. tiira: final)

12.   dug-pu-uh-ru-[um-dingir-ri-e-ne-ka] (the word of the assembly [of the gods]

*Ta. tukku porUum tingirinee akam ( taken in the assembly of the gods)

pu-uh-ru-um Ta. porUum: to contact , combat, discuss etc;  (a) -ka Ta. akam: inside)
 

Here Jivasudra is addressed as "gestu-tuk-a" lit. he who carries wisdom, a word in frequent use in Sumerian and which is related to the later Agastian. Thus Jivasudra was an Agastian in the later sense, a Siddha capable of transductive perceptions and who would practice certain asanas towards this end.

What is also very fascinating is that it was a  FINAL decisions of the gods  taken collectively  in an assembly: di-tilla, dug-pu-uh-rum dingir-ri-e-ne

The phrase " tuukku porUum" is a beautiful Tamil , still intelligible and though it may  be a projection from the current  social situation , but even then it is immensely meaningful. For it shows the presence of the democratic processes where important decisions are made in an assembly where free discussions are allowed. Such a practice was also available in the court of Sulgi where, as he mentions in the Hymn B, he deliberately promoted a free exchange of views before a collective  decision, agreeable to all , was arrived at.  Democracy was the way of the Sumerians and was there in every walk of life, including the royal courts.

And the reason for this remarkable decision to also given here -- the destroy the seed of mankind:  numun-nam-galu ha-lam-e-de.

The word " numun" may be "nun-muL" :  that which sprouts or emerges and grows higher and hence a term with obvious reference to agricultural practices. The "halam-ede" can be taken as a variant of" aram-idu" where 'aram' means destruction as "ara-n" ' ara-kk-an " ari" and so forth. Thus we have here the notion of the destruction of all living creatures for some reason or other.

It is unfortunate that the REASON for the destruction of every expression of life is not clearly spelt out here.   However we can see that mankind at that time must havebeen  terribly wrong or despicable  at least the people would have thought so to understand the disaster, the immense deluge that was so destructive.

And here we make the contact with one of the Tamil accounts of the flood. The earliest occurrence of this , which is by way of RECALLING an ancient event is given in the following lines of Cilappatikaaram that belongs to probably 5th Cent A.D.

The Flood Account in Tamil.
 

We give here the following lines in Cil. from Kaadu KaaN  Kaathai of Pukar Kaandam, something we shall refer to a few times.

uuzi toRu uuzi toRu ulakangk kaakka
adiyiRRan aLavu aracaRku uNartti
vadiveel eRinta vaanpakai poRaatu
paqruLi yaaRRudan palamalai adukkattuk
kumarik koodung kodungkadal koLLa
vadaticai kangkaiyum imayamung koNdu
tenRicai yaaNda tennavan vaazi

Meaning:

In order to inform the kings that behind every dissolution and re-emergence of the cosmos , BEING is behind, BEING in the form of a shapely Spear (shows His anger and destroys the world). In one of these ( destructions) unable to stand the lose of the river paqRuLi and Kumari of many hill ranges in a  great Deluge , the  Pandias  conquering the Northern Ganges and Himalayas , rule the world from the South.

We shall note here the common theme:  the  destruction of the world with a huge Deluge but considered here the swelling of the seas: kodung kadal. There is also a metaphysical reason for this event which is seen as something repetitious : in order to INSTRUCT the Kings that it is BEING that is  behind it all and hence it is BEING who is the Power and not the kings, a notion that became well entrenched in Saiva Siddhanta.
 
 

The Deluge was a natural calamity of a momentous kind and which was immensely destructive. The destructiveness of the deluge is shared in both accounts  as also its REASON -- the anger of the gods. While it is implicit in Sumerian account it is stated quite clearly in the Tamil account -- vaan pakai -- where Ta. vaan as Su. an ( as in annunna) means the celestial beings and pakai , their wrath. The Vadi VeeL is the Spear, the Cuulam , the mantric tool of BEING that destroys ignorance as well as evil. Thus  in both accounts we see a common metaphysical understanding : BEING can be destructive when people become totally evil and that this is to inform them that BEING is there always to humiliate them and kill their Ego so that they do not become arrogant cruel evil etc. The calamities are NOT purely natural in  both histriographies -- they are ACTIONS of BEING that are immensely destructive , actions to  wipe out the existing and perhaps regenerate a new species less evil than the earlier.

The Tamil philosophers , particularly the Saivas  have been thinking about such events and gained a metaphysical understanding that they retain in terms of the reality of PraLaya, the cosmic dissolution and re-emergence. The following lines from Civanjana Cittiyaar of Arunandi is an example of it.

7.
...........

veelai yulaavun tiraikaL viici eeRi
    veeReezym onRaakai ninRa pootu ...

Like at the moment when all the seas girdling the lands came together and swell into an immense Deluge...

The Deluge Proper
 

The following lines provide a very realistic and graphic description of the Deluge, an account that is devoid of anything mythical.

14. im-hul-im-hul (the storm winds)     ni-gu(r)-gur-gal (with exceeding terror)     du-a-bi (all of them)

    *Ta. iyam kol iyam kol  nii koora koora kaal eduvabi      ( When the killing winds with exceeding strength arise ........)
(
im Ta. iyam: that which moves, iyal: to move; hul Ta. kol: to kill; ni Ta. nii: very high; also Ta. nooy: fear striking, frightening  ; gur Ta. koora: terrible; gal Ta. kaal; to establish ; gal-du-abi ; Ta. kaalidubi: when it arises )

15. ur-bi ( together)    i-sug-gi-es (raced along)    a-ma-ru (the deluge)     u-ka-kab-dug-ga( the mighty tempest?)

     Ta. oorbi          ii sungisu amaru ukka kavvu tukka   ( When it comes together with heavy downpour, the people were   enveloped with miseries)

(ur Ta.oor: together; sug-gi Malay: sungai:  river  , sug-gi-es> kungisu> Ta. kangkai ; the Ganges   ; amaru Ta. amuri: waters,  u-ka Ta. okkal: people, relatives; kab Ta. kavvu: to bite, to envelope; dug-ga Ta. tukkam: miseries , sadness)

16. ba-na-da-ab-ur-ur (raged with them)

  * Ta. paNNidu av ur ur.  (The  people cried? or caused the people to weep?)

(ba-na-da Ta. paNNidu : to do; ab Ta. av: they ; ur Ta. urai: to say, cry? )

The ' im-hul' is Ta. iyam kol ,where 'iyam' is related to Ta. iyal: to move about.  The 'hul' is of course even the currently available kul, kol where 'k' has become 'h' , a phonetic shift the we come across in many places. However what is linguistically and historically significant is the word 'sug-ge" which also occurs elsewhere as 'seg-ge' meaning heavy downpour. This connects with the Malay "sungai" meaning 'river'. It is quite clear that it  has become Ta. kangkai ( seg-ge> keng-ge > Ta. kangkai) and hence it may be possible that people who named the river Ganges as such are ancient Tamils or at least speakers of a language related to Archaic Tamil.  In this connection  we should also note that the Kes  ( Ta. keeci: the one with flowing hair? and hence Civa) in Kes temple may have some connection with Kaaci, the Tamil name for VaraNaaci.

Could it be that the Indus People were Dravidian speakers and later migrated towards the Gangetic  Plain prior to drifting towards the South where they established Ten Kaaci ( Southern Kaaci), Ten madurai (Southern Mathurai) etc. and thereby recreated a country in memeory of what they left behind?

The storm raged for seven days and nights with ferocity that was unknown and because of which a  large number of people died and there was misery all around and because of which  people cried, paNNidu av ur ur

This description of the Deluge -- a combination of strong winds and heavy rains accords quite well with the account of it available in Cillpatikaaram : kodu mazai koLLa, destruction wrought by the cruel rain, rather than that in which it is said that all the seas swelled  and merging together  swallowed the lands.
 

Let us recall that the news about the Deluge was a disclosure, a revelation through a dream-like state of consciousness ( ma-mu- nu-me-a ) and therefore not a fancy , a fiction of imagination. And in response to Arulnathan's critique that the Biblical account is different because the flood is said to have  raged for 40 days and nights and that that account must be atrue one  because revealed by God Himself, , I just want to say that  the Sumerian account is also God given and that it is must much earlier, at least earlier that 2600 B.C. and therefore  less distorted and more authentic.  Of course we cannot rule out the fact that there were different accounts of the same event differing somewhat in details. However the points of resemblance there : a devastating flood and Jivasudra surviving because he managed to build a boat that could withstand the storm and the raging seas.

There are some other details that are very interesting from the point of view of continuity of historical memories.

We saw that that the land that was submerged by the storm and deluge is called 'kumari koodu" in Cilambu, the literal meaning of which will be the Hill of Kumari but noting "koodu" can also mean  'country' ( Su. kur ( Ta. kunRu) means both hill and country), we can see that the land or nation that was submerged was called 'kumari". Now it appears the Sumerian retained this memory and named the new country they settled in ancient Mesopotamia also "kumari" perhaps by way of recreating their lost land.

In the account above it is simple called "kalam' a word meaning 'land" that is still in use in Tamil.

*Ta. uti imin aam  kangku imin aam  ( When it has raged for seven days and seven nights)

( ud Ta. uti: dawn;  utiyan: the sun; gig Ta. kangku: very dark ( gig-ga > kingka > kangku)

   17. a-ma-ru (that the deluge)     kalam-ma (in the land)     ba-ur-ra-ta (had raged)

  * Ta. amaru kalamma  paa-uRRata,  (   The deluge raged  over the land)

The following information available from a Sumerian text  "Forerunners to Udug-Hul" by Markham Geller shows that the Sumerians named their country as  "kumari" and that it was also called "kauri" which is by the way only a variant of 'kumari"

Sumeru as Kumari and Kauri
 

I give the relevant paragraph in full below ( page 13)
 
 

The above hypothesis contradicts a theory posited by van Dijk, that since Ku'ar was a city known as "non-Sumerian speaking" as well as the city of Assalluhi, " Grossexcozist von Eridu" , it is tempting to identify Ku'ar as the home of the non-canonical incantations in Sabarian-Elamite languages.  Van Dijk's arguments, however, are partially based upon a miscopied sign in CT 16 6:239-240 ( collated) which reads:

eridu(ki) ku'ar(A.HA)(ki)-se mu-un-na-ri he-me-en

(Ak.) sa ina eri-du u ku-ma-ri re-hu-u ana-ku

The reading 'ku-ma-ri" (= kuwari/Ku'ar) is supported by 'ku-mar' (CT 51 105:21-22), although van Dijk, following Gelb (Hurrians (4ff) read 'su-ba-ru', associating A.HA(ki) with Subaru, and hence with the Subarian-Elamite incantations.
 
 

Thus  it is clear that the land from which Assalluhi, the great Exorcist came from was called Kumari  and which was also called Kauri agreeing perfectly with the Tamil conventions about Kumari which was also called Kauri. We may also note here that Assaluhi may actually be 'as-sul-lu-hi" the deity with a single (as) spear (sul)  as opposed to Civa who is associated with Trisuul, and hence Murukan but here the Velan, the great exorcist in Sangkam classics.

Thus both the Sumerians and Tamils appear to  share a common historical memory of the great deluge in which a land mass called Kumari/ Kauri was destroyed by a great Deluge  , a great storm with  heavy downpour that lasted for several days and submerged the whole land. The Sumerians just as the Tamils  appear to have named the new country they settled as Kumari as well as is the habit of many migrants -- the name the new country in terms of the old to recreate what they have lost.
 

We have shown that Sumerians called their land Kumari or Kauri and in this they share something common with the Tamils who also named their land, the Southern tip of India where they settled also Kumari ( and also called Kauri, meaning a young maiden)  showing that both share a common historical memory perhaps of the land they lost in the Deluge.

Now we shall show that this memory also extends to some very important details which point to the fact that they are the same people or splinter groups of a common stock  perhaps made to disperse because of the deluge.

The element of this original Sumerian account in which Ziusudra survived the deluge that lasted for seven days and nights is also another common  element foud in Tamil literature.. The survival of Ziusudra is given graphically in the following lines:

19.  i-im-ma-ra-e (rose over it)     an-ki-a (in heaven and earth)     ud ga-ga (making light)

    *Ta. ii imma raavee . ( The sun came rising )  vaankiiza uti kaal kaal ( The sun was over the sky and the earth)

(ra . Telugu: raa: to come , Ta. uru: to show itself)

20. zi-u(d)-sud-du (Ziasuddu)    ma-gu(r)-gur (in the mighty ship)     ka-bur (an opening)     mu-un-da-bur(bored)

* Ta.  jiiucuuttira maa kuurkuurai kaaybuur muntapuri ( Jivasudra bored a round hole in his roofed ship)

( ka Ta. vaay: mouth; bur Ta. puur,puram: round, hence ka-bur: round hole; bur Ta. puri: to do, make)

  21. sul (the strong one)  utu ( the sun)     gis-sir-ni (his light)     sag-ma-gu(r)-gur-su (into the mighty ship)

            * Ta. cuul utu      kiicu cuurNi (The radiant sun , his rays of light  )           caan maa-kuur-kuurisu      (in order to brighten up the roofed ship)

sul Ta. cuur: radiant ; gis Ta. kicu: to branch off; sir-ni Ta. cuurNi: radiant  light ?     ; sag Ta. can ,  caan: to illuminate, brighten up)

22. ba-un-tu-ri-en (sent in)     zi-u(d)-sud-du( Ziu-suddu)    lugal-am (being king)

   *Ta.  paa untu eriyen ( forced itself inside and lighted up)  . Jivasudra uLukaL aam  ( Jivasudra , the King, )

23. igi-utu-su (before the sun)     ka-ki-su-ub-ba-tum( kissed the earth)     lugal-e( the king)

    * Ta. imai utucee            kaay kiiz capputam ( In front of the sun, kissed the earth with his mouth)  . uLukaLlee (The King)

24. gud (oxen)    im-ma-ab-gaz-e (sacrificed)    udu (sheep) im-ma-ab-sar-ri (he made abundant)

    * Ta. koodu imma av kaciyee , udu imma av ceeree ( brought down the cows and joined the goats with them)

( gud Ta. koodu, koo: cattle ;  gaz Ta. kaci ,or kazi: to let go, to allow to pass. udu Ta. udu: goats;  sar-ri Ta. ceeree: to join together)

We have to see some important details here that may be historically relevant.

First of the all the boat is described as 'ma-kur-kur' and when the flood subsided it is said that Ziusudra bored a hole in the roof 'ka-bur' . This makes us think that the boat was something like a balloon fully covered up so that it will float in the waters even if it capsizes. The expression 'ka-bur" is certainly the Ta. kaay-pura>. vaay-pura  .i.e. circular mouth or  hole. The word 'ka' as mouth is retained in such names as ' ka-viri' (branching mouth )   and many other words such as Ta. katai (Su. ka-ta-e-a) , kavi , kaaviam, kaappiyam etc. Now this makes the meaning of  "ma-kur-kur'  quite clear -- it must be Ta. maa-kuur-kuur i.e. maa-kuurai-kuurai where "kuurai' means the roof and here the alliteration stands for plurality meaning that the boat was covered totally with many kinds of waterproof roofs. The word 'ma' is retained in Ta. maa meaning simply 'tree" perhaps indicating that originally the boats were made from hollowing out logs.

The tooNi Appar in Tamil
 

It appears that this Ziusudra who survived the deluge thus is remembered among the Tamils as  "tooNi appar", meaning the old man of the boats. The presiding deity of Sirkaazi also known as Bramapuram from which hailed Thirunjana Sambantar is said to be TooNi Appar and Sambantar  mentions  this in the hymn on Sirkazi that has been chosen  the first hymn of the Teevaaram corpus.

The whole verse is given below:
 

orumaipeNmai yudaiyan cadaiyan vidaiyuurum ivan enna
arumaiyaakavurai ceyyavamarntu enatuLLam kavar kaLvan
karumaipeRRa kadal koLLa mitantavoor kaalam ituvennap
perumaipeRRa piramaapuri meeviya pemmaan ivananRee

kaalam= kalam: boat

The BEING who stole my heart unknown to myself  did so by emerging in my depths as the ONE who is also the
FEMALE and hence  having no dissensions with the FEMININE  whatsoever and with long tuft of hair flying about ,
riding the BULL of immense Virility and allowing thereby the rare gift of linguisticalisations in these terms. Now,
that SAME BEING is also the ONE who pervades this Piramapuri, the boat that survived floating in the dark seas at
the time of primordial DELUGE  when DARKNESS enveloped the whole cosmos

orumaipeNmai yudaiyan : BEING who  has NO  dissensions with the Feminine

cadaiyan vidaiyuurum ivan enna: He gives Himself to be understood as the ONE with long tuft of hair and as the
ONE who ride the BULL

arumaiyaakavurai ceyyavamarntu enatuLLam kavar kaLvan: stole my heart allowing myself to linguisticalise HIM so
beautifully  thus

karumaipeRRa kadal koLLa mitantavoor kaalam ituvennap: the boat that floated in the sea during the primordial
deluge

kaalam = kalam: boat

perumaipeRRa piramaapuri meeviya pemmaan ivananRee: The BEING who pervades Primapuri reknowned thus

The crucial phrase "karumaipeRRa kadal koLLa mitantavoor kaalam"  lit means: the boat that floated when the sea became extremely dark i.e. the sky covered fully with rain clouds so that light was not available at all, a notion also available in the Sumerian account.

Thus the similarity is quite striking despite a vast gap in times pointing out that the event  and theme of floods must have played a very role in the religious life and metaphysical thinking.

before we conclude this we should  point out  that there was probably an error in the interpretation of the last line:

24. gud (oxen)    im-ma-ab-gaz-e (sacrificed)    udu (sheep) im-ma-ab-sar-ri (he made abundant)

Here the translation suggest a difference in the treatment of the cows and goats which is unlikely though we cannot rule out the possibility. However the word 'gaz' can be taken as the archaic form of Ta. kazi which has also the meaning of 'to let go; to allow to pass' etc. The word sar-ri is certainly Ta. ceer, to join with. Hence collectively it would appear that Ziusudra on reaching the land allowed first the cows to come out from the boat and later the goats  to join them. The cows especially the bull was sacred to the Sumerians  and it is very unlikely they would have sacrificed it (though we cannot rule it out)



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